Mecklenburg [ ˈmeːklənbʊrk ], Mecklenburg Mäkel (n) borg [ ˈmɛːkəl (n) bɔrx ] is a region in northern Germany and in the southern part of the Baltic Sea . Mecklenburg was a centuries-old imperial territory with its own history and culture and is now the western and larger part of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . The largest cities in Mecklenburg are Rostock , Schwerin , Neubrandenburg , Wismar and Güstrow . The Müritz National Park is Germany's largest inland nature reserve.
In Old Saxon, mikil meant "large", in 10/11. In the 19th century the word Mikilinborg ("big castle") was in use. The name refers to the Mecklenburg Castle . In the Middle Ages it became Middle Low German Mekelenborch , later German Mecklenburg. In Renaissance humanism , the name Megalopolis , based on a Greek translation, was formed for Mecklenburg, the corresponding adjective was Megapolitanus for "Mecklenburg".
The word Mecklenburg is pronounced in the colloquial language of most regions such as [ meːklənbʊɐç ] or Meeklenburch . The “e” is spoken long (this is to be understood as the correct pronunciation of the e throughout Germany; see: the CK in the north ) and the “g” like a palatal “ch”. The change in the final g is a remnant of Low German phonology.
Mecklenburg borders on Schleswig-Holstein to the west, Lower Saxony and Brandenburg to the south and Western Pomerania to the east . Natural boundaries are formed by the Mecklenburg Bay in the north, the Bay of Lübeck in the west and partly the Trave with Dassower See , Wakenitz , Ratzeburger See and Schaalsee , in the southwest the Elbe and in the east the three rivers Recknitz , Trebel and Peene as well as the Großer and Kleiner Landgraben.
For the district reform in 1994 there were plans to restore the old border between Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania with the new districts as precisely as possible; but they were not implemented. With the district reform of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2011 , the historical boundaries were approached a little more closely without reproducing the exact course.
The state part of Mecklenburg is represented today by the following administrative units:
- Ludwigslust-Parchim district
- District of Mecklenburg Lake District
- Northwest Mecklenburg District
- Rostock district
- Independent city of Rostock
- District-free city of Schwerin
The district of Vorpommern-Rügen also has a share in Mecklenburg. In the district of Mecklenburg Lake District there are parts of Western Pomerania. Today the regional border runs through Western Pomerania-Rügen, the smaller western part of which, including the Ribnitz district of Ribnitz-Damgarten, historically belongs to Mecklenburg. And it divides the Mecklenburg Lake District into about a quarter of the Western Pomerania area (southern part of the former Demmin district ) and three quarters of the Mecklenburg area (largest part of the old districts of Müritz , Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the formerly independent city of Neubrandenburg ).
coat of arms
Blazon : “The Mecklenburg coat of arms in a simple form is a bull's head. The complete coat of arms consists of six fields and a central shield. It is reminiscent of the seven parts of the country from which our fatherland has grown in the course of time. "
- Duchy of Mecklenburg: On a golden ground a black bull's head with a torn red mouth and an outstretched red tongue; on the head silver horns and a golden crown of lilies .
- Rule of Rostock : A golden griffin striding on a blue background with an outstretched tongue and a raised right front claw.
- Principality of Schwerin / Diocese of Schwerin : A field divided across; in the upper blue half a golden griffin, in the lower silver half a green square.
- Principality of Ratzeburg / Diocese of Ratzeburg : A silver cross with a golden crown stands on a red background.
- Reign of Stargard : On a red background, a silver female arm with a gold ring between thumb and forefinger.
- Principality of Wenden / Herrschaft Werle : On a golden ground a sloping bull's head with silver horns and a golden lily crown, but with a closed mouth.
- County of Schwerin : The center shield, divided across; the upper half red, the lower half golden.
The coat of arms is held by a bull and a griffin and is adorned with the royal crown. The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz shares arms and titles with the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
The Mecklenburg state colors are blue, yellow, red or alternatively blue, white, red and yellow / gold.
Population and area
Mecklenburg has an area of 15,721 square kilometers. Until 1945 it was one of the most sparsely populated German landscapes. In May 1939 there were 910,826 inhabitants (58 inhabitants per square kilometer). In 2012, a total of around 1.16 million people lived in what is now the state of Mecklenburg (Rostock and Schwerin and the districts of Mecklenburg Lake District , Ludwigslust-Parchim , Rostock and Northwest Mecklenburg together).
