The Viennese Classic (approx. 1770 - approx. 1825) is a special form of the musical epoch of the classical period, the main representatives of which are the u. a. Composers Joseph Haydn , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven who worked in Vienna are considered. In a broader sense, this term is sometimes used to refer to the “period of Viennese classicism”, and other Viennese or Austrian composers such as Antonio Salieri , Michael Haydn or Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf and in some cases Franz Schubert are also included.
Properties of music
The three great masters of Viennese Classicism are considered to be the leading composers of their time, who created musical masterpieces that surpassed the works of many other contemporaries in terms of formal and aesthetic quality, content and expressiveness. Her works are considered to be particularly perfect in form and combine the mastery, perfecting and sublimation of the most diverse types of music and compositional styles from song to imitative techniques of counterpoint . Stylistically, they combine characteristics of the gallant and the sensitive style and bring together various German, French and Italian influences in a variety of genres. The composers of the Mannheim School are among the most important predecessors of the Viennese classics .
Typical of the time style of classical music (also outside of Vienna and Austria) is a preference for light major keys and for a basically cheerful, lively music, which in parts tends to dramatic-monumental outbursts and lives from strong contrasts. A more rational tone compared to Baroque or Romanticism corresponds to the ideals of the Enlightenment and classicism in art. The music of Haydn and Mozart in particular is often characterized by a certain wit and humor , which contributed to the great popularity of their works. In addition, there is a noticeably imaginative use of harmony , modulation and chromatics , as well as a relatively strong inclusion of minor keys, which means that expressive areas are reached that are often deeper than was often the case in contemporary music. This is especially true for the period before 1800.
Overall, the cheerful and the serious, the light and the intellectual are mixed in a characteristic way, making the music, in the linguistic usage of the epoch, appealing to both “connoisseurs and lovers”. It must be emphasized that some typically classical genres such as divertimento or serenade are more for entertainment, while the still very new string quartet , whose real father and greatest master Joseph Haydn is considered to be, is the most intellectual genre of the time; Symphonies or concerts are roughly in the middle.
Three methods are typical of the Viennese classical compositional style : obligatory accompaniment , openwork style and particularly motivic-thematic work . These compositional methods are used in most genres, after having been developed mainly by Joseph Haydn in chamber music (string quartet, sonata, etc.) and in orchestral music ( symphony ). Also in sacred music and z. Sometimes even in opera they determine the structure of what is composed. A decisive feature in contrast to the preceding gallant epoch and the music of the pre-classical period is the inclusion of contrapuntal and polyphonic techniques, which previously (except in church music) were completely out of fashion and are often understood as a recourse to the baroque.
Instrumental music in particular experienced an upgrade to autonomous art through the Viennese classics. Formally, the three movements, known since the Baroque, were still typical for concerts , in the following order: fast - slow - fast. For symphonies and quartets, four movements became typical from the 1760s, usually with the sequence: fast - slow - minuet - fast. Haydn has occasionally used a slow introduction since the 1770s (e.g. in symphonies 50 , 57, etc.). The two middle movements can also appear the other way round, and under Haydn the minuet developed more and more in the direction of Scherzo in terms of content and tempo , which he uses by name for the first time in the Quartets op. 30 (1781) (but later minuets again). The sonata form of many first movements is a particularly typical feature of the Viennese Classic . However, it was in no way applied schematically, but imaginatively and individually, as a framework for a dialectical, thematically determined manner of composition. The final movement is very often a rondo or a mixture of a sonata movement and a rondo. Variation movements were also popular, both in the slow movement (especially in Haydn's work or in Mozart's piano concertos No. 15 and 18 ) and in the finale (e.g. Mozart, piano concertos No. 17 or 24 ).
In the field of opera, Mozart in particular achieved outstanding achievements; the other two focus more clearly on instrumental and sacred music.
The boundaries to previous and subsequent epochs or styles are rather blurred. A milestone where all the characteristics of Viennese classicism are fully and ideally pronounced are u. a. Haydn's Quartets op. 20 from 1772, but this does not rule out that he wrote fully developed works in the 1760s.
