|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||103 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||42.6 km 2|
|Residents:||50,561 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1187 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||67346|
|Area code :||06232|
|License plate :||SP|
|Community key :||07 3 18 000|
|City structure:||5 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Stefanie Seiler ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Speyer in Rhineland-Palatinate|
Speyer (until 1825 also Speier ) is an independent city in Rhineland-Palatinate and part of the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region . As a Roman foundation, then called Noviomagus or Civitas Nemetum (capital of the Nemeter tribe ), it is one of the oldest cities in Germany and, as Spira, became the center of the Speyergau around 600 . As a free imperial city , Speyer was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in the Middle Ages . Between 1816 and 1945 the seat of the Bavarian administration of the Palatinate , Speyer today belongs to Rhineland-Palatinate and has 50,561 inhabitants (as of 2019).
Speyer is classified as a medium-sized center with partial functions of a regional center and is part of the Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region with Ludwigshafen am Rhein , Mannheim and Heidelberg as the center. The city is located in the Upper Rhine Plain at the confluence of the Speyerbach into the Rhine , just under 20 km south of Ludwigshafen am Rhein / Mannheim and 34 km north of Karlsruhe (both as the crow flies). Its neighboring communities are Römerberg in the south, Dudenhofen in the west, Schifferstadt in the northwest, Waldsee and Otterstadt in the north. Across the Rhine are Ketsch in the northeast, Hockenheim in the east, Altlußheim in the southeast and Oberhausen-Rheinhausen in the south.
The Rhine forms the eastern border of the city and at the same time the border between Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg . It enters the district of Speyer at river kilometer 393.8 and leaves it 9.2 km later again at river kilometer 403. The old Rhine arms cut off by the straightening of the Rhine from Tulla in the southeast ( Altlußheimer Altrhein ) and in the south ( Runkedebunk ) of the city stand with it the Speyer floodplain forest continuing there to the north and the water areas according to the Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive under European protection. In the Rhine valley northwest of the urban area caused by numerous sand and gravel extraction quarry only to the territory, including Binsfeld the eight lakes north A61 and the Russians pond . In the far north, Speyer still has a share in the Angelhofer Altrhein .
The urban area is divided into five districts:
- The core city of Speyer, also the old town, corresponds to the area that was enclosed by the medieval Speyer city fortifications . Due to the complete destruction in 1689 and the slow reconstruction after an eleven year break from settlement, it took Speyer until around 1850 to settle and build on this area again.
- Speyer-Süd with the settlements Im Oberkämmerer, Neuland and Vogelgesang. These are the areas south of the old city wall. Most of the time (with the exception of the new land), Speyer-Süd is located on the lower terrace like the core of the old town.
- Speyer-West with the settlements Im Erlich and Burgfeld. The area north-west of the historical core lies on the raised terrace and served people in the Middle Ages for gardens and as arable land, which was mostly enclosed by the Speyer Landwehr . In the south of the district is the geographically highest point of Speyer.
- Speyer-Nord , also settlement, with Binsfeld . Speyer-Nord lies several kilometers north of the old settlement area that ended at the Woogbach. It was founded in 1932 during the Great Depression as a settlement project north of the Speyer Landwehr border.
- Speyer-Ost lies between the old city center, which ended at Eselsdamm, and Speyer-Nord, east of Wormser Landstrasse in the Rhine lowlands, which was previously unpopulated with the exception of Hasenpfuhl (secured by Eselsdamm) and the fishing suburb and later after the port road was straightened out .
Speyer-Südwest is a special area in the west of the core city of Speyer with the functions of monastery, education, research, health care, sport and recreation.
Outside the closed settlement are Binshof, Deutschhof, Ludwigshof, Rinkenbergerhof , Spitzenrheinhof, Thomashof, Weiherhof and Reffenthal.
Until it was regulated and straightened in the early 19th century, the Rhine meandered in innumerable loops and loops in the Upper Rhine Plain and constantly changed its course over the millennia. Even after the regulation, the landscape on the Rhine is characterized by the numerous still existing or dismantled old Rhine poor. Even where there are no more bodies of water, former arms of the Rhine can be recognized by the vegetation, the layout of the corridors and the course of the low terraces.
The urban area of Speyer is part of the Rhine lowlands (about 93 m above sea level ), the low terrace (on average at 103 m above sea level) and the high terrace (up to 113 m above sea level). The Rhine lowland consists of alluvial and Holocene deposits. The lower terrace was created in the last ice age; A 50 cm thick layer of clay from river silt deposits ( Pleistocene ) lies over a massive gravel deposit . The high terrace consists in the southwest of ice-age accumulations of loess (towards Dudenhofen the northern part of the Schwegenheimer loess plate ) and in the northwest of sand areas and sand dunes ( military training area and Speyer city forest ) west of the B 9 . The transitions between the three levels are characterized by partly clearly recognizable jumps. These differences in height from the lower terrace to the Rhine are known to the people of Speyer as the "museum hump", the terracing in the cathedral garden , the stairs on the north side of the cathedral or the sloping streets to the fish market. They know the climbs to the high terrace as "Brauereibuckel" (Obere Langgasse) or "Schützenbuckel" (Schützenstraße). The relatively flood-proof low terraces are more or less far away from the main axis of the river. In Speyer, this low terrace jutted like a wedge directly up to the Rhine and thus offered the possibility of settling as close to the river as possible relatively safe from floods.
The course of the Hochgestade in the urban area of Speyer corresponds approximately to the 100 m height line above sea level and is easy to follow. The town of Berghausen, southwest of Speyer, lies directly on its upper edge. From there it runs in a general line to the northeast, around the Vogelgesang residential area, to the most easterly point and closest to the Rhine, the so-called cathedral hill. From there it swings back to the northwest along Johannesstrasse, to the north along Wormser Landstrasse and the first section of Waldseer Strasse, and then jumps over Buchen- and Erlenweg northeast over the open field to the Spitzenrheinhof and from there again north on the west side of the Binsfeldseen over to Otterstadt . It forms a sequence of semicircles from which the former course of the Rhine can be read.
The Forlenwald (102-110 m above sea level ) northwest of the city, easternmost part of the Speyer Forest , consists of (large trees) 76% pine , 7% beech, 4% oak, 3% each of robinia , birch , red oak and 2% other trees on nutrient-poor diluvial flight and dune sands, Schwemmsanden and pebbles, principally sand brown earth with Podsoligkeit or podsolisation . In the offspring, the beech trees (from 4% to 21%) are strengthened at the expense of the pines (from 76% to 53%).
The importance of Speyer and its topographically favorable location on the river terraces was an important reason for the Bavarian land surveying after the Napoleonic Wars to set up a special surveying network that was to serve as the basis for the Rhine regulation projected since 1805 and the surveying of the newly formed Rhine district . Under the Grand Ducal Baden chief engineer Johann Gottfried Tulla , an exact baseline was measured between Speyer and Oggersheim in 1819 , while one of the 72 meter high east towers of the Speyer Cathedral and the Mannheim observatory were chosen for the astronomical orientation of the network .