December 31, 2019
|Neubrandenburg||Mecklenburg Lake District||63,761|
|Goods (Müritz)||Mecklenburg Lake District||21,057|
|Neustrelitz||Mecklenburg Lake District||20,128|
|Boizenburg / Elbe||Ludwigslust-Parchim||10,730|
|Malchin||Mecklenburg Lake District||7326|
|Malchow||Mecklenburg Lake District||6569|
|Friedland||Mecklenburg Lake District||6456|
Mecklenburg belongs to the North German Plain , which was formed in two successive ice ages by the movement of glaciers up to 1000 meters thick, and has a share of the Baltic Sea coast . Upstream are the island of Poel and the Fischland peninsula , whose continuations Darß and Zingst belong to Western Pomerania . In accordance with its large-scale affiliation, Mecklenburg largely consists of flat land . This flat land is formed by many moraines and lakes. The Müritz is the largest lake that lies entirely in Germany . Other large lakes are the Plauer See and the Schweriner See . Important rivers in Mecklenburg are the Warnow , Recknitz , Tollense and Elde , at Boizenburg and at Dömitz Mecklenburg borders on the Elbe . In the direction of the Baltic Lake District there is a weak ridge that forms the watershed between the Elbe and the Baltic Sea.
The highest elevations are the Helpter Mountains (approx. 179.2 m above sea level) and the Ruhner Mountains (176.8 m above sea level). The Müritz National Park is located in Mecklenburg and is Germany's largest inland nature reserve.
- Special landscapes
- Feldberg lake landscape
- Mecklenburg Lake District
- Fog (river)
- Sternberg Lake District
Prehistory and early history
The name Mecklenburg ("Mikelenburg") appears for the first time in a document from the year 995. At that time it referred to the Slavic castle Mecklenburg (Wiligrad) in today's village of Mecklenburg near Wismar and means something like "Great Castle". The name was transferred to a family of Slavic princes (kings) resident here , and then to the area they ruled.
In the early Middle Ages Mecklenburg was populated by Slavs . The territory of the Slavic princes (kings) of Mecklenburg became dependent on German law from 1160 (initially under the Saxons) , and the permanent incorporation of Mecklenburg into the Holy Roman Empire began , which was only interrupted by the period of Danish occupation from 1180 to 1227. Obodriten prince Pribislav received the Terra Obodritorum back in 1167 (except for the county of Schwerin ) as a vassal of the Saxon Duke Henry the Lion and accepted the Christian faith.
From 1200, German settlers from Westphalia , Lower Saxony , Friesland and Holstein moved into the country. The bull's head appears for the first time as the Mecklenburg coat of arms around 1219. Of the 56 cities in Mecklenburg, 45 were founded during the time of the German settlement in the east .
The main division of Mecklenburg took place after the death of Heinrich Borwin II in 1226. The principalities of Mecklenburg, Werle , Parchim-Richenberg and Rostock emerged . The principality of Werle was dissolved in 1436 after several partitions as the last part of the principality. The two other principalities were dissolved as early as 1256 (Parchim) and 1312 (Rostock). After the death of Heinrich II of Mecklenburg in 1329, the Principality of Mecklenburg was divided into the Mecklenburg-Stargard and Mecklenburg-Schwerin lines among his sons in 1352 . From 1348 onwards, under Albrecht II , Mecklenburg became imperial territory as a duchy. Under Heinrich the Fat , Mecklenburg was once again a unified duchy in 1471. The separation in Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Güstrow took place through new divisions. Between 1276 and 1375 there were changes in the external borders. From 1276 to 1292 Wesenberg came to the Mark Brandenburg , but around 1300 the rule of Stargard came into the hands of the Mecklenburgers. The town and state of Grabow fell to Mecklenburg in 1320 and Dömitz came to Mecklenburg in 1375 .
In the high Middle Ages, Mecklenburg was under the influence of the Hanseatic League . After the German Hanseatic League emerged under the leadership of Lübeck at the end of the 13th century, the Mecklenburg cities of Rostock and Wismar soon joined the powerful trade alliance. Together with Lübeck and the Pomeranian cities of Stralsund and Greifswald, as well as some smaller cities, they formed the so-called Wendish quarter of the Hanseatic League.