The music of the Viennese classics is stylistically not completely uniform or static, even with each individual composer, but reveals a development that ranges from the early classical and so-called "Sturm und Drang" tendencies (1770s) to a kind of monumental musical empire ( around and after 1800) and early romantic echoes, especially with Beethoven. Schubert's most mature works already belong to the early Romantic period.
The music dealer , publisher and inventor of precise sheet music printing, Heinrich Philipp Boßler, was regarded as an important original publisher of the well-known Viennese classics Beethoven, Haydn and Mozart . Joseph Hayden held a privileged position in Boßler's publishing house in Speyer . HP Bossler published early original works for Beethoven, such as the Elector Sonatas (WoO 47), which Boßler also designed. Wolfgang Amadé Mozart was handed down as a silhouette by Heinrich Philipp Bossler in 1784 . He also published the original Mozart's overtures Marriage of Figaro (KV 492) and Don Giovanni (KV 527). Mozart composed works for the world star on the glass harmonica Marianne Kirchgeßner , she was in turn supervised by Bossler. The important impresario Boßler was personally acquainted with all of the Viennese classics.
Vienna as a city of music
Vienna as the capital and imperial residence of the Habsburgs , who themselves had been known as special lovers and connoisseurs of music since the 17th century, provided space and background for these developments . Emperor Joseph II played the cello and keyboard instruments, made chamber music every day with selected musicians and is said to have had a preference for fugues and polyphonic music (like his grandfather Charles VI ). The musical Archduke Rudolf was one of Beethoven's students and greatest patrons . Various nobles of the imperial court kept their own court orchestra, including Haydn's employer, the Prince Eszterházy .
In the second half of the 18th century, Vienna looked back on a long tradition, especially in the field of opera, and also had a diverse musical culture. Along with Naples , Paris and London (public concert), it was one of the leading music cities in Europe and a major attraction, especially for musicians and composers from the areas ruled by the Habsburgs, which at that time also included large parts of northern Italy ( Milan , Tuscany ) and Bohemia belonged.
Georg Christoph Wagenseil and Georg Matthias Monn (see also: Wiener Schule (Vorklassik) ), who stylistically still belong to the early classical period, just as the music of Joseph Haydn in his early work still shows early classical traits, were among the direct pioneers of the Viennese Classic . Haydn and Mozart's most important Viennese colleagues also included some Bohemian composers such as Johann Baptist Vanhal and Leopold Koželuh . The organist and cathedral music director Johann Georg Albrechtsberger was a teacher of Beethoven. Around the beginning of the Viennese Classicism, the Tonkünstler Society was founded in 1771 and organized "public" concerts, which of course were primarily attended by the aristocratic and upper-class bourgeois society of Vienna.
The important opera composers Christoph Willibald Gluck , Florian Leopold Gassmann and Antonio Salieri (the latter two also belonged to Joseph II's private circle of quartets) worked at the imperial court from 1760 to 1790 . At the same time Vincenzo Righini was also working in Vienna. In general, the Italian opera in Vienna had an unusually high status compared to most other regions in Germany, and works by the internationally best known composers were regularly played on the program of the Vienna Court Opera, some of them such as Giovanni Paisiello , Domenico Cimarosa or Vicente Martín y Soler also worked temporarily in Vienna - the latter worked with Mozart's librettist Lorenzo da Ponte in the 1780s , as did Salieri. Opera buffa had a particular success at this time , and with its wit and esprit also had an influence on the instrumental music of Haydn and Mozart, which should not be underestimated. Haydn knew the buffa repertoire very well, as he not only performed his own operas at the court opera in Eszterháza in the 1770s and 1780s, but also performed numerous works by famous Italian composers. In Vienna itself, Emperor Joseph II promoted the German National Singing Play from 1776 , for which u. a. Mozart wrote his Abduction from the Seraglio ; However, the imperial Singspiel project did not have the expected success with the audience and had to close after a few years.
