The Alans ( Greek Ἀλανοί Alanoí , Latin Alanī , Halanī ; from Iranian Aryanam , cf. Ossetian allon "legendary people of the early days") were an Iranian equestrian people , an eastern branch of the Sarmatians . They existed as a tribal association much longer than the other Sarmatian tribes and later also took on other cultural elements.
The Alans nomadized from the 2nd century BC. In northern Kazakhstan and northeast of the Caspian Sea , but moved to the southern Russian steppes between the Volga , Don and the Caucasus under pressure from more eastern nomadic associations , such as the Xiongnu , from the middle of the 1st century AD . After the Huns conquered their steppe empire in the 4th century, some of them joined the Huns on their expeditions to the west and later took part in the so-called migration of the peoples , while the rest of them stayed in the North Caucasus and the foothills of the Caucasus .
Alanian warrior associations and their families took part in the Great Migration in two, later three groups. One joined the Visigoths and eventually settled with them in southern Gaul . The better-known group joined the Vandals and founded a brief tribal empire of Roman federations in northern Gaul , which were involved in the victory over the Huns in the battle of the Catalaunian fields . Even before this battle, some of them had split off and moved with the Vandals and Suebi to the Iberian Peninsula , where a brief Alan empire also developed in the south. After its destruction by the Visigoths, this third group moved with the Vandals to North Africa . All Alans who settled in Gaul, Iberia and Africa were soon absorbed by the local population and only place names ( Alenquer (Portugal) ) and legends are reminiscent of them.
Those Alans who remained in the North Caucasus foothills, on the other hand, formed an organized kingdom in the early Middle Ages up to the 9th century with a mostly sedentary, probably not only Iranian-speaking population. In addition, medieval sources document smaller Alanic groups in the Crimea and initially also in central Ukraine . The upper class of the Caucasian Kingdom of Alania was partially Christianized and the country only went under in the Mongol storm in the 13th century. These Alans are linguistic forerunners of the Ossetians living in the Caucasus today . In addition, the Jassen who fled to Hungary and neighboring countries in the 13th century can probably be traced back to Caucasian Alans.
Ancient sub-tribe of the Sarmatians
Around 44–35 BC The Xiongnu prince Chih-chih, fleeing from the Chinese army , settled on the Tschüi and raised tribute from the neighboring steppe tribes to the Jan-tsai (= Alans) and other neighboring groups (Hu-chich , Imil, Ch'ien-k'u and even in Sogdia ) until he was 35 BC. Was killed by the Chinese. The steady, westward pressure from the east led in the 1st century AD to the migration of part of the Alans from the region northeast of the Caspian Sea to today's southern Russia, while another part submitted to the neighboring Kang-kü in Sogdia .
Nomadic also north of the Caucasus since the late 1st century AD , the Alans undertook raids from there and from their old seats on the east side of the Caspian Sea through the Parthian Empire and to Media , Armenia and Asia Minor . In 137 AD they invaded the Roman province of Cappadocia , but were defeated by the governor Arrian .
In the service of the Romans , many Sarmatian mercenaries came to Gaul and Britain , where they also established settlements. Even in the early Middle Ages , many French and Breton nobles were proud of their legendary Alan-Roman origins. Sarmatians also lived in Anatolia , Constantinople and even in the Hunsrück . These mercenaries were often not Alans from the North Caucasus and the Caspian Sea, but other Sarmatians, especially Jazygens and Roxolans from the border regions of the Roman Empire, who were later mistakenly equated with the Alans from the east, who became known during the Migration Period.
Alans in the Migration Period
Around 374 the Alans were defeated and subdued by invading Huns . A large part temporarily joined the Huns on their migrations to the west. These Alans took part in the great migration . Another part remained north of the Caucasus.