The state estates in Mecklenburg were formed in the 13th century when initially the knighthood, the totality of the vassals in Mecklenburg, were called together on certain matters (e.g. guardianship for minorenne monarchs). The landscape , the representation of the rural cities ( Landstadt in Mecklenburg ), goes back to the beginning of the 14th century, when the knighthood invited representatives of the cities to their meetings. Since the effective collection of taxes, the revenue of which stemmed mainly from the commercial turnover of city merchants and from the wages of free city dwellers, required the cooperation of the city tax authorities, the introduction or change of each individual tax was subject to the approval of the Mecklenburg state parliaments. The representatives sent there represented the landscape, knighthood and, since the beginning of the 15th century, also prelates , who all three together formed estates. "Their further formation took place in the constant power struggle with the state rulers." Since the unification of Mecklenburg under Heinrich IV. The Fat in 1471, the respective estates of the three partial rulers Mecklenburg (Mecklenburg District), Wenden (Wendischer District) and Stargard (Stargard District) increasingly gathered to joint diets before they formed a union in 1523 to counteract the imminent renewed dynastic division of the country by Albrecht VII . From then on, the united states, also known as the state union, were the bond that held the Mecklenburg part-rulers together.
The prelates were representatives of the monasteries and collegiate monasteries in the country, which lost their importance in the course of the Reformation. In 1549, prelates were last called to a Landtag and were no longer recognized as eligible for a Landtag in 1552. Three monasteries (henceforth the so-called state monasteries Dobbertin , Machow and Ribnitz ) passed into the control of the knighthood and landscape as Lutheran monasteries in 1572 . Since the departure of the prelates, the knighthood and landscape formed the state estates of Mecklenburg. From 1763, the dukes in Schwerin recognized Mecklenburg-Schwerin's rural Jewry as a representative body without legislative powers but with internal autonomy, while the knighthood and landscape rejected their existence.
Early modern age
Modern regional historiography distinguishes between three main Mecklenburg regional divisions (1229–1235, 1621, 1701), some of which produced parts of the state with the same name with different territorial shares. Between 1628 and 1630 the Obotrite dukes were deposed in the Thirty Years' War by Emperor Ferdinand II and his general Wallenstein was enfeoffed with Mecklenburg. Wallenstein was released in early 1630 and the duchies were returned after his death. After that, the dukes joined the Peace of Prague with the emperor.
It was not until 1701 that the Mecklenburg Princely House was able to agree on the principle of succession of the primogeniture . At the same time, Mecklenburg was divided by the so-called Hamburg settlement of March 8, 1701 into two limited autonomous (partial) duchies, from 1815 (partial) grand duchies - Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz - which formed a common state since 1755 had the same constitution and were subject to a joint state parliament. This landständische Constitution in Mecklenburg lasted until the 1918th
In 1713 there was a conflict between Duke Karl Leopold , the regent of the Schwerin region, and the Mecklenburg Land estates , which lasted until 1717. The duke tried to enforce sovereign, absolutist sovereignty against the knighthood and against Rostock, allied with them. He called on the estates to grant him additional taxes in order to build up a standing army, then forced the Rostock council to renounce its privileges.
After complaints by the Mecklenburg estates before the emperor against Karl Leopold's breaches of law and autocratic efforts, Emperor Karl VI. 1717 the execution of the Reich against the Duke was imposed.
The execution of the imperial execution took place in the spring of 1719. Karl Leopold moved his seat of government to Dömitz and left the country soon after. The government in Mecklenburg-Schwerin was taken over by the Elector of Hanover and the King of Prussia. After the death of Elector Georg Ludwig von Hannover (1727), the execution of the Reich was overturned.
The Elector of Hanover and the King of Prussia pressed for payment of the costs they had incurred in the execution of the Reich. Since the conflict initially failed to settle, Karl Leopold was finally deposed in 1728 by the Reichshofrat in Vienna in favor of his brother Christian Ludwig II .
As a long-term consequence of the execution of the empire, larger areas in the Mecklenburg-Schwerin part of the state were pledged to the elector of Hanover and four to the Prussian king. The political and administrative fragmentation of the country was thereby aggravated, the power of the duke was further restricted and the population was additionally burdened. The pledging of the four offices to Prussia did not end until 1787.