Due to its location in the Upper Rhine Rift , Speyer is one of the warmest and driest areas in Germany. The annual mean temperature is 9.8 ° C, during the growing season 16.9 ° C, the average amount of precipitation is 596 mm (1931-1960 station Speyer), of which 314 mm during the growing season. The number of summer days with over 25 ° C averages 40 days per year. Thunderstorms occur on an average of 20-25 days, snowfall on 20 days, a closed snow cover on 20 days. The main wind directions are southwest and northeast. The number of hours of sunshine in the summer half-year is well above average, in winter it is below average due to frequent inversion weather conditions . Because of the inversions and the humidity in summer, the weather in Speyer is considered to be bioclimatically stressful.
Ancient and Middle Ages
Numerous finds from the Neolithic , Bronze Age , Hallstatt and Latène Age suggest that the terraces in Speyer, especially the lower terrace tongue in the immediate vicinity of the Rhine, have always been interesting places to settle. In the second century BC, the area around Speyer was the settlement area of the Celtic Mediomatrics .
After the subjugation of Gaul by the Romans in 50 BC. In BC the Rhine became part of the border of the Roman Empire , even if the area was still outside the military scene . 10 BC A camp was probably built for a 500-strong infantry force. This Roman military post became the impetus for city building. Around 150 the city appeared under the Celtic name Noviomagus (Neufeld or Neumarkt, see all Noviomagus ) in the world map of the Greek Ptolemy ; the same name is in the Itinerarium Antonini , a travel guide of Antonius from the time of Caracalla (211-217) and on the Tabula Peutingeriana , a road map from the 3rd century. From 260 onwards, the constant attacks by the Alamanni as part of the migration of peoples to the Limes could no longer be repelled, the Roman imperial border had to be withdrawn to the Rhine, and Speyer became a border town again. Jesse is documented as the first Speyer bishop for the 4th century ; the diocese probably went under during the migration period.
In 406, Suebi , Vandals and Sarmatian Alans crossed the Rhine under pressure from advancing Huns and overran Speyer on their way into inner Gaul. A richly decorated “princely grave” in Altlußheim on the right bank of the Rhine , about four kilometers from Speyer, attests to the presence of Alano- Sarmatians , Huns and East Germans .
In a battle in 496/497 near Zülpich and in another battle in 505, the Franks under Clovis defeated the Alamanni and Speyer became part of the Frankish kingdom . With that Speyer got again connection to the Gallic-Roman culture. As part of the reorganization of the administration, Romanised officials and bishops from southern Gaul came to the Rhine. The Franconians also largely followed their predecessors in terms of the administrative structure, for example in setting up the districts. The new Speyergau corresponded roughly to the civitas Nemetum . The name Spira , which was introduced by the Alemanni, is mentioned for the first time in the "Notitia Galliarum" from the 6th century, although it can be traced back to 496/509. From the 7th century Speyer is mentioned again as a bishopric.
In 969, Emperor Otto the Great granted the episcopal church the privilege of immunity , its own jurisdiction and control over coins and customs. From 1030, Emperor Konrad II had construction work on the Speyer Cathedral begin.
In the 11th century, at the instigation of Bishop Rüdiger Huzmann , one of the first Jewish communities in the Roman-German Empire settled in Speyer . In addition to the other ShUM cities of Worms and Mainz , Speyer is one of the birthplaces of Ashkenazi culture.
On the day his father was buried in the Speyer Cathedral, Heinrich V granted the city extensive privileges in 1111 . The Great Letter of Freedom was the first city in Germany to grant its citizens personal freedom. Together with his picture, the letter was affixed in gold letters above the cathedral portal, where it was lost in the course of the later damage to the cathedral.
The 13th century in Speyer was to be marked by the dispute over the rights of the city. The second half was marked by violent disputes between the city and the bishop, and above all the foundations , which were only exacerbated by the investiture dispute. It was the cathedral chapter in particular that developed into the actual adversary of the citizenship. In the middle of this century it is documented for the first time that there is “public property” in Speyer in the form of municipal property.
In the 14th century the generalis discordia, the dispute between the citizenry and the clergy, played only a subordinate role. In the Wittelbach-Habsburg throne dispute, Speyer was once again the focus of imperial politics. Against this background, a power struggle developed over the occupation of the council between the Münzer members of the household and the guilds. The members of the household had to forego their last privileges in 1349, when the principle of the pure guild constitution prevailed in Speyer. From this point on, the members of the household had to establish themselves as a guild and were thus only one group among 14 other guilds.
With the rise of Heidelberg, only a good 20 kilometers away, in the 13th and 14th centuries, which among other things became a residential and university town, the situation in the region shifted.
City law and Reichstag
In the second half of the 14th century it also became apparent that the Speyer bishops had never given up their claim to rulership. To represent their interests, they won the support of Emperor Charles IV and, above all, the Count Palatine near the Rhine, whereas the city could no longer fully rely on the support of the emperors.
In 1434 came with the Elector Ludwig III. From the Palatinate a protection and umbrella contract for ten years. From 1439 the region was threatened by marauding Armagnaks , mercenaries dismissed from the French service. In 1439 Speyer concluded an alliance with Mainz, Worms and Strasbourg, which envisaged the formation of an army of 100 Gleven , 30 each from Mainz and Strasbourg and 20 from Worms and Speyer. City and clergy moved closer together, possibly due to external danger. From 1459 to 1462 Speyer again had to take part in a war in the Palatinate, this time in connection with the Palatinate War and the Mainz collegiate feud against Kurmainz .
With Matthias von Rammung , a bishop took over the office in Speyer in 1464, who again made concrete efforts to expand or regain the powers of the church. In 1465, through no fault of its own, the city came into conflict with the church because, at the behest of the imperial court, it was supposed to help a citizen gain his rights against the bishop. In 1470/71 Speyer again found itself in a situation in which it had to laboriously strive for a neutral stance. Once again, Elector Friedrich I got cross with the Kaiser because he seized the city and the Weissenburg Monastery and both Elector and Kaiser demanded Speyer's military help in the war that broke out.
In the first half of the 16th century, Speyer became the focus of German history. The importance of the city in those days becomes clear when a total of more than 50 court days took place in its walls and five of the 30 Reichstag that existed in this century were held in Speyer (see Reichstag zu Speyer ). In addition, Reich Deputation Days took place in Speyer , e. B. 1558, 1560, 1583, 1595, 1599/60, Electoral days, e.g. B. 1588 and Reich Moderation Days, z. B. 1595.
In 1525 the Rhine area was covered by a farmers' survey that reached the Speyer Monastery on April 20th. The uprising was mainly directed against church property and the peasants turned against the tithe, the interest and the validity . On April 30th they planned “to go to Speyer and there to destroy the nests of the clergy, which had been preserved much with disadvantage and great harm to the poor”. The Lutheran influence on this survey is evident. On the approach to Speyer, the intention was announced to "occupy the city of Speier and to reform the clergy in it if they please" and they even expected the support of the city for this. Citizens should remain unmolested. As a result, some Reichstag took place in Speyer.
Modern times and modernity
Except for one event in 1552, the time in Speyer between 1530 and 1620 was relatively peaceful. Nevertheless, the city was not spared from misfortune. There were repeated epidemics of the plague, for example in 1539, 1542, 1555 and 1574. The Schmalkaldic War of 1546 had no direct impact on Speyer.