The majority of the Alans from Pannonia fell away from the Huns, joined the Vandals , Suebi and Burgundians in 406 on the march across the Rhine 406 and were settled as federates in the service of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul . Your tribal kings on this hike were called Respendial and Goar . An Alan tribal empire existed for a short time in the vicinity of Orléans . A large part of these Alans joined the Vandals and Suebi migrations to the Iberian Peninsula in 409, where they settled in the central south in the Roman province of Lusitania and east of it. The remaining Alans in Gaul still had to settle in 451 under their tribal king Sangiban , the successor of Goar, due to their alliance obligations with Rome in addition to the Visigoths and others. take part in the battle on the Catalaunian fields , in which the legendary King of the Huns Attila was defeated by his opponent Aëtius with great losses. This Alan empire was conquered shortly afterwards (after 451) by the Visigoths , the former allies against Attila.
In the south of the Iberian Peninsula, the Alans, who immigrated with the Vandals and Suebi, formed another Alan empire for a few years under Respendial's successor to King Attace . This Alan empire was conquered by Wallia , king of the Visigoths, in 417 . As a result, in 429, the majority of the Iberian Alans joined the Hasding Vandals on the journey to North Africa. Since the Vandal King Hunerich they belonged directly to the Vandal Kings, who from now on carried the title Rex Vandalorum et Alanorum (King of the Vandals and Alans). One hundred years later, this North African empire was conquered in the Vandal War of 533-34 by the Byzantine general Belisarius .
The second group on the lower Danube under King Candac entered into alliances with the Visigoths ; in the Battle of Adrianople in 378, armored Alanian cataphracts were involved in the Goths' victory over the Romans. The majority of these Alans joined the migrations of the Visigoths across the Balkan Peninsula and Italy to southern Gaul and eventually settled in northern Italy and southern Gaul , especially in the upper Rhone and neighboring Alpine regions and on both sides of the eastern Pyrenees .
Almost all the settled Alanic groups, with the exception of those in the Crimea and in the Caucasus, were no longer described in sources as early as the Middle Ages. Apparently they were absorbed by the larger neighboring populations within a few centuries. But a legendary memory of the Alans and Sarmatians remained.
After the period of migration was Alani cavalry from the north of the Caucasus as a mercenary frequently in Byzantine services, Muslim Alans (Arsiyah) in Khazar services. When the Kievan Rus were formed , the Alans probably played an important role as the warrior elite in the south of the empire around Kiev .
From the 13th century to 1475 there was the Principality of Theodoro in the Crimea , which was part of the Byzantine Empire and was based among others on the Alan population. These Alans in the Crimea were mentioned in sources until the 16th century. After that, like other settled regional groups of the Alans, they were absorbed by the surrounding population.
In the 9th century at the latest, the state of Alania emerged in the North Caucasus , and a few decades later it was partially Christianized by Byzantine missionaries . Here, too, the initially nomadic Alans began to settle down. When exactly Alania went from a tribal union with tribal kings to an organized kingdom is difficult to clarify, at the latest in the 9th / 10th. Century. According to the Georgian historian Wachuschti Bagrationi or Batonishvili in the 18th century, who used older sources, a branch line of the Georgian Bagratids is said to have ruled Alania since the 11th century . According to the Muslim geographers Al-Mas'udi and Ahmad ibn Rustah, there were over a hundred villages and several cities, castles and fortresses in Alania, some of which were later archaeologically examined.
With the invasion of the Mongols in the 13th century, this Alanian kingdom was smashed. As a result, around 1237 several thousand Alans - together with around 40,000 Kyptschaks (also called Kumans or Kunok in Hungarian ) - fled from the Mongols to Hungary . In the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county (Jaß-Großkumanien-Sollnock) with the main town Jászberény they formed the ethnic group of the Jász (Jassen, Assen "Hungarian Alans"). Some of the Jassen also fled to areas east of the Carpathian Mountains, e.g. B. the name of the eastern Romanian city of Iași is traced back to them. Their language was superseded around the 16th century, but their autonomous privileges in Hungary alongside those of the Cumans only in the 19th century. Another part of the Caucasian Alans joined the Mongol Empire , according to Giovanni de Marignollis and Wilhelm von Rubruks , who described several thousand Alans in Mongolian service. A third part fled higher into the Caucasus.