After a long struggle, Christian Ludwig II concluded with the estates in 1755 the Land constitutional inheritance settlement , which was subsequently ratified by Adolf Friedrich IV and his mother. This hereditary comparison led to the further consolidation of the power of the Mecklenburg knighthood and preserved the backwardness of the country until the end of the monarchy in Mecklenburg (1918).
Exchange object of the occupying power
After Napoleon's victory, both parts of the Mecklenburg region fell under the wheels of history in 1806, despite the previous policy of neutrality. The ruling Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was deposed and had to flee temporarily to Danish territory. Although the Strelitzer was able to stay in the country through various advocates, he almost completely lost his political influence. Mecklenburg experienced oppressive years under the yoke of French occupiers. In 1808 both Mecklenburg duchies joined the Rhine Confederation . In the period that followed, Napoleon offered Mecklenburg several times as an object of exchange or compensation for other territories. However, these plans failed, the Mecklenburg people also enthusiastically participated in the wars of liberation of 1813/15 against the Napoleonic occupiers, the Mecklenburg dukes were able to hold onto their thrones for another century and everything stayed the same in Mecklenburg.
From the Congress of Vienna to the end of the monarchy
In 1815, the Congress of Vienna made both parts of the country grand duchies, without any change in the way both parts of the country were integrated into the state of Mecklenburg. Mecklenburg retained its state independence. The revolution in Mecklenburg (1848) resulted in free elections in Mecklenburg for the first time. The subsequent attempt to introduce a constitution and to transform the state into a constitutional monarchy failed due to the resistance of the knighthood and the Strelitz Grand Duke. Later attempts by the governments and the grand dukes of both parts of Mecklenburg, including the last major attempt at constitutional reform “from above” between 1908 and 1913, did not lead to any result. So that survived remained landständische constitutional system get to the end of the monarchy 1918th The country was recently one of the most backward German territories, and the rural population in particular lived in poor conditions. Only the abdication of Friedrich Franz IV. As Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and as administrator of Mecklenburg-Strelitz cleared the way to political modernity. The two Mecklenburg states were the only German state to change from a feudal, corporate-state system into a parliamentary republic without any intermediate step.
Mecklenburg in the Weimar Republic and in the Third Reich
Only after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1918 did both parts of the country briefly gain political independence as free states from 1918/19 . They maintained separate state parliaments, gave their own constitutions, but adhered to the common higher court of appeal. Under National Socialist pressure, the state parliaments of both Free States under Reich Governor Friedrich Hildebrandt decided to reunite the state of Mecklenburg with effect from January 1, 1934.
After the end of World War II in 1945, the zone border between Great Britain and the Soviet Union was changed in the Barber-Lyaschtschenko Agreement of November 13, 1945. The neighboring communities of Ratzeburgs Ziethen , Mechow , Bäk and Römnitz were added to the Duchy of Lauenburg. Until then they belonged to Schönberg (Mecklenburg) (part of Mecklenburg-Strelitz until 1934 ) and came to the British zone in exchange for the Lauenburg communities of Dechow , Thurow (now part of the community of Roggendorf ) and Lassahn . This change of area was maintained even after German reunification in 1990.
The state of Mecklenburg in 1945 with the remaining in Germany remains of the Prussian province of Pomerania and the formerly the Prussian province Hannover belonging Amt Neuhaus on the Elbe to the Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern united, whose official name was changed to the Soviet command in 1947 in "Mecklenburg". The Fürstenberger Werder with the city of Fürstenberg / Havel was separated from Mecklenburg in 1950 and reclassified to the Templin district of the state of Brandenburg .
In 1952, the state of Mecklenburg, like all the other states of the GDR, was dissolved and divided into districts : the Rostock district was formed from the coastal region , the west of Mecklenburg became the Schwerin district , the east the Neubrandenburg district . The latter districts also included territories of the previous state of Brandenburg.
Federal Republic of Germany since 1990
After German reunification on October 3, 1990, the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania was re-established and has been a state of the Federal Republic of Germany ever since . The borders of 1952 were approximately restored, but also followed the district borders established in the GDR era. In June 1993, the Neuhaus office came under the administration of Hanover again, when it was incorporated into the Lower Saxony district of Lüneburg . It is the only area of the former GDR that today belongs to a "western" federal state.