In 1564 Wilhelm Eisengrein published the first printed history of the city of Speyer, which, as he himself wrote, was based on the handwritten chronicle of the cathedral vicar Wolfgang Baur († 1516). In 1612, after ten years of work, the first edition of the Chronica of the free imperial city of Speier by Christoph Lehmann was published . The work was very popular, as it dealt intensively with the history of the empire, and saw four editions in the course of the following century. In 1618 Speyer participated with an army from the Palatinate-Baden region in the demolition of the Udenheim bishop's fortress, which was soon rebuilt.
In the turmoil of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), the walled, but hardly defensible Speyer was caught in the tension between the often contested fortresses of Frankenthal , Friedrichsburg , Philippsburg and Landau . Thus, the city constantly assumed the role of refuge, hospital, supply station and / or military camp. In addition, there were occupations by Spaniards, Swedes, French and imperial troops, which changed at short intervals. It was not until 1650 that the last soldiers left the city, leaving behind debts, hunger and epidemics.
In 1689, as part of the War of the Palatinate Succession and the planned de-fortification of the Palatinate under General Melac, the city was completely destroyed by French troops. Two days after the French general Joseph de Montclar had inspected the fortifications of the city on January 30, 1689, the demolition work began, in which the townspeople had to take part. The citizens suspected that the French wanted to burn the city down. On the afternoon of May 23, the French war director informed the two mayors and the councilors that the city had to be evacuated within six days: "However, no one should conclude that the city would be burned." Montclar had the dean and the bishop On May 27, 1689, governor Heinrich Hartard von Rollingen reported that he had received the order “to set fire to the city, including all the churches and monasteries in it, with the exception of the high cathedral”. The commander-in-chief of the French in Mainz, Marshal Count Jacques-Henri de Durfort, duc de Duras , was asked by the cathedral chapter to ensure that the cathedral would be spared.
In 1792 French revolutionary troops captured Speyer. As the seat of a sub-prefecture in the Département du Mont-Tonnerre ( Donnersberg ) it remained under French rule until 1814. The wars of liberation against Napoleon and the reorganization of the European world at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 brought about a change in the balance of power in the Palatinate area. For a few hours Speyer was once again in the limelight of great politics when, on June 27, 1815, Tsar Alexander of Russia , Emperor Franz I of Austria and Prussia's King Friedrich Wilhelm III. met at the Allied headquarters in the city. In 1816 Speyer became the district capital of the so-called Rhine district in what followed . As a result of the Congress of Vienna, this fell to the Kingdom of Bavaria as compensation for Salzburg, which had been ceded to Austria. The administrative district (district) Palatinate existed only since January 1, 1838 and replaced the Rhine district.
In 1837 the expansion of the Rhine port was completed. Speyer was connected to the German railway network in 1847. Among other things, social and charitable institutions were created (work and educational institution for girls, charity association of the Jewish community and a hospital). In the field of education, the city had all kinds of facilities and the best-developed school system in the Palatinate. The first clubs came into being: the Schützengesellschaft, which had existed since 1529, included a gymnastics club, a harmony society, a music club and a song table. Until 1918 Speyer was the garrison of the 2nd Pioneer Battalion of the Bavarian Army . The Pfalz-Flugzeugwerke was located in Speyer since 1913 . During the First World War, they developed into an important German armaments company and supplied several thousand combat aircraft.
With the end of the First World War and the occupation of the left bank of the Rhine, the French army again moved into Speyer in 1918 . France occupied large parts of Germany on the left bank of the Rhine ( Allied occupation of the Rhineland ). As early as the end of 1918, the French military under General Gérard specifically supported a movement under the leadership of the doctorate chemist Eberhard Haas, which called itself "Free Palatinate" - together with several other separatist groups in the northern Rhineland. In the early summer of 1919 the Free Palatinate attempted a coup in Speyer for an autonomous Palatinate. This failed miserably, mainly due to the resistance of the Deputy District President Friedrich von Chlingensperg auf Berg (1860-1944). He had the majority of the Palatinate parties by his side. After a few hours, the badly prepared campaign was over. In 1930 the French occupation forces withdrew.
The Nazi seizure of power and the “ Gleichschaltung” also affected Speyer from 1933 onwards. The city initially belonged to the "Gau Rheinpfalz", which was merged with the Saarland to form the Gau Saar-Pfalz in 1935 . The administrative seat of the district was in Neustadt , which thus outstripped the Bavarian state seat of government Speyer in importance during the Nazi period. The Speyer synagogue on Heydenreichstrasse was burned down in the November pogroms on November 9, 1938 and demolished shortly afterwards. The Nazi regime carried out an unprecedented extermination of Jews in Europe (“ Holocaust ”). More than 100 Jews from Speyer and the surrounding area who were no longer able to escape were killed. Resistance to National Socialism was made by the Speyer Comradeship group around the Speyer Social Democrat Jakob Schultheis (1891–1945) and his wife Emma (1892–1978). Apart from the station area, Speyer suffered no major damage from air raids during the Second World War . At the end of March 1945, Speyer was captured by US troops (see Operation Undertone ); withdrawing German troops blew up the Rhine bridge . A Wehrmacht unit in Speyer fought doggedly.
After the Second World War , the city became part of the French occupation zone and the seat of a French garrison. The establishment of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate was ordered on August 30, 1946 as the last state in the western occupation zones by decree No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig . It was initially referred to as the "Rhineland-Palatinate Land" or "Land Rheinpfalz"; the name Rhineland-Palatinate was only established with the constitution of May 18, 1947. As a sign of growing friendship, the St. Bernhard Church in Wormser Strasse was built in 1953/54 with German and French funds . The occupation regime ended on May 6, 1955. It was not until the 1990s that Speyer's history as the location of the French army ended.
The year 1990 was marked by numerous celebrations on the occasion of the two thousandth anniversary of the city and the German-German reunification.
On November 9, 2011, the new Beith-Schalom synagogue was consecrated in the presence of the then Federal President Christian Wulff . The old synagogue was destroyed in the pogrom night of 1938 (" Reichskristallnacht ").
Population development in Speyer from 1586:
Of the 37,200 inhabitants in 1960, 5,000 were displaced.
Speyer recorded the strongest growth rates of all cities in the Palatinate and was one of the few cities to have had a positive growth rate until 2009. Comparison 1939 (100%) to 1985 in percent:
- Landau 110.0
- Ludwigshafen am Rhein 105.3
- Neustadt an der Weinstrasse 115.2
- Speyer 144.0
- Rhine-Palatinate District 122.3
Population distribution in the statistical districts of the city of Speyer 2012:
|district||Residents||Percentage ownership %|
|Core city north||6,815||13.7|
|Core city south||3,415||6.9|
|North of the highway||1,276||2.6|
According to the 2011 census , 29.9% of the population were Protestant, 35.5% Roman Catholic and 34.7% belonged to another or no religious community or did not provide any information. In April 2020, 24.9% of the population had the Protestant denomination and 30.1% the Roman Catholic. 45.0% belonged to other denominations or religious communities , were unspecified or had no community.