Linguistic successors of the Alans still live in the North Caucasus: the Ossetian people . This new name comes from the medieval Georgian name for the Alan population in the Caucasus.
Culture, economy and society
The Alans were originally a horse people , the nomadic rare, semi-nomadic as a cattle herder living in the southern Russian steppes, where they sheep, goats, cattle and horses were careful. The Alans mostly lived in yurts and on wagons (see also: Wagenburg ) and moved with their herds to other pasture areas as soon as the land was eroded. The Alans lived mainly on dairy products (cheese, yogurt , kefir ) and meat. In the course of contact with the Bosporan Empire , the Romans and in the course of the Great Migration, the Alans settled in some regions, including the Kuban , the Caucasus , the Crimea , around Kiev, in Hungary , in northern Italy , in Catalonia , in Portugal and Tunisia .
Typical of Alanian art are the intertwined animal patterns of the Scythian-Sarmatian animal style , which shaped the art of the Germanic migration period among the Alans, first among the Goths , then among the Vandals and finally among the Merovingian Franks . The practice of skull deformation is also known from Alanian graves during the Migration Period .
Alanian warriors were armed with a Scythian reflex bow , a long double-edged sword (the so-called Sarmatian long sword ), a dagger and a lance (often of the Contus type). Heavily armored cataphracts were not quite as common among the Alans as with the other Sarmatian tribes; the Alans fought more often than light lancers. A typical Alanian combat tactic was simulated flight and the Parthian shot . In contrast to the Sarmatians (see also: Amazons ), there is no evidence that the Alans also fought women.
Like many nomadic peoples, the Alans had a largely or completely writtenless culture in their nomadic times in antiquity. Only a few linguistic monuments have survived from the sedentary period in the Middle Ages, which at least suggests that little was written during this period. However, three language certificates on the medieval Alanic language have survived:
- A Christian tombstone from the 10th century on the site of Nizhny Archys (Nižnij Archyz), one of the cities of Caucasian Alania, on the Great Zelenchuk , the so-called Zelenchuk inscription. The name of the deceased, his fatherly ancestors up to the fourth generation and a few other reminder words are written on it in Greek script according to a Christian blessing formula.
- The Byzantine scholar Johannes Tzetzes handed down two sentences in the “Language of the Alans” in his scholias on “ Theogony ” in the 12th century , which he translated into Greek.
- In 1958, a manuscript from 1422 was discovered in the Hungarian National Széchényi Library , which contains a vocabulary glossary with 40 mostly agricultural vocabulary on the "language of the Jász " with a Latin, rarely Hungarian translation.
All three cases are identified as older forms ( Alto Ossetian , ISO 639: 3 [oos]) of the less widespread, more conservative Digoric dialect of the Ossetian language ( spoken today by 21% of the Ossetians mainly in western North Ossetia-Alania ).
In addition, there are studies of ancient names, not only Scythian and Sarmatian tribes, tribal kings and gods, which mention Herodotus and several other historical sources , but also extensive name material from the Greek cities on the north coast of the Black Sea, where not only Herodotus is mentioned, but also archaeologically it is certain that Greek inhabitants lived there with Scythian and Sarmatian traders, mercenaries and craftsmen. All names were selected that are not of Greek origin. Almost 80% of the names explained themselves with old (northeast) Iranian meanings. The other names either cannot be clarified or their bearers were of different origins. In addition to the research into the Sakian language , these discoveries and other place names led to the realization as early as the 19th century that Iranian languages had a central position in the first millennium BC and still around the turn of the times in Eastern European and large western parts of the Central Asian steppes, in contrast to later times had.
Legacies and personalities
The Alans are associated with the Ossetians, who now settle in the Central Caucasus . Elsewhere in Europe there is only sparse evidence. The first names Alan , Alain , Alanus , Alanis , the last name FitzAlan could refer to the Alans. The name of the famous Polish light cavalry , the Uhlans , may come from the Alans, who were once famous throughout early medieval Europe for their lancers and were recruited as mercenaries. These etymologies are controversial.