Joseph Haydn lived in Vienna in his childhood and youth, but from 1761 to 1790 he was almost always in the Esterházy residences in Eisenstadt and Fertöd , and between 1791 and 1795 he was in London most of the time. So at that time it was only marginally part of Viennese musical life. Due to numerous copies and prints, his works (especially quartets and symphonies) were known not only in Vienna and Germany, but throughout Europe, and Haydn was an international musical celebrity from the 1770s at the latest due to the extraordinary quality of his spirited music. As early as the early 1780s, people wanted to bring him to London and he received composition commissions from Paris ( Paris symphonies ) and Spain ( The seven last words of our Savior on the Cross ). His perfectly organized and at the same time aesthetically pleasing and entertaining instrumental music was a model for many composers outside of Austria, including Mozart and Beethoven, young musicians such as Joseph Martin Kraus , whose symphonies Haydn himself performed in Eszterháza , Antonio Rosetti or Adalbert Gyrowetz , one of whom was a symphony was published under Haydn's name. Ignaz Pleyel was a student of Haydn and was even valued by Mozart. Even Luigi Boccherini , who came from a completely different musical milieu - one of the most important chamber music composers of the time, who had spent a few years in Vienna in his youth, but created his very personal style more from sources of Italian, French and Spanish inspiration - took inspiration from Haydn Works on.
During his short life, despite his travels in his youth, Mozart did not come close to achieving such international fame as a composer, but rather was more of a local figure after moving to Vienna in 1781. It was only after his early death that his works found wider distribution and his person was gradually glorified. The years after Mozart's move to Vienna are seen as decisive for the constitution of a “Viennese Classic”, although he (like Haydn) had already composed works that did justice to the relevant standard. But after 1781 a compositional interaction between Joseph Haydn and Mozart developed to a certain extent, among other things with the stimulus that came from Haydn's new string quartets (op.33, 1781) and his symphonies, above all on the younger composers but also had an inspiring effect on Haydn.
The young Beethoven was already one of the court musicians of Archduke Maximilian Franz (a brother of Joseph II) in Bonn and thus came into contact with a typical Viennese repertoire at an early age. He first traveled to Vienna at short notice in 1787; back in Bonn in 1790 he was personally encouraged by the passing Haydn to come to study in Vienna. Beethoven combined influences from Haydn and Mozart in his work, as his patron Count Ferdinand Ernst Gabriel von Waldstein put it in a (not entirely consistent ) bon mot : "Through uninterrupted diligence you get: Mozart's spirit out of Haydn's hands."
Composers who played a not unimportant role in Viennese musical life during Beethoven's time were (as before) his teacher Salieri, who switched to sacred music after his operatic career, and the piano virtuoso and composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel , who was also a student of Mozart was. Other important piano composers (but not only) were Anton Diabelli and Joseph Czerny . For a few years the Italian guitarist Mauro Giuliani was part of the Viennese musical life of the Beethoven period. Joseph Weigl was a successful opera composer . Even Peter von Winter wrote several works for Vienna's stages were where as popular in the early 18th century by Italian operas before, among others, Giovanni Simone Mayr , who indeed worked in Italy, but was an admirer of the Viennese classics and in the instrumentation his operas was influenced by them. After around 1815, works by Rossini were also played in Vienna and were very popular with the Viennese public; the deaf Beethoven, however, never heard it and Rossini had no notable influence on the Viennese classical music (but certainly on the Viennese dance music of the Biedermeier period by Joseph Lanner and Johann Strauss' father ).
Influences from outside Vienna
In addition to the already rich influences of Viennese musical life, all three Viennese classics also had other models. Haydn himself pointed out that his own piano style was heavily influenced by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach , and his studies of the Gradus ad Parnassum von Fux may have had a formative effect on his contrapuntal gimmicks . Haydn also seems to draw partly from Austrian folk sources, and especially in some quartets one can occasionally find influences from Hungarian folk or gypsy music. All in all, Haydn was an unusually original and progressive composer who experimented a lot and was open to new ideas and suggestions even at the age of 60, in his time in London.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was shaped by his surroundings in Salzburg, namely by his father Leopold Mozart . Joseph Haydn's brother Michael , who was an important composer with his own style and was particularly known for his chamber music and sacred works, also worked in Salzburg - his brother Joseph described him as the greatest church music composer of his time. Mozart got to know many composers and their music early on on his travels and was therefore completely international in character. Even Teodor de Wyzewa and Georges de Saint-Foix bottomed in her great Mozart works (1936-1946) the many traces of it. There are a number of Italian composers to be mentioned (including Giovanni Battista Sammartini and Niccolò Piccinni ), the Bohemian Josef Mysliveček , who worked in Italy, and the masters of the Mannheim School . Mozart's cordial relationship and the influence of the “Londoner” Johann Christian Bach , who was also occasionally referred to as the “father and inventor” of the Viennese classic, are emphasized in the Mozart literature. Affinities to French contemporaries, such as the internationally popular opera composer André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry at the time , as well as the orchestral music by François-Joseph Gossec or the Chevalier de Saint-Georges , performed by Mozart on his trip to Paris in 1778, can not be ignored got to know.