Because of the special features of the Rhineland-Palatinate electoral system in local elections (personalized proportional representation), the percentages given are shown as weighted results that only represent the voting behavior in arithmetic.
The city council elections had the following results:
|Parties and groups of voters||%
|B90 / greens||19.8||9||14.5||6th|
|Voter turnout in%||57.1||47.3|
- SWG = Speyer voters group
- BGS = Bürgergemeinschaft Speyer
- WGS = Schneider voter group (SP)
Ernst Hertrich became the first legally qualified and full-time mayor of the city of Speyer in 1911. From 1923 the mayor carried the title of "Lord Mayor".
- " Maire " Johann Adam Weiß (1796–1798)
- "Agent" Carl Alexander Holtzmann (1798)
- "Agent" Wilhelm Leschmann (1798–1800)
- "Agent" Franz Freytag (1800–1801)
- "Maire" Johann Adam Weiß (1801–1804)
- "Maire" Ludwig Wilhelm Sonntag (1804–1809)
- "Maire" Georg Friedrich Hetzel (1809–1813)
- Franz Reichardt (1814)
- F. Clauss (1814-1819)
- Georg Friedrich Hetzel (1819–1829)
- Friedrich August Heydenreich (1830-1832)
- Georg Friedrich Hetzel (1833–1838)
- Georg Friedrich Hilgard (1838–1843)
- Carl Philipp Claus (1843-1848)
- Georg Friedrich Kolb (1848–1849)
- Georg Friedrich Ußlaub (1849–1850)
- Joh. Melchior Schultz (1850-1859)
- Georg Friedrich Haid (1859–1868)
- Johann Conradt Eberhardt (1868–1874)
- Georg Friedrich Haid (1875-1884)
- Georg Peter Süß (1885-1894)
- Friedrich Weltz (1894-1897)
- Philipp Serr (1897–1904)
- Philipp Lichtenberger (1904–1911) ( NLP )
- Ernst Hertrich (1911–1914), first professional mayor
- Otto Moericke (1917-1919)
- Karl Leiling (1919–1943)
- Rudolf Trampler (1943–1945), NS-Gau propaganda leader ( NSDAP )
- Karl Leiling (1945–1946)
- Hans Hettinger (1946)
- Mayor Paul Schaefer (1946–1949) ( CDU )
- Mayor Paulus Skopp (1949–1969) ( SPD )
- Mayor Christian Roßkopf (1969–1995) (SPD)
- Mayor Werner Schineller (1995-2010) (CDU)
- Mayor Hansjörg Eger (2011-2018) (CDU)
- Mayor Stefanie Seiler (since January 2, 2019) (SPD)
- First mayor and alderman since 1945
- Hermann Langlotz (1946–1949)
- Bertram Hartard senior (1948–1952)
- Stefan Scherpf (1956–1984)
- Hanspeter Brohm (1995-2010)
- Monika Kabs (since 2010)
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In silver, a red church building with three blue- roofed towers decoratedwith gold crosses and three (heraldic) open gates ."|
|Foundation of the coat of arms: It was approved by the Bavarian king in 1846 . Since the 13th century, Speyer has had the cathedral in the north elevation covered with the Madonna in the city seal . For the coat of arms, the decision was made for the west view of the cathedral, because the imperial herald regarded it as "more recommendable and venerable".|
The first partnership was concluded with Spalding ( United Kingdom ) in 1956. Chartres in France followed in 1959, Ravenna ( Italy ) and Kursk ( Russia ) in 1989 , Gniezno (Gnesen) in Poland in 1992 and Javne in Israel in 1998 . A city partnership was signed in 2013 with the Chinese Ningde , Speyer's partner city in the Rhineland-Palatinate partner province of Fujian .
In addition, the city sponsored Karengera in Rwanda in 1982 and, after a municipal reform in 2001, for the Ruzisi district (formerly Impala).
Culture and sights
Historical secular buildings
At the beginning of Maximilianstrasse on Domplatz, popularly known as the “Hauptstrasse”, is the town house, which was built on the area where the Trutzpfaff has been located since the Middle Ages. The mayor and the city administration sit in it.
The historic town hall, which was built in 1724 and has been the seat of the Speyer City Council since then, is also of historical significance. It is located on Maximilianstrasse opposite the former market square, where the Christmas market takes place today.
The so-called "Old Mint" is also located on the old market square. The current building was erected in 1784 as the “New Department Store on the Market” on Mint Square. This building, which was destroyed in 1689, has been the meeting place of the council since 1289 and also the seat of the Münzer, those privileged people who were allowed to manufacture coins.
At the other end of Maximilianstrasse is the 55 m high " Altpörtel ", which was the main western gate of the city in the Middle Ages. The lower parts of today's gate were built between 1230 and 1250, the top floor with the gallery and the 20 m high hipped roof was added between 1512 and 1514. After the great city fire, the old gate was given a new slate roof in 1708. On the first floor there is a permanent exhibition about the history of the Speyer city fortifications .
Churches and monasteries
Until its destruction in 1689, Speyer had 15 parishes. According to Franz Josef Mone , the Domstift , the Stift St. German and Moritz , the Stift St. Guido and Johannes and the Allerheiligenstift formed the upper parishes and the churches " St. Stephan im teutschen Hauß", St. Peter bei Allerheiligenstift, St. Bartholomäus , St. Jakob , St. Johannes , St. Georg , St. Martin in Altspeyer , St. Egidius in the Gilgenvorstadt, that of the St. Magdalena monastery in the suburb over the Hasenpfuhl, St. Marien (the later cemetery chapel, now the chapel in Adenauerpark) and St. Markus in front of the Marxtor of the St. Markus suburb the other parishes. Of these, St. Markus was later handed over to the parish of St. Peter and the St. Mary's Church in the 16th century.
In addition to the parish churches mentioned, there was also the Carmelite monastery in Gilgensvorstadt, the Franciscan monastery , the Dominican monastery (today the diocese of St. Ludwig ), the Augustinian monastery , the Jesuit college at the cathedral, St. Alexius in front of the Neupörtel, the female All Saints Monastery (already in the 15th century dissolved), the Holy Sepulcher Monastery and the St. Klara Monastery in Altspeyer, the Nikolauskapelle at the cathedral and the Holy Cross Chapel at the Kreuztor of Gilgenvorstadt.
In addition to the Markuskirche, which belongs to the city, and the Michaelskapelle on the Germansberg (formerly part of the Germanstift), which also belongs to the city, there were other chapels outside the city that did not belong to the city. In the Middle Ages, not far from the Germanberg, there was the St. Ulrichs chapel, once the parish church of the abandoned village of Winternheim , and the St. Lorenz chapel “on the road to Schifferstadt on the site of the former village of Rinkenberg” (today Rinkenbergerhof ). According to Franz Joseph Mone, there were only minor traces of these chapels as early as the 16th century, while the villages had already completely disappeared. In 1983, during excavations near the Closweg, the remains of the Ulrich chapel with a cemetery were found.
With a few exceptions, the Speyer churches, monasteries and chapels, fell victim to the city fire. The exceptions are St. German in campo (the old German pen in front of the gates on Germansberg), since it only existed as Michaelskapelle at that time, the Martinskirche, since it was demolished in 1685, and the cemetery chapel, the Carmelite monastery, the Klara monastery and the Aegidia Church, since they were spared.