The Alaunt was a hunting dog breed that was widespread in the Middle Ages and is now extinct, probably descended from Alanian shepherd dogs or war dogs. Eventually the Alano Español and some other large breeds of dogs were bred from it.
Several place and field names such as Allainville or Alaincourt may still indicate the previous presence of Alans in France . They occur in the area of the middle Loire , the upper Rhone- Alps and the upper Garonne- East Pyrenees , i.e. in precisely those regions in which the settlement of Alans has been proven during the migration period. Also in the south of Portugal and Spain some names probably go back to the Alans, like Alenquer . The fact that the name of the region Catalonia goes back to "Got-Alania" is mostly rejected today. Medieval spellings of the name rather suggest that it goes back to " Kastellan " or perhaps to "Gotholandia".
In the Caucasus there is the Darial Gorge , the name of which was borrowed from the neo-Persian name dar-i Alan (= gate of the Alans). The development of this geographical name is proven in historical sources. The gorge was the gateway of the Alans on their conquest expeditions to Transcaucasia .
According to some German, Russian and British linguists and historians , the name Rus , the old name of Russia and the Russians , could go back to the Alanic sub-tribe of the Ruchs-as or the Sarmatian Roxolans . Both tribal names contain - such as the Iranian and Russian first names Rustam and Ruslan (very controversial) - Old Northern Iranian * raochscha (later ruch or rusch = 'white', 'light'). Rus as a common name would therefore mean 'the bright ones', 'shining ones'. The presence of Alans in the settlements and cities of the early Kievan Rus is archaeologically documented. However, the Rukhs-as-Theory is rejected by most scientists, the word "Rus" is originally identified as a designation for Scandinavian Varangians in Russia, later for the entire Kievan Rus.
A very influential figure in Eastern Roman history was the army master and dominant man in the state of Aspar (* around 400; † 471). Declining the imperial office for himself, he helped the two emperors Markian and Leo I to the throne. After both, especially Leo, were able to partially emancipate themselves from his influence and Aspar's eldest son Ardabur was relieved of all offices, Aspar was able to appoint his younger son Patricius as Caesar and thus potential heir to the throne. In the end, Aspar and Ardabur fell victim to an assassination attempt and Patricius escaped wounded, but is no longer mentioned afterwards.
More than 600 years later, the Byzantine Empress Maria of Alania (* around 1050, † after 1103) achieved a similarly dominant position. Although the daughter of the Georgian King Bagrat IV , she got her nickname from the upbringing of her mother, the Alan princess Borena. She was not only the wife of the two emperors Michael VII. Dukas and Nikephoros III. Botaneiates, but is considered a very power-conscious, sometimes scheming empress, who was involved in the replacement of the Dukas dynasty by the Komnenen dynasty. With her numerous Georgian and Alan nobles came to Byzantium. The aforementioned scholar Johannes Tzetzes was her relative through his grandmother.
Another well-known personality is the Alan prince and second husband of the most important Georgian ruler Queen Tamar , under whom the Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of expansion and development, Prince David Soslan (Georg. Dawit Soslani) († after 1207). He participated very actively in the politics of the ruler, was the founder of several Georgian churches and monasteries and was particularly considered a successful general who put down a Georgian aristocratic revolt and commanded several successful campaigns, especially against the Atabegs of Azerbaijan and the Rum Seljuk Turks.
In the last few decades the national movements of some peoples of the North Caucasus have developed efforts to make the “glorious” Alan history the prehistory of their own national history. They began attempts in some regional magazines in the 1960s to read the Zelenchuk inscription as a Nakh inscription (the western branch of the autochthonous Nakh-Daghestan languages , which includes Chechen and Ingush ), or as Karachay-Balkar , a regional variant of the Turkic languages . Even before the boom of nationalisms in the late Soviet and early post-Soviet times, Ladislav Zgusta devoted himself to these attempts in 1987 and rejected them because the Nautical reading works with numerous phonetic values that the Greek letters do not provide and the karachay-balkarian partly with words current Turkic languages, instead of using Old Turkish and misreading claims that are not recognized.