Mozart also got to know Fugen from Johann Sebastian Bach through Baron van Swieten around 1782 , whose influence is particularly evident in Mozart's so-called Haydn quartets and in some of the late piano sonatas ( KV 533 and 576 ). In Haydn's late oratorios The Creation and The Seasons , influences from Handel's oratorios flowed rather indirectly, and again through the mediation of van Swieten ( Messiah and others).
Beethoven took on all of this directly or indirectly through Joseph Haydn's and Mozart's compositions. Beethoven was also particularly influenced by the dramatic tendencies of the French revolutionary music and the so-called horror opera, i.e. by composers such as Étienne-Nicolas Méhul and Luigi Cherubini . He praised the latter as an immediate model (for symphonies and the opera Fidelio ). The piano virtuoso Muzio Clementi , who had to fight a piano contest with Mozart at the instigation of Emperor Joseph II during a short stay in Vienna , later exerted a certain influence on Beethoven's piano style and technique.
Basically, the classic was a style of the time that was also cultivated by other musicians in other regions who cannot be assigned to the Viennese classic and / or have no direct connection to the “three great Viennese”. Even if these composers were often not preoccupied with questions of musical form and structure in the same way or found other solutions, this does not necessarily mean that they were not important composers. Many were not only highly respected in their time, but z. T. also very influential, as you can already see from the above.
|N. Piccinni||G. Paisiello||GB Viotti|
|JL Dussek||L. Boccherini||AEM Grétry|
|P. Baillot||D. Cimarosa||G. Rossini|
This is particularly true of Italy, the land of bel canto , where in the classical era the focus was almost exclusively on opera. The Italian operatic style at that time placed particular emphasis on the highly developed singing, which in the opera seria was decidedly virtuoso (similar to the roles of Queen of the Night in Mozart's Magic Flute or Konstanze in Der Entführung ), but in the opera buffa it was much simpler. The instrumentation stepped back comparatively so as not to cover up the voices. Wind instruments were traditionally used more sparingly, the weight was on the string section. This alone makes a significant difference to Mozart's operas, which was strongly influenced by Italian and did not dispense with virtuoso coloratura singing in his German Singspiele, but whose instrumentation was much richer and more complex than that of the Italians. As a result, the overall impression of Italian operas is generally more transparent, and the music has a certain delicacy and softness. Many Italians also worked abroad, where they then z. T. absorbed other influences. The period around 1800 to 1810 (until Rossini's appearance) is considered to be a kind of crisis in Italian opera.
In addition to the late Neapolitan opera composers Paisiello, Cimarosa and Piccinni already mentioned, the following were among the most successful masters of Italian classical opera: Baldassare Galuppi (late work), Giuseppe Sarti , Pasquale Anfossi , Niccolò Jommelli , Tommaso Traetta , Antonio Sacchini , Niccolò Zingarini , Giuseppepeini . The aforementioned Bavarian Giovanni Simone Mayr was also one of the most successful opera composers in Italy from around 1800 and based his instrumentation on Mozart and Haydn. Gioachino Rossini's early work also still belongs to the late classical period, as do his epigones Mercadante , Pacini and Donizetti and the German Giacomo Meyerbeer in his Italian phase. Rossini and the above-mentioned composers were all familiar with works by Haydn and Mozart operas, in some cases also with Beethoven symphonies, and they took up suggestions for their instrumentation in particular. For this reason, Rossini was accused of German influence.