As part of the reconstruction of the city after the destruction in the Palatinate War of Succession, the Trinity Church was built as a Lutheran town church at the beginning of the 18th century, as well as the Holy Spirit Church for the Reformed community, which is hardly used today because of its proximity to the Trinity Church . In addition, the cathedral, the Guidostift, the Klara Monastery, the Dominican Monastery, the Franciscan Monastery, the St. Magdalena Monastery, the Augustinian Monastery, the Jesuit Church, St. George, St. Stephan, the All Saints Monastery and finally also, provisionally, St. John. However, all existing churches and monasteries were dissolved and nationalized as a result of the French Revolution. This so-called national property, which also included the church ruins, was eventually sold and often later demolished. Only the Guidostift, the Dominican monastery (St. Ludwig), the St. Magdalena monastery, the Aegidia church and the cathedral were not torn down and have been preserved to this day.
The Bernhardskirche (1953 to 1954), which was built as a Franco-German peace church, is located near the train station .
The churches of St. Konrad and the Christ Church were built for the Speyer-Nord district , St. Otto and St. Hedwig for Speyer-West (meanwhile converted to the Quartiersmensa Q + H) as well as the Protestant Johanneskirche and for Speyer-Süd the Church of the Resurrection .
The three Catholic women's convents (St. Magdalena Monastery, the Carmel and the St. Dominic Institute founded by Nikolaus von Weis ) and the Protestant deaconesses have their own churches.
The first synagogue in Speyer was in the Jewish quarter of the suburb of Altspeyer. After severe attacks on the Jews in 1096, during which the bishop took in the Jews, a new Jewish quarter was built in the immediate vicinity of the cathedral in the area of today's Judengasse and Kleine Pfaffengasse. It had a synagogue built by the Dombauhütte and a mikveh , a ritual Jewish bath, built in the 12th century . The congregation, to which The Wise Men of Speyer also belonged, was at that time one of the most important congregations of the Holy Roman Empire and, with Worms and Mainz, formed an association known as ShUM cities . Despite the imperial privileges, the Speyer community was repeatedly the victim of riots and pogroms in which Jews were murdered and Jewish property was destroyed. The synagogue in Altspeyer fell victim to the pogrom of 1195. After further pogroms, Rudolf von Habsburg ordered the sovereigns to confiscate the property of fugitive Jews. On January 22, 1349, the Jewish community was completely destroyed as a result of the most severe pogrom to date. Survivors returned a few years later and after further expulsions built a new community from 1354, which was dissolved again in 1435. A few years later they were finally allowed to return, but had to adhere to strict regulations. In 1529 at the latest, this community had also disappeared. In 1544, Emperor Charles V issued the " Great Speyr Jews' Privilege", with which he returned the privileges to the Jews. This enabled the creation of a new Jewish community, which was dissolved in 1688. When the city was rebuilt after 1689, houses were built in the ruins of the synagogue. A Jewish community only re-existed since the French Revolution. In 1837 the community received a new synagogue, which was built on the site of the former St. Jacob's Church. This synagogue was finally destroyed during the Night of the Pogroms in 1938 , and the Jewish community wiped out in the Holocaust . The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the Victims of the National Socialist Persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 95 Jewish residents of Speyer who were deported and mostly murdered . In 1996 a new Jewish community was finally founded. In addition, the ruins of the medieval synagogue were uncovered in 1998/1999 and the so-called “ Judenhof ” was set up on the area around the synagogue and mikveh, which is the oldest completely preserved German mikveh . In the building in front of the Judenhof, the SchPIRA museum was finally opened on November 9, 2010 . On November 9, 2011, the synagogue Beith-Schalom (House of Peace) with the associated community center of the Jewish community of the Rhine Palatinate was opened. It was built in the former St. Guido Church and is the fourth synagogue since the existence of Jewish communities in Speyer.
Historical Museum of the Palatinate
The Historical Museum of the Palatinate has prehistoric, Roman, medieval and modern exhibits from the region, in particular remains of the old cathedral furnishings and the cathedral treasure and one of the most important finds of the Bronze Age, the golden hat found near Schifferstadt , richly decorated with circular ornaments Gold embossed cult cone. In addition, the museum regularly shows large cultural-historical special exhibitions, some of which are shown in other locations after their end in Speyer.
Not far from the town center is the Technik Museum Speyer , which a very large number of technical feats in particular from the automotive and aircraft, including the highly visible Boeing 747 -230 "Schleswig-Holstein" and the prototype OK-GLI the Russian space shuttle Buran shows .
Permanent exhibitions in their respective birth houses are dedicated to the oeuvre of two important sons of the city: Anselm Feuerbach (1829–1880) in the Feuerbachhaus and Hans Purrmann (1880–1966) in the Purrmann-Haus . A nationally recognized award from the city of Speyer for fine arts is dedicated to the latter.
The SchPIRA Museum presents archaeological exhibits from Speyer's Jewish life in the Middle Ages . With the neighboring Judenhof the three most important pillars of the Jewish community can be visited, synagogue, cemetery and mikveh .
Mardi Gras Museum
In the carnival museum in the watch tower on Wormser Landstrasse, the foolish goings-on in the region is documented on four tower floors.
Museum in the bridge house
In the museum in the Brückenhaus , the former toll and administration building of the ship bridge that existed from 1865 to 1938, the shipbuilders, skippers and fishermen's association shows ship models, devices and documents from shipbuilding, navigation on the Rhine and fishing in Speyer from the beginnings to the present.
Libraries and Archives
- Speyer is the location of the Palatinate State Library , with around one million academic books, 110,000 sheet music, around 700 manuscripts, 150 incunabula and around 100 estate holdings, the largest library in the region. Since 1947 it has had the right to deposit copies for the then administrative district of Palatinate.
- The library of the German University of Administrative Sciences, a reference library, holds 315,000 volumes on the subjects of state and administration, making it the largest special administrative library in Germany.
- The Episcopal Seminary St. German maintains a library with around 200,000 volumes.
- The library and media center of the Evangelical Church of the Palatinate has around 100,000 volumes.
- The municipality itself maintains the city library in Villa Kirrmeier-Ecarius with around 96,000 media.
- In addition, Speyer has the Bibliothèque Française Speyer e. V. which offers around 3500 media in French. In addition, the Bibliothèque française regularly organizes readings with French-speaking authors.
As an archive location, Speyer has four archives: the Landesarchiv Speyer , the central archive of the Evangelical Church of the Palatinate , the Catholic diocese archive and the oldest municipal archive in the Palatinate , the Speyer city archive .
The city of Speyer has had a children's and youth theater since 1990 .
Theater, musicals and other stage performances were offered under the title Theater in der Stadthalle by a private organizer, to whom the hall was made available on favorable terms.
In the town hall, the Zimmer Theater Speyer offers plays, cabaret and cabaret.