The Ossetians had until the 18./19. Century two self-names: the larger group of approx. 80% called themselves Iron (i.e. Iranians), the smaller group as Digoron (etymology not completely clarified, maybe after). Thereafter, the current term, which is based on the Georgian name os-eti ("Land of the Os", actually a regional designation), spread through Russian internationally and also among the Ossetians themselves . After the renaming to Iryston ("Land of Iron") failed due to protests by the Digors in the 1980s, the Ossetian national movement increasingly identified with the history of the Alans. the renaming of North Ossetia in " North Ossetia-Alania " is, also because of the South Ossetian War with Georgians. Warnings from the leading North Caucasus historian and archaeologist Kuznetsov that the Ossetians could just as easily be regarded as a Caucasian people due to their culture and the large number of loanwords from Caucasian languages, especially from Nachischen (approx. 40% of the vocabulary), were not heard. Typical of Ossetian nationalism is the denial of the participation of foreign language groups in the history of medieval Alania, such as the Dwal in the border area between North and South Ossetia and the Malchi east of the Elbrus , which were perhaps still in the Middle Ages.
Chechen, and particularly Ingush, national intellectuals at the same time tended to overemphasize the role of Nakh groups in medieval Alania, to the extreme that all medieval Alans were Nakh-speaking. In such disputes, the question always arises as to which people are the elderly and thus have the older territorial claim that is perceived as "legitimate", such as the Prigorodnyj Rajon east of the city of Vladikavkaz , which was disputed between Ingushetia and North Ossetia in November 1992 there was even a short war . The question of where the capital of medieval Alania is located, which al-Masʿūdī has handed down as Maghas, plays an important role . It cannot be clarified to this day because the remains of several cities have been found. Kuznetsov initially suspected Alkhan-Kala in Chechnya, then Nizhny Archys in Karachay-Cherkessia and finally refrained from all hypotheses, several Ingush authors looked for a site south of Nazran , Ossetian authors opposed a site in North Ossetia, but made no claim there is evidence. In order to substantiate their claims, Ingushetia moved its capital to its own place of discovery, called it Magas in 1999 , emphasized that the name Ingush means "city of the sun" and claimed that it was an old Nakh city. Many researchers consider that post-speaking groups lived in Alania based on place and field names and some post-English loanwords in languages in the western Caucasus and in Ossetian itself. In the absence of precise findings, however, the extent is difficult to determine, apparently it decreased over the centuries through linguistic assimilation , i.e. adoption of the unequivocally Iranian language of the Alans. It should also be noted that the Chechens and Ingush go back to (wai) Nachische groups in the Durdsuketi / Dsurdsuketi region, which was outside of Alania at the time. They only spread long after the end of Alania in the 16th-18th centuries. Century in its former eastern areas.
The Karachay and Balkar people are Turkic peoples west of the Ossetians who were formed as nationalities from six tribes during the Soviet period, but received the same written language (Karachay-Balkar). There are two hypotheses on the question of how the language came to the region: the older one sees it as the result of the immigration of Kipchaks in the 12th / 13th centuries. Century. In a war against the Kipchak Empire at the beginning of the 12th century, Alania lost territories to the Kipchaks; the first three graves of steppe nomads were also found in Nizhny Archys during this period, and the archaeologically ascertainable influx increased sharply with the Mongolian migrations in the 13th century. In addition to the archaeological evidence, the fact that the language closest to Karachay-Balkarian is Kumyk , and the origin of the Kumyks through their flight from the Mongols is also mentioned in sources. A more recent hypothesis indicates that in the 6th / 7th Century scattered Turkic Bolgaren and Sabirs in western parts Alaniens immigrated. This would be supported by the fact that the Swan name for the Ossetians sawair goes back to the Sabirs and the name of the Balkars, still called bolchary or bolgary in Russian sources in the 17th century , probably goes back to the Bolgars - although there was a group for this in the 12th century from Bolgars from the Stavropol region . Perhaps the older Bolgars had already disappeared when the Kipchaks arrived. Whether in the 6th / 7th or 12./13. Immigrated in the 19th century, the Turkic-speaking groups were probably part of the Alan tribal union until the 14th century, linguistically assimilated the previous inhabitants and established their Turkic language in the west, before they evaded the war expeditions of Timur and the subsequent expansion of the Circassian Kabardines into the high mountains. Karachay-Balkar national associations have tried in the last few decades to propagate a unified Karachay-Balkar nation, although this was only partially accepted by the population. Thereupon they propagated that the true ethnonym of the Karachay and Balkar was alan , what they used themselves and some neighboring peoples ( Mingrelians , Nogaier ). The Alans were in truth Turkish-speaking. Kuznetsov rejects both arguments: the foreign names are a reversal, one should not infer from the Swan name that the Sabirs were Iranian, or from the name of the French that the early Franks spoke Romansh, from the name of the Bulgarians that the Bolgars were Slavic etc. The salutation alan! is not an ethnonym in Karachay-Balkar, but means “friend!”, “comrade!”, “master!”, also “hey!”. The above findings alone speak against the claimed Turkic language of all Alans. Further claims that they have lived in the Caucasus since the Bronze Age have no scientific basis. In the ideological milieu of Pan-Turkism , however, they are also widespread beyond the region.