The Italians Luigi Cherubini (whom Beethoven adored), Ferdinando Paer and Gaspare Spontini worked in France (or Germany) and were influenced by Gluck. You are one of the main masters of late classical French opera.
In instrumental music, the aforementioned Luigi Boccherini was, alongside Haydn and Mozart, the most important composer of the epoch, especially in chamber music. He worked in Spain and his style is characterized by great softness, sound beauty and lyrical idyll, more flowing and more emotional than Viennese music, but of high quality. Giuseppe Cambini shows similarities with Boccherini's style in his extensive (but little played) chamber music output. He was a main master of the Sinfonia concertante , which he created for the Paris Concert spirituel .
Other important violin virtuosos of the era were Gaetano Pugnani , who also wrote symphonies, and Giovanni Battista Viotti , whose concerts have a very unique style and who formally go different ways than the Viennese classics. Viotti took part in the Haydn Concerts in London and Mozart wrote some additional wind parts for Viotti's E minor Concerto No. 16. Some of his late works are ravishingly beautiful and in some cases already permeated by early romantic tragedy (especially No. 22 in a minor and other minor concerts). Viotti had a great influence on the French violin composers Pierre Rode , Rodolphe Kreutzer , Pierre Baillot and Nicolò Paganini - the latter, however, already belongs to Romanticism. The German violinist Louis Spohr still belongs to the late classical period, at least in his early work.
In the field of piano music there were several important and influential masters who, although they belong to the classics, were not Viennese: Muzio Clementi , the Bohemian Johann Ladislaus Dussek , John Field . Her works range from Classical to Early Romanticism and, alongside Beethoven, they all played an important role in the development of an early Romantic piano style. Friedrich Kuhlau , who works in Denmark and is known for his melodious sonatinas, was heavily influenced by Mozart and Haydn.
Discussion of the term
While English-speaking musicology tends to avoid the term “Viennese Classic” and uses a more comprehensive concept of classical music, German musicology is controversial about it. Ludwig Finscher , following the ideas of Raphael Georg Kiesewetter from 1834, would like to limit it to the works of Joseph Haydn and Mozart between 1781 and 1803. Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht proved his Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven comprehensive definition through extensive, detailed musical analyzes. Carl Dahlhaus, on the other hand, carried Friedrich Blume's ideas further; Classical and Romanticism formed a common classical-romantic epoch. This dialectical connection between Viennese Classicism and Romanticism is particularly evident in the comparison of Beethoven and Schubert . Thrasybulos Georgiades assigned Schubert to the three greats of the “Viennese Classic” in his analyzes of his vocal and instrumental music and showed Schubert's classical compositional method especially in his songs and the “ Unfinished ” - which, however, are already influenced by the spirit of the early Romantic period.
- Mannheim school
- Neapolitan School (music)
- Vienna School (pre-classical)
- Classical music
- Burgtheater (section on the Old Burgtheater)
- Theater at the Kärntnertor
- Friedrich Blume : Classical. In: Friedrich Blume (Hrsg.): The music in past and present (MGG). First edition, Volume 7 (Jensen - Kyrie). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 1958,
- Friedrich Blume : Romanticism. In: Friedrich Blume (Hrsg.): The music in past and present (MGG). First edition, Volume 11 (Rasch - Schnyder von Wartensee). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 1963,
- Remigio Coli: Luigi Boccherini , Maria Pacini Fazzi editore, Lucca 2005 (Italian).
- Carl Dahlhaus : Classical and Romantic Music Aesthetics. Laaber 1988.
- Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht : Music in the Occident, Processes and Stations from the Middle Ages to the Present . In Mn./Z 1991, pp. 471-487.
- Ludwig Finscher : Classic. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, subject part, volume 5 (Kassel - Meiningen). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 1996, ISBN 3-7618-1106-3 ( online edition , subscription required for full access)
- Thrasybulos Georgiades : Schubert, music and poetry . Göttingen 1967.
- Raphael Georg Kiesewetter : History of European-Occidental or our contemporary music . Leipzig 1834.
- HC Robbins Landon : Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents . Publisher Fritz Molden, Vienna et al. 1981.
- HC Robbins Landon: The Mozart Compendium . Droemer Knaur, Munich 1991.