The west of the Mecklenburg region in particular has developed well economically since German reunification; extensive investments have been made throughout the area in infrastructure (including A 20 , Rostock-Laage airport ), education and urban development funding, especially in the renovation of historic buildings City centers . The extraordinary efforts for the heritage of the Hanseatic city of Wismar were honored in 2002 with the inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List , together with the old town of Stralsund in Western Pomerania . The Schwerin Palace with its residential ensemble was included in the tentative list of Germany in 2014, so Germany will also want it to be included in the World Heritage List in the coming years.
In 2007, the 33rd G8 summit was held in Heiligendamm on the Mecklenburg Baltic Sea coast , the meeting of the heads of government of the world's largest industrial nations. In September 2014, Federal President Joachim Gauck received the heads of government of Belgium, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Austria and Switzerland in Bad Doberan and Rostock for the first time at the meeting of German-speaking heads of state .
Constitution and Administration
Prime Minister (1934–1952)
- 1934: Hans Egon Engell , NSDAP
- 1934 to 1945: Friedrich Scharf , NSDAP
- 1945 to 1951: Wilhelm Höcker , SPD , then SED (1945 to 1947 as President of the State Administration )
- 1951: Kurt Bürger , SED
- 1951 to 1952: Bernhard Quandt , SED
Education and culture
In Mecklenburg are the University of Rostock , the University of Music and Theater Rostock , the University of Applied Sciences for Public Administration, Police and Justice in Güstrow, the University of Wismar , the University of Neubrandenburg , a campus of the University of the Federal Employment Agency and the private Baltic College in Form of a university of applied sciences in Schwerin.
The Mecklenburg Foundation , based in Schwerin, is dedicated to preserving, researching and communicating the Mecklenburg cultural heritage .
The traditional language of Mecklenburg is still the for Ostniederdeutschen scoring Mecklenburgisch . Nowadays, however, standard German is mainly spoken, which can be dialect in color , especially in rural areas .
Theaters and museums
The largest publicly funded theaters in Mecklenburg are the Mecklenburg State Theater in Schwerin , the Volkstheater Rostock and the Theater und Orchester GmbH Neubrandenburg / Neustrelitz with venues in Neubrandenburg and Neustrelitz. All of these theaters offer both drama and musical theater and orchestral music. Other important theaters are the Ernst Barlach Theater in Güstrow , the Mecklenburg State Theater Parchim and the Wismar Theater . There are also various small theaters on the Baltic coast and in individual artist villages and health resorts.
Notable museums of supraregional importance are the Schwerin State Museum , the German Amber Museum in Ribnitz, the Holy Cross Monastery (Rostock) and the Rostock art gallery . The smallest museum in the country is the Prof. Wandschneider sculpture museum in Plau am See. The Virtual State Museum Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania is very innovative and shows exhibits from around 50 different historical museums in the state on a website.
You can also visit many of the numerous palaces, castles and manor houses in the country. Some of them are run as museums, e.g. B. Castle Stargard , Old Castle Penzlin , Castle Plau and Old Castle Neustadt-Glewe .
The annual “ Festspiele Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ”, which takes place in summer, is a festival for classical music with numerous venues in Mecklenburg, e.g. B. in Schwerin's old town, in Wismar harbor, in manor houses, castles and parks.
Other nationally important events in Mecklenburg are:
- Airbeat One : Festival for electronic dance music in Neustadt-Glewe , which has been taking place annually since 2002.
- DocumentART : Film festival for documentary films in Neubrandenburg , which has been taking place every autumn since 1992. At the same time, the festival will be held in Szczecin, Poland.
- Festival in the castle garden : Operetta festival in Neustrelitz with up to 30,000 visitors, which has been taking place in the castle garden since 2001.
- Filmkunstfest Mecklenburg-Vorpommern : Film festival with around 17,000 visitors a year in Schwerin , where the Golden Ox has been awarded for outstanding contributions to German film culture since 2002 .
- Force Attack : Punk festival that has taken place in Mecklenburg since 1997 at different locations. In 2013 the event had to be canceled.
- Immergut Festival : Indie rock music festival in Neustrelitz, which has been held annually at the end of May since 2000.
- Pirate Open Air : Open-air theater in Grevesmühlen with over 50,000 visitors annually, which has been taking place every summer since 2005.