Art, music, events, entertainment
From August to October every year, the "International Music Days Speyer Cathedral" are organized by the Speyer Cathedral Chapter and the City of Speyer. In addition to the “International Speyer Cathedral Organ Competition”, the program also includes symphony concerts and evenings with chamber music and sacred music. This festival was brought into being in 1980 when the international organ competition started on the occasion of the 950th anniversary of the laying of the foundation stone of the Speyer Cathedral. From this, the artistic director, the former cathedral music director Leo Krämer, developed the "International Speyer Cathedral Music Days" with the "International Speyer Cathedral Organ Competition" embedded in it. His successor, Domkapellmeister Markus Melchiori , continues the music days every year and is also the artistic director.
The city has the "Music and Culture Center Halle 101", sponsored by the Rockmusikerverein Speyer e. V. founded in 1992, through one of the largest voluntary institutions in the field of rock music / promoting young talent in Germany. Awarded the 2003 honorary award of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, Hall 101 is the antithesis of the traditional tourist addresses in Speyer. Concerts from groups such as Saga, Manfred Mann, Nazareth, Sven Väth, Jadakiss, parties for schoolchildren and student groups, but especially the promotion of young musicians, determine the program.
The traditional Speyer pretzel festival takes place on the second weekend in July (Friday to Tuesday) . It is considered the largest festival on the Upper Rhine. On the second weekend in August, the Kaisertafel will be set up along the entire length of Maximilianstrasse . Two other smaller folk festivals are the spring and autumn fair. The second festive highlight of the year is the Old Town Festival, which takes place annually on the second weekend in September in the alleys north of the cathedral.
In the run-up to Christmas, a Christmas market is held on the old market between the cathedral and the Alter Münz. The cathedral is particularly festively illuminated during this time.
The house of the Badisch-Palatinate Carnival is the meeting point, museum and archive of the Association of Badisch-Palatinate Carnival Associations .
Every year at Easter, the Satanic Stomp in Speyer is the largest Psychobilly Festival in Germany.
In 2006 the association Kulturhaus Pablo e. V. founded. It sees itself as a universal cultural site for children and young people in Speyer. The association is a member of the LAG Soziokultur & Kulturpädagogik e. V. in Rhineland-Palatinate.
In Speyer there are 17 large playing fields, eight of them by clubs, 14 small playing fields, seven of them by clubs, 13 football fields, eight gymnastics fields, four of them by clubs, 24 tennis courts, two tennis halls, 14 bowling alleys, four jetties for boats, two marinas, three Riding arenas, three riding arenas, a shooting range, a fitness facility, a mini golf course, a skate park, a mini pipe, an indoor swimming pool and connected to it an outdoor swimming pool as well as an aviation facility. In 2004, 13,937 members were organized in 47 sports clubs.
One club is the Judo Sports Club Speyer , whose judo group has great national and international success (several German champions). The competitive sport is directed by the former Hungarian women's national coach Ference Nemeth. The men's team and the women's team are currently in the 1st Judo-Bundesliga South. In December 2012 the Judo Sports Center Speyer (officially: Judomaxx) was opened as a state performance center at the location of the old indoor swimming pool. This hall belongs to the city, but the JSV has a long-term rental agreement for the use of the hall, in which, in addition to competitions that were previously held in the East Sports Hall, normal training and various leisure activities are carried out. The basketball team BIS Baskets Speyer plays in the Pro B . Home games are played in the Nord-Halle Speyer. Since 2005 the women of SG Towers Speyer-Schifferstadt have played in the 2nd women's basketball league.
The most famous football club, FV Speyer , merged with VfR Speyer to form FC Speyer 09 in 2009 .
The swimmer Thomas Ligl , a member of the water sports club Speyer (WSV), was two-time world champion of the Masters in the 50 m, 100 m and 200 m breaststroke in 2004 and became the city's athlete of the year due to further sporting successes in 1984, 1990, 2001 and 2004 . Since 1987 he holds the German record in the age group 25 over 100 m chest on the 50 m track. His world record has since been beaten.
In 2008, Speyer was the first city to win in the nationwide Mission Olympic city competition , in which “Germany's most active city” is sought.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Speyer generated a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 2.523 billion within the city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 50,042 (Rhineland-Palatinate: € 34,118, Germany € 38,180). The GDP per labor force is € 64,387. In 2017, around 39,200 people were employed in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 5.3% and thus above the average for Rhineland-Palatinate of 4.1%.
In 2009 there were 22,758 people in jobs subject to social insurance contributions in Speyer (after 22,050 in 1999).
In the Future Atlas 2016, the urban district of Speyer was ranked 95th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and urban districts in Germany, making it one of the places with “future opportunities”.
In 2009, the manufacturing industry employed around 20.8 percent of employees subject to social security contributions. The following sectors exist in Speyer:
- Electrical industry, especially a large plant belonging to the TE Connectivity Group (formerly Siemens ).
- Aircraft construction, especially PFW Aerospace GmbH as well as the manufacturer of ultralight aircraft, FK light aircraft
- Vehicle construction supplier, especially a large factory of Mann + Hummel GmbH (in addition to air filters for vehicles, also industrial filters)
- Mechanical engineering, especially Loeser GmbH
- Chemistry, especially a Thor Chemie plant and the Haltermann specialty refinery
- Insulating materials, especially a large Saint-Gobain ISOVER G + H plant for the production of insulating material from glass fibers and a Pan-Isovit AG plant.
- Media, etc. a. the Klambt media group
The trade, hospitality and transport sector employed around 23 percent of all employees subject to social security contributions in 2009, while a further 55.8 percent of those employed were employed in other services.
In January 2011 there were a total of 459 retail and shop floor workplaces in Speyer with a sales area of 135,970 m² and a turnover of approx. 427.4 million euros. They were broken down by industry as follows:
- Food, beverages and tobacco 122 businesses with around 30,890 m² total sales area
- Non-food 337 businesses with approx. 105,080 m² total sales area
- 35 health and personal care businesses with 6945 m² sales area
- 18 companies flowers, plants, zoo with 4915 m² sales area
- 30 businesses books, stationery and toys with 3555 m² sales area
- 90 companies shoes clothing sports with 26,215 m² sales area
- 35 electrical goods companies with 4655 m² sales area
- 54 Operate household goods, equipment, furniture with 24,650 m² sales area
- 20 companies in building, gardening and home improvement with 27,840 m² sales area
- 32 companies optics, watches, jewelry with 1760 m² sales area
- 23 other retail businesses with 4555 m² sales area
The largest individual businesses are the Kaufhof with around 8180 m² and the C&A clothing store with around 2100 m². The 19 largest stores achieved sales of 101 million euros.
The trade in Speyer is heavily concentrated on the city center as the central supply area and there especially on Maximilianstrasse (main street and pedestrian zone) and immediate side streets on the one hand and Auestrasse between Speyer-Nord and Speyer-Ost with mainly large-scale businesses on the other. There is a smaller concentration between Speyer-West and the railway line. In November 2012, the Postgalerie Speyer opened in the building of the former post office building on the edge of the pedestrian zone.
Tourism has grown rapidly in Speyer in recent years .
In 2017, 153,297 guests stayed in 46 establishments, with 259,007 overnight stays. The average length of stay was 1.69 days. After 3019 tours in 2010, the Tourist Information arranged 3324 tours in 2011. After 87,292 guests in 2010, 98,175 guests were advised in 2011. In 2011, 28,337 visitors climbed the old gate , after 25,773 in 2010; 24,580 visited the Judenhof.