- Reinhard Wenskus : Alans. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 1, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1973, ISBN 3-11-004489-7 , pp. 122-126.
- Wilhelm Tomaschek : Alani . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 1, Stuttgart 1893, Col. 1282-1285.
- Agustí Alemany: Sources on the Alans. Critical Compilation (in Handbuch der Orientalistik . Department 8: Handbook of Uralic Studies. Volume 5). Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden et al. 2000, ISBN 90-04-11442-4 (New, critically commented source publication on the history of the Alans).
- Владимир Александрович Кузнецов: Очерки истории алан (German: Wladimir Aleksandrowitsch Kusnezow: Abriß der Alanischen Geschichte ). Ир, Владикавказ 1992, ISBN 5-7534-0316-6 (Newer monograph by the most important archaeologist for the North Caucasus . The focus is on the archeology and history of the Alans in the Caucasus and the adjacent southern Russian steppes).
- Iaroslav Lebedynsky: Les nomades. Les peuples nomades de la steppe des origines aux invasions mongoles (IXe siècle av. J.-C. - XIIIe siècle apr. J.-C.). Errance, Paris 2003, ISBN 2-87772-254-6 .
- Wassili Abajew, Harold Walter Bailey: Alans . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica . (English, iranicaonline.org - including references). (English)
- Wladimir Kuznetsov: Alanen (Alanoi, Alani) (PDF) on the knowledge database of the GWZO of the University of Leipzig.
- Agustí Alemany: Alania in the 6th century: Between Byzantium, Sassanid Iran and the Turkish world . (PDF; 110 kB) 2003 (English)
- Ronald Kim: On the historical phonology of Ossetic: the origin of the oblique case suffix .
- Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) and Danoff, Christo (Sofia), “Alani”, in: Der Neue Pauly, edited by: Hubert Cancik, Helmuth Schneider (antiquity), Manfred Landfester (history of reception and science). doi: 10.1163 / 1574-9347_dnp_e112730 . First published online: 2006.
- On the identity of the Jan-tsai and Alans, cf. B. this (English translated) source of the Chinese Weilüe (3rd century AD) and related footnote discussions under 25.3 and 25.4 with further quotations from the Chronicle of Hou Hanshu (written for the years 25–220 AD), from Shiji (before 90 BC) and scientific evaluations of the information. The name "Jan-tsai" means "the great steppe" in Chinese, apparently because this western region, in contrast to more eastern steppe areas, is not interrupted by mountains, hill countries, deserts or forest steppes, but rather forms a uniform, monotonous flat steppe.
- Sa English translation of the information from Hou Hanshu.
- Often evaluated, for the first time by Vsevolod Miller : Osetinkije etjudi Tiflis 1881–87, also in Wassili Abajew: Osetinskij jasyk i fol'klor. Moscow, Leningrad 1949., Ladislav Zgusta : Old Ossetic Inscription from the River Zelenchuk. Vienna 1987, to Georgi Turtschaninow: Drevnije i srednevekovye osetinskogo pis'ma i jazyka. Vladikavkaz 1990.