- Schwerin Castle Festival : Opera festival in Schwerin , which has been organized annually by the Mecklenburg State Theater since 1993 . Up to 70,000 visitors visit the festival every summer.
- Zappanale : Music festival in Bad Doberan that has been taking place since 1990. It is dedicated to the legacy of the composer and musician Frank Zappa with a wide variety of artists and interpretations .
The maritime industry , mechanical engineering and the food industry are traditionally important in the industrial sector . The agriculture is very present in the area. In addition, tourism, healthcare , real estate , the service sector and cutting-edge technology are playing an increasingly important role.
Industries of the future
The future industries of Mecklenburg are knowledge-based fields, cutting-edge technology , especially biotechnology , life sciences and medical technology , energy and environmental technology , aerospace technology and information technology (IT for short). Companies from these areas are increasingly settling around the city of Rostock with its powerful university and the surrounding research landscape, as well as around the University of Wismar , the University of Applied Sciences for medium-sized companies and the University of Neubrandenburg and their technology centers. The centers, as well as several initiatives, primarily promote innovative business start-ups , e.g. B. TechnoStartup MV , MV-Startups , BioCon Valley , Kreative MV , the IT-Initiative MV or the Entrepreneurs Club Rostock .
The maritime industry is a major employer on the Mecklenburg Baltic Sea coast. Various manufacturing companies have settled in the immediate vicinity of the seaports in Rostock and Wismar, which are well developed for transport.
Nordic Yards is represented by large shipyards at both locations. Other large companies in the sector are, for example, the globally operating Deutsche Seereederei , Scandlines and Mecklenburg Metallguss (MMG). The cruise company AIDA Cruises has its German headquarters in the Rostock city harbor and employs over 6,000 people. Liebherr ( Liebherr-MCCtec Rostock ) also produces maritime cranes, mobile harbor cranes, ship cranes , offshore cranes and reach stackers in Rostock .
There are well-developed transport connections to the neighbors in the Baltic Sea region, such as ferry lines between the German ports and Poland , Denmark , Sweden , Finland , Latvia , Lithuania and Russia .
Mecklenburg has an important history in the aerospace industry . Since the German reunification in 1990, the industry has been able to develop again in the region. Since then, top aerospace companies have settled in the greater Rostock area and at Rostock-Laage Airport . a. more Airbus - suppliers with around a thousand employees, as the RST Rostock System-Technik GmbH . Also Edag that luratec AG , Assystem , Ferchau Engineering and Diehl Aerospace are in Rostock. The Warnemünder Aerospace Center was opened in November 2007 . The German Aerospace Center (DLR) maintains facilities of the German Remote Sensing Data Center and the Institute for Communication and Navigation in Neustrelitz . The Neustrelitz researchers are significantly involved in the development of the European satellite navigation Galileo .
During the GDR era, practically all companies in the industry were expropriated and z. B. converted to agricultural production or completely liquidated . However, in the pre-war period, numerous inventions and companies were born in the region. The Fokker Aeroplanbau GmbH , which moved from Berlin to Schwerin in 1913 , was based directly on Lake Schwerin in Bornhövedstraße, the aircraft construction company became a. a. world famous for its three-decker with the “ Red Baron ”. In Rostock- Warnemünde , Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was founded in 1922, one of the largest aircraft manufacturers of the first half of the 20th century. The Heinkel He 178 was the world's first jet aircraft and had its maiden flight on August 27, 1939 in Rostock-Marienehe . Since 1921 there was also the Arado aircraft factory in Warnemünde . Also first in Warnemünde and from 1934 in Ribnitz was Walther Bachmann aircraft resident. For the rearmament policy from 1933, most of the companies were expropriated or had to switch to military production. From 1933 to 1945, the North German Dornier works in Wismar with a later branch in Neustadt-Glewe were completely set to war production.
The Mecklenburg landscape offers many undisturbed natural spaces and has attractive holiday destinations with the Baltic Sea coast and the seaside resorts there, the Mecklenburg Lake District and Mecklenburg Switzerland .
Rostock's Warnemünde district is the largest cruise port in Germany with over 350,000 passenger movements per year (as of February 2011) and is therefore ahead of the long- standing front runners Kiel and Hamburg . The Warnemünde Week , which takes place every summer in Warnemünde, and the Hanse Sail attract around one million tourists to Rostock every year. In addition, the Müritz Sail in Waren has established itself as an event on the inland waters.