Authorities and institutions
Numerous administrative bodies, regionally and nationally important authorities and institutions are based in Speyer:
- German Research Institute for Public Administration Speyer
- German pension insurance Rhineland-Palatinate
- Evangelical Church of the Palatinate (Protestant State Church)
- Speyer-Germersheim tax office
- Catholic Episcopal Ordinariate Speyer (Catholic Diocesan Administration)
- State Office for Mobility Speyer (LBM Speyer)
- Agricultural investigation and research institute Speyer
- Rhineland-Palatinate Pedagogical Institute of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
- Rhineland-Palatinate Court of Auditors ,
- Social insurance for agriculture, forestry and horticulture (SVLFG), Speyer location
- Association of German agricultural testing and research institutes
Responsible in civil matters are sorted by subject-matter and dispute the district court Speyer or the District Court of Frankenthal . In arches as appellate court , the Higher Regional Court Zweibrücken .
The competent court in disputes under public law is the Neustadt an der Weinstrasse Administrative Court . Legal recourse to the Ludwigshafen Labor Court has been opened in labor law disputes . In social law cases , the Speyer Social Court is responsible.
The Deaconesses Speyer-Mannheim are responsible for the largest regional hospital ( Diakonissen-Stiftungs-Krankenhaus, short: Deaconesses) and other facilities in and around Speyer. In 1859 the first deaconesses in Speyer began their work as a Christian minister. Today the deaconesses are an important employer for 2,500 people in many fields of work: hospitals, kindergartens and after-school care centers, youth welfare measures, work for the disabled, old people's homes and hospices. The Diakonissenanstalt has also taken over a traditional Speyer facility with the foundation hospital. The second hospital in Speyer is the St. Vincentius Hospital (short: Vincenc) run by the Sisters of the Divine Redeemer (Niederbronn Sisters ). This can look back on over 100 years of tradition. The two hospitals complement each other in their spectrum: for example, vascular surgery, pediatrics and gynecology in the Deaconess Foundation Hospital, trauma surgery and urology in "Vincenz".
The Speyer volunteer fire brigade belongs to department 2 (safety, order, environment, civil services, traffic) of the city. The fire brigade includes around 110 volunteer and around 30 full-time firefighters, who are spread over two locations: the main station with the operations center on Industriestrasse and station 2 (north) on Viehtrieftstrasse. The voluntary fire brigade has existed in Speyer since 1848, and the “municipal fire fighting facility” has also existed since the Middle Ages. In 1860 the city passed a new fire extinguishing code and united both organizations.
Speyer has a larger catchment area with its general and vocational schools. Three state schools (the Gymnasium am Kaiserdom (GAK), the Hans-Purrmann -Gymnasium (HPG) and the Friedrich-Magnus fword -Gymnasium (FMSG)) and two religious schools (which Nikolaus von Weis -Gymnasium and Edith -Stein-Gymnasium ), each with an affiliated Realschule plus, the integrated comprehensive school in the Georg-Friedrich-Kolb -Schulzentrum as well as the State Palatinate College and Evening Gymnasium Speyer lead to higher education entrance qualifications. In addition, there are a number of vocational, technical and technical colleges.
The importance of Speyer as a school town is shown by the following figures: In 2007/08 there were 9.18 million students in general education schools nationwide, which corresponded to a population share of around 11.2%. This year, 8,710 students went to school in Speyer; this corresponded to a share of about 17.5% of the Speyer population. The distribution of the individual types of qualifications compared to the national average is also interesting. What stands out in Speyer is the high proportion of qualifications that lead to a university entrance qualification, at 49.5%. There is only one city in the region that just exceeds this value, namely Heidelberg with 49.9%. This value is not exceeded again in West Germany and only three times in East Germany.
higher education entrance qualification
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Speyer is the seat of a post-university educational institution, the German University for Administrative Sciences Speyer , the only training center of its kind for the entire higher administrative service in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Biking and hiking trails
There are cycle paths along the Rhine, from Bruchsal to Speyer and from Speyer to Neustadt an der Weinstrasse . Speyer is a classic starting point for the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela , the revival of which was strongly promoted by the diocese of Speyer .
Local public transport (ÖPNV)
Speyer is part of the Rhein-Neckar transport association (VRN). Since the introduction of the RheinNeckar S-Bahn , lines S 3/4 have been running from Speyer main station and via the Speyer-Nord / West stop every half hour in the direction of Mannheim Hbf , a major long-distance traffic hub that can be reached in 25 minutes. In Schifferstadt there is a connection to the S 1/2 to Neustadt and Kaiserslautern. In addition, the S-Bahn, which was extended beyond Speyer to Germersheim at the end of 2006, provides a connection to Karlsruhe and Bruchsal . In addition, another S-Bahn stop is planned with Speyer Süd , the construction project should start in 2019 and be finished by 2021.
The regional express, which runs every two hours, reaches Karlsruhe in 40 minutes and Mainz in 60 minutes. In addition, several regional trains stop in Speyer every day with the destinations Ludwigshafen BASF and Wörth (Rhine) .
The Speyer city bus service is in the hands of DB Regio Bus Südwest GmbH. These serve the city bus routes 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569. The Verkehrsbetriebe Speyer (VBS) are only responsible for the road-bound infrastructure facilities of the public transport in Speyer. These include stops, waiting halls and the bus station (ZOB) on the north side of the main station.
Bus lines 572 (towards Ludwigshafen and Germersheim), 507 (towards Neustadt), and 717 (towards Heidelberg) provide connections to the surrounding area, including the right bank of the Rhine.
In 2011, Speyer had the most road accidents in Germany in relation to the number of inhabitants.
Speyer has a direct connection to the federal road and motorway network. The cities of Ludwigshafen am Rhein and Mannheim in the north and Karlsruhe in the south can be reached in around 20 minutes via the B 9 , which limits the development of the city to the west. The federal motorway 61 , coming from the German-Dutch border from the north-west, crosses the northernmost part of the city and leads over the Rhine to the A 6 at the Hockenheim motorway triangle ; There are junctions in the north on the B 9 and in the east on the B 39. In addition, the B 39 runs through the city to Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, 20 km to the west . The B 9 has four lanes, both federal roads are free of intersections and have seven exits on the Speyer district. Because of the undestroyed Schwetzingen Forest in between, Heidelberg, a good 30 kilometers to the east, can be reached in about 35 minutes.
Speyer is located on the Rhine and has a port for mineral oil products in the south (for the tank farm and the special refinery), the Braun shipyard with the southern marina and to the east of the Dompark moorings for passenger ships. The classic (old) port east of the old town, in which mainly grain, gravel, building materials and scrap were handled recently, was closed and converted into a marina. There is also a commercial aquarium belonging to the SeaLife Group, which shows fish from the source streams of the Rhine to the North Sea. In summer there are daily trips with two excursion boats permanently stationed in Speyer. In summer, a passenger ferry to Rheinhausen is operated at times in the far south of the district .