- After the discovery in the 1920s, first published by János Moravcsik: Barbarische Sprachreste in der Theogonie des Johannes Tzetzes in: Byzantinisch-Neugriechische Jahrbücher 7 (1928-9), pp. 352–365, since then treated in numerous publications.
- First published in German: János Nemeth: Eine Wortliste der Jassen, the Hungarian Alans. Berlin 1959, since then also numerous publications, accessible e.g. B. in Ludwig A. Tschibirow: "Way of the Alans to the West" in: SP Tabalowa: "Alans. History and culture. "Moscow 1995. (Russian, printed in chapter 5, bold: the first word Yassian, then the translations, mostly in Latin, a few like" vaj "and" fött "in Hungarian; then not in bold written the meaning in Russian).
- Miller first came up with the idea of this study; it was repeated 70 years later by Vasily Abayev on a much broader basis and with more advanced knowledge of the ancient Iranian languages, who on this basis designed rudimentary basic features of the Scythian language. Expert colleagues corrected him to the extent that these names could not only hide Scythians, but also culturally related Sarmatians who had a different dialect after Herodotus. The authoritative German publication is Ladislav Zgusta: Personal names of Greek cities on the northern Black Sea coast; the ethnic relationships, especially the relationship between the Scythians and the Sarmatians, in the light of research on names. Prague 1955.
- Information on the history of the British breeders' association.
- Chapter at Kuznetsov online . The maps below show the place names in France that can be traced back to the Alans.
- cf. B. Maximiano García Venero Historia del nacionalismo catalán Barcelona 1967.
- Article by Agustí Alemany on the history of the Darial Gorge in the early Middle Ages (PDF; 113 kB)
- See Victor Shnirelman: The Politics of a Name: Between Consolidation and Separation in the Northern Caucasus. (PDF; 784 kB) in: Acta Slavica Iaponica 23 (2006) pp. 37-73. The chapter is essentially based on his explanations, for more detailed information see there. Shnirelman is a prominent Moscow archaeologist, anthropologist, and nationalism researcher.
- Zgusta: Old Ossetic Inscription from the River Zelenchuk. Vienna 1987.
- For the Dwal see z. B. this excerpt from Очерки истории алан Wladikawkas 1992. 7th – 4th last paragraph , not only Ossetian and Chechen-Ingush authors, but also Georgians lay “claims” on these groups. At the beginning of the 5th last paragraph, Kuznetsov also writes "In the heat of polemics, one forgets ..."
- See Shnirelman, pp. 49–53, the historian Artur Zuzijew called the Ossetian-Ingush dispute a kind of ping-pong polemic - one argument on one side is followed by a counter-argument on the other.
- This map by Artur Zuzijew (Russian) gives an impression : light green: presumed distribution of Nautical languages in the 1st century AD, dark green: distribution in the 13th – 17th centuries. Century, dashed line: Alania in the 6th – 13th centuries. Century, blue line: the Iron Age Koban culture , red lines: today's borders of Chechnya and Ingushetia.
- For the spatial distribution, see this map by Zuzijew . Red dashed: boundaries of the Alan tribal union in the 6th – 13th centuries Century, blue field: Bolgars in Alania in the 7th century, area A: Kipchaks, from which the Karachay-Balkars, area B: Kipchaks, from which the Kumyks, yellow field: Karachay-Balkar tribes in the 17th century .
- Cf. Kuznetsov 9.2, ninth paragraph, he also considers the 2nd hypothesis to be quite possible.
- BA Kalojew: "Ossetian-Balkarian Ethnographic Parallels" (Russian, 1972)
- Kuznetsov 9.2 ninth paragraph , he describes the assertion of the Balkar historian I. Miziew as "insincere" (лукавит = he is insincere / he is rascal / he makes trickery etc.).
- On the Karachay-Balkar national movement see Shnirelman pp. 61–68. (PDF; 766 kB)