Since the mid-1990s, tourism has been an important branch of the economy with high growth rates, both in domestic and international tourism. Important holiday centers on the Baltic Sea coast are primarily Rostock with Warnemünde and Hohe Düne , Bad Doberan (with Heiligendamm , where Germany's first seaside resort was built from 1793 ) and the nearby towns of Kühlungsborn and Rerik , as well as Wismar ( World Heritage Old Town ), Boltenhagen , Graal- Müritz , the island of Poel and the Fischland peninsula . The seaside resorts are not only known for their well-tended Baltic Sea beaches and promenades, but also for their magnificent bath villas .
The most important center of tourism inland is the Mecklenburg Lake District , with the capital goods (Müritz) . The Müritz National Park and the places Malchow , Röbel , Mirow , Feldberg , Klink , Göhren-Lebbin , Rechlin , Krakow am See and Plau am See are also well-known destinations in the Lake District. Also Schwerin with its famous Schwerin Castle and the sea-rich environment, a well-known tourist destination. Just like the other Mecklenburg royal cities of Güstrow , Ludwigslust and Neustrelitz with their historic old towns and the city of Neubrandenburg with its unique city wall , the Tollensesee and the nearby Stargard Castle . The half-timbered old towns of Boizenburg , Grabow and the fortress town of Dömitz are of interest for cultural tourism.
In the whole region there are numerous castles, palaces and manor houses . B. serve as event locations or holiday homes, especially in rural areas. There are also many other sights to discover in the hinterland, such as historic village centers, churches , monasteries , windmills , evidence of Slavic settlement , monuments , viewpoints , open-air museums and nature reserves .
Important people from Mecklenburg
Living or already deceased persons who were born in Mecklenburg or in whose life or work in Mecklenburg existed or is a public interest are referred to as “significant Mecklenburgers”. According to the current state of cultural biographies, this definition applies to tens of thousands of people.
Examples see category: Person (Mecklenburg)
All historical and regional literature about Mecklenburg is listed in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania regional bibliography with the aim of completeness .
- Biographical lexicon for Mecklenburg. Publications of the Historical Commission for Mecklenburg, A. Schmidt-Römhild series, Rostock 1995 ff., So far 9 volumes (as of 2018).
- Ernst Boll : History of Mecklenburg with special consideration of the cultural history. 2 volumes. Neubrandenburg 1855-1856 ( digitized version ) [Extended reprint 1995. ISBN 3-910170-18-8 .]
- Richard Crull : Mecklenburg. Becoming and being of a district. Velhagen & Klasing, Bielefeld [u. a.] 1938.
- Georg Dehio : Handbook of the German art monuments - Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2016. ISBN 978-3-422-03128-9 .
- Ernst Eichler , Werner Mühlmer: The names of the cities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Ingo Koch, Rostock 2002. ISBN 3-935319-23-1 .
- Thomas Gallien (Red.): Landeskundlich-Historisches Lexikon Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Published by the Rostock History Workshop and the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Regional Home Association. Hinstorff, Rostock 2007. ISBN 978-3-356-01092-3 .
- Eugen Geinitz : The lakes, moors and rivers of Mecklenburg . Opitz, Güstrow 1886 ( digitized version ).
- Grete Grewolls: Who was who in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania? A dictionary of persons. Ed. Temmen, Bremen 1995. ISBN 3-86108-282-9 .
- Grete Grewolls: Who was who in Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania. The dictionary of persons . Hinstorff Verlag, Rostock 2011, ISBN 978-3-356-01301-6 .
- Karl Hegel : History of the Mecklenburg estates up to the year 1555. Adler, Rostock 1856 ( digitized version ). [Reprinted several times.]
- Wolf Karge, Ernst Münch , Hartmut Schmied: The history of Mecklenburg. From the beginning to the present . 5th updated edition. Hinstorff, Rostock 2011. ISBN 978-3-356-01039-8 .
- Wolf Karge, Reno Stutz: Illustrated history of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Rostock 2008. ISBN 978-3-356-01284-2 .
- Gesine Kröhnert, Wolf Karge (Hrsg.): Mecklenburg and the First World War . Thomas Helms Verlag, Schwerin 2010. ISBN 978-3-940207-19-7 .