- Charles Rosen : The classic style. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. Bärenreiter, Kassel etc. 1983, ISBN 978-3-7618-1235-8 .
- Teodor de Wyzewa , G. de Saint-Foix: W.-A. [!] Mozart. Sa vie musicale et son oeuvre de l'enfance à la pleine maturité […] Essai de biographie critique suivi d'un nouveau catalog chronologique de l'oeuvre complète de maitre […] . 5 volumes, Paris 1936–1946.
- springer.com: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven - and Franz Schubert: 1755/1781 to 1828
- rp-online.de: Wiener Klassik: Franz Schubert and the arsonists
- For Haydn see: HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Verlag Fritz Molden, Wien et al., 1981, p. 12
- “For connoisseurs and lovers” is the title of a six-volume collection of keyboard works that the influential Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach published between 1779 and 1787, at the same time as Mozart and Haydn, who valued him very much (new edition by Breitkopf and Härtel).
- Similar to Landon on Haydn's music: HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Verlag Fritz Molden, Wien et al., 1981, p. 12
- Hans Schneider : The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographic overviews and an appendix by Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 7 .
- Hans Schneider: The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographic overviews and an appendix by Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 85-99 .
- Hans Schneider: The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographic overviews and an appendix by Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 43, 79, 102 .
- Hans Schneider: The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographic overviews and an appendix by Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 178-179 .
- Ferdinand III., Leopold I, Josef I and Karl VI. are considered "music emperors" and occasionally composed. Maria Theresa and her children also had a musical education and appeared in courtly theater performances. Elisabeth Hilscher: With lyre and sword - The Habsburgs and music , Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 2000, pp. 111–184
- Elisabeth Hilscher: With lyre and sword - The Habsburgs and the music , Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 2000, p. 170
- Elisabeth Hilscher: With lyre and sword - The Habsburgs and the music , Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 2000, pp. 199–203
- Elisabeth Hilscher: With lyre and sword - The Habsburgs and the music , Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 2000, p. 92 f, p. 115–164
- Elisabeth Hilscher: With lyre and sword - The Habsburgs and Music , Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 2000, pp. 170, 174 f
- "Mozart and the theater of his time - The opera in Vienna in the 1780s", in: HC Robbins Landon: Das Mozart Kompendium , Droemer Knaur, Munich 1991, pp. 425-430, especially 428 ff (list of the most popular composers and Operas in Vienna 1781–1791)
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Fritz Molden Verlag, Vienna et al., 1981, pp. 73–74
- Elisabeth Hilscher: With lyre and sword - The Habsburgs and the music , Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 2000, p. 175
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Verlag Fritz Molden, Vienna et al., 1981, p. 73
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Fritz Molden Verlag, Vienna et al., 1981, pp. 95–146
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Fritz Molden Verlag, Vienna et al., 1981, p. 87
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Fritz Molden Verlag, Vienna et al., 1981, pp. 84–85
- Remigio Coli: Luigi Boccherini (Italian), Maria Pacini Fazzi editore, Lucca 2005, pp. 28–35 (Boccherini's stays in Vienna 1758 and 1760–1761)
- Remigio Coli: Luigi Boccherini (Italian), Maria Pacini Fazzi editore, Lucca 2005, p. 119 and many others (Haydn's influence on Boccherini's works), p. 122–124 (correspondence)
- Elisabeth Hilscher: With lyre and sword - The Habsburgs and Music , Styria, Graz / Vienna / Cologne 2000, p. 179 f
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Fritz Molden Verlag, Vienna et al., 1981, pp. 22 and 37
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Fritz Molden Verlag, Vienna et al., 1981, p. 36
- HC Robbins Landon: Joseph Haydn - his life in pictures and documents , Verlag Fritz Molden, Vienna et al., 1981, p. 12
- HC Robbins Landon: Das Mozart Kompendium , Droemer Knaur, Munich 1991, p. 109
- HC Robbins Landon: Das Mozart Kompendium , Droemer Knaur, Munich 1991, pp. 59–60
- Misunderstood geniuses: Look, they are alive! In: ZEIT ONLINE . ( zeit.de [accessed on October 5, 2018]).