The international airports in Frankfurt and Stuttgart can be reached in just over an hour. Domestic flights can be reached via Mannheim Airport , which is around 20 km away. The Speyer airfield is classified as a commercial airfield and after the expansion in 2011 has the longest runway in the region. Users are mainly company jets and a very active aviation club. The expansion was u. a. fiercely controversial due to the protection of the nearby alluvial forest.
In Speyer, the Speyerer Rundschau has been published as a daily newspaper since 1952 as a local edition of the newspaper Die Rheinpfalz and since January 2, 2003 the Speyerer Morgenpost . The Schwetzinger Zeitung across the Rhine also brings local news from Speyer on weekdays. The Speyerer Tagespost was also published from 1952 to December 31, 2002 .
Since 1848, the Pilger , the church newspaper of the Speyer diocese, has been published weekly with diocese and local news.
In addition to the established internet newspaper speyer-aktuell , the Speyer-Kurier has been published since April 2011 .
Famous personalities from Speyer include the alchemist Johann Joachim Becher , the painter Anselm Feuerbach , the neurologist, epileptologist and university professor Dieter Janz , the general Karl Becker , the organist Ludwig Doerr , the visual artist and university professor Eberhard Bosslet , the writer and university professor Thomas Lehr , the athlete Christian Reif , as well as the trumpeter Helmut Erb , the football player from Mönchengladbach Lars Stindl and the basketball player Elias Harris .
Since 1832 the city of Speyer has granted honorary citizenship to 20 people. It honors those people who have made an outstanding contribution to the cathedral city.
- Kathrin Hopstock, Sigrid Werner (arr.): Sources on the history of Speyer. Books, certificates, pictures. A selection from the holdings of the city archive and the city library. Published by the Speyer City Archives and Speyer City Library, Speyer 1990, (published on the occasion of the exhibition of the same name for the 2000th anniversary of the city of Speyer in the city library on January 14, 1990).
- Hans Ammerich : Small history of the city of Speyer. G. Braun Buchverlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-7650-8367-9 .
- Daniela Blum: Multi-denomination in everyday life. Speyer between political peace and seriousness of faith (1555–1618). Aschendorff, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-402-11586-2 .
- Christiane Brodersen, Klaus Bümlein, Christine Lauer (Eds.): Dreihund Jahre Dreifaltigkeitskirche Speyer (published by the Palatinate Church History 33 ). Ludwigshafen (Rhein), Speyer 2017, ISBN 978-3-938031-74-2 (including numerous articles on the city's history in general).
- Wolfgang Eger (Red.): History of the city of Speyer. Volume 1-3. Published by the city of Speyer. Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1982–1989, ISBN 3-17-007522-5 .
- Wolfgang Eger : Speyer street names. A lexicon. Hermann G. Klein Verlag, Speyer 1985, ISBN 3-921797-08-X .
- Sabine Happ: City development on the Middle Rhine. The leadership groups from Speyer, Worms and Koblenz until the end of the 13th century. Böhlau-Verlag, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-412-12901-1 .
- Fritz Klotz: Speyer, a small city history (= contributions to the Speyer city history. Issue 2). District group Speyer of the Historical Association of the Palatinate, 1971 (several editions).
- Christoph Lehmann : Chronica of the free realm city of Speyer. First edition. Rose / Hoffmann, Frankfurt am Main 1612 ( urn : nbn: de: 0128-1-22769 , facsimile in dilibri Rhineland-Palatinate ).
- Christoph Lehmann: Chronica of the free imperial city Speier. Oehrling, Frankfurt am Main 1698, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-8939 (facsimile in ULB Düsseldorf ; for further editions see the article on the author).
- Ferdinand Schlickel : Speyer. From the Salians to today. 1000 years of city history. Hermann G. Klein Verlag, Speyer 2000, ISBN 3-921797-60-8 .
- City of Speyer and the State Office for the Preservation of Monuments, Dept. Archaeological Preservation of Monuments, Office Speyer (Ed.): Under the plaster of Speyer. Archaeological excavations from 1987 to 1989. Verlag der Zechner Buchdruckerei in Speyer, Speyer 1989, ISBN 3-87928-894-1 .
- Carl Weiss: History of the city of Speier. Gilardone, Speyer 1876 ( urn : nbn: de: 0128-1-5972 , facsimile in dilibri Rhineland-Palatinate ).
- Johannes Bruno : Fates of Speyer Jews 1800–1980 (= series of publications of the city of Speyer. Volume 12). 2000, .
- Johannes Bruno, Lenelotte Möller (ed.): The Speyerer Judenhof and the medieval community. Speyer Tourist Office. Speyer 2001.
- Johannes Bruno: The Wise Men of Speyer or Jewish Scholars of the Middle Ages (= series of publications of the city of Speyer. Volume 14). 2004, .
- Johannes P. Bruno, Eberhard Dittus: Jewish life in Speyer. Invitation to a tour (= places of Jewish culture ). Edited by the Peace and Environment Office of the Evangelical Church of the Palatinate , Speyer, and the German-Israeli Society , Working Group Pfalz / Speyer. Media and dialogue, Schubert, Haigerloch 2004, ISBN 3-933231-28-0 .
- Johannes P. Bruno: The memorial for the Jewish victims of the Nazi persecution 1933-1945 (= series of publications of the city of Speyer. Volume 16). Edited by the Speyer city administration. City administration, Speyer 2008, .
- Wolfgang Hartwich: Population structure and resettlement of Speyers after the destruction of 1689 (= Fritz Ernst , Karl Kollnig , Erich Maschke [Hrsg.]: Heidelberg publications on regional history and regional studies. Volume 10). Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg 1965, (Diss., Heidelberg).
- Regional church council of the Evangelical Church of the Palatinate (ed.): Heritage and order. The Speyer Memorial Church in the stream of Protestant remembrance culture. regional culture publisher, Ubstadt-Weiher 2004, ISBN 3-89735-277-X .
- Hermann W. Morweiser: From the anti-fascist resistance in Speyer. In cooperation with the Antifa archive, Ludwigshafen. VVN Association of Antifascists, Speyer 1983, .
- Hubert Neumann: Social discipline in the imperial city of Speyer in the 16th century (= history in context. Volume 3). Gardez! Verlag, St. Augustin 1997, ISBN 3-928624-59-8 .
- The geology of Speyer is recorded and represented in the geological overview map 1: 200 000, sheet CC 7110 Mannheim of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Raw Materials .
- City of Speyer
- State Archeology Speyer of the General Directorate for Cultural Heritage Rhineland-Palatinate
- Literature by and about Speyer in the catalog of the German National Library
- Literature about Speyer in the Rhineland-Palatinate State Bibliography
- Link catalog about Speyer at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate - population status 2019, districts, communities, association communities ( help on this ).
- Bavarian, Bavarian or Bavarian ??? In: bairische-sprache.at. Marc Giegerich, July 23, 2012, accessed on August 11, 2013 .
- History of the City of Speyer. Volume 1. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-17-007522-5 .
- The identity of the dead in this type of princely grave is impossible to define, which is why the archaeologists have given the name "Untersiebenbrunngruppe". See Untersiebenbrunn .
- 900 years of civil liberty ( memento from December 16, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). In: speyer.de, accessed on January 18, 2017.
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- History of the city of Speyer. Volume 1. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-17-007522-5 , p. 488.
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