- Mecklenburg record book , ed. from the Association for Mecklenburg History and Archeology (24 volumes + 2 supplements). Schwerin 1863/1913 (supplements 1936, 1977).
- Marianne Mehling (ed.), Gerd Baier: Knaur's cultural guide in color Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Droemer Knaur, Munich 1991. ISBN 3-426-26490-0 .
- Fritz Mielert : Through Mecklenburg. A book for homeland, but especially for Reuter friends . Otto Lenz, Leipzig 1921.
- Otto Vitense : History of Mecklenburg . ( Armin Tille (Ed.): General State History . Department 3: German State Histories . Work 11). Perthes, Gotha 1920 (reprinted several times, including: Weidlich Reprints, Würzburg 1985. ISBN 3-8035-1344-8 ).
- Eberhard Voss: 1000 years of hunting and forest history in Mecklenburg . Hinstorff, Rostock 1993. ISBN 3-356-00521-9 .
- Richard Wossidlo ; Hermann Teuchert (Hrsg. :): Mecklenburg dictionary. 7 volumes. Wachholtz, Neumünster and Akad. Der Wiss., Leipzig 1942-1998. (Unchanged, reduced reprint of the first edition: Wachholtz, Neumünster 1996. ISBN 3-529-04800-3 ).
- Corinna Hesse: Listening to Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, experiencing it , discovering it , Silberfuchs-Verlag / Tüschow, Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-940665-38-6 .
- State bibliography MV
- Coat of arms "Herzog to Maecklbürg" from the Ortenburg coat of arms book from 1466
- Servants, day laborers, Paurvnd Schäffer regulations (so-called Mecklenburg servants regulations ), published 1666
- Handbook of real estate in the German Empire. The Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Strelitz Traugott Mueller, Berlin 1888
- H. Sachsse: Mecklenburg documents and dates. Rostock 1900
- Virtual museum on the regional history of Mecklenburg
- Statistisches Amt MV - population status of the districts, offices and municipalities 2019 (XLS file) (official population figures in the update of the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Cf. “ 3. Mecklenburg Land estates including knightly manors and rural towns ”, on: State Main Archive Schwerin: Online Find Books , accessed on February 1, 2017.
- See "Mecklenburg", In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon : 20 vols., Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1902–1908, Volume 13 'Lyrik - Mitterwurzer' (1906), pp. 499–508, here p. 501 .
- Wilhelm Jesse: Mecklenburg and the Prager Friede 1635. Dissertation Berlin 1911. In: Year books of the Association for Mecklenburg History and Archeology . 76: 161-182 (1911). Volumes 1 (1836) to 104 (1940) can be used as digital copies and full text .
- Andreas Pecar: Proceedings: Constitution and reality of life. The state constitutional comparison of inheritance from 1755 in its time. Rostock 22-23 April 2005.
- See the detailed descriptions by Otto Vitense ( Geschichte von Mecklenburg . Gotha 1920, pp. 537–548).
- René Wiese: Agricultural workers in Mecklenburg in the 19th century. In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Volume II / 2003.
- Hermann Junghans in: Mecklenburg and the First World War , p. 8
- Reception of five heads of state on September 18, 2014 , website of the Federal President, accessed on November 22, 2014
- Investor portal MV Bio- und Medizintechnik
- Sectors and growth areas ( Memento of the original from November 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , State portal MV, accessed on November 10, 2014
- Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Aviation and Space Promotion Association
- IT officer for the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- Technology and competence centers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Investor portal Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, accessed on January 14, 2014
- TechnoStartup MV - partner for technology-oriented start- ups in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- BioCon Valley Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- AG Kreative MV ( Memento of the original from February 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- IT initiative Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- Querdenker MV - Map for business start-ups in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania / Startup Map
- The 100 largest employers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2012 , NordLB, accessed on February 22, 2014
- Liebherr in Rostock
- growth sector of the aerospace supply industry ( memento of June 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Ministry of Economics MV, accessed on November 12, 2014
- Aerospace companies in the Rostock area ( memento of November 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Rostock Business, accessed on November 10, 2014
- Aerospace research center opened in Warnemünde , airliners.de, November 16, 2007, accessed on November 12, 2014
- DLR: Neustrelitz site
- Heinkel He 178 , fliegerweb.com, accessed on November 10, 2014