Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks
The Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks or Sultanate of Iconion (also called Sultanate of Rum , Arabic السلاجقة الروم, DMG as-Salāǧiqa ar-Rūm , Persian سلجوقیان روم, DMG Salǧūqiyān-i Rūm , Turkish Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti , 'Anatolian-Seljuk State' ) was the rulership established on conquered Byzantine territory in Anatolia of the Oghuz-Turkish Rum-Seljuks, who die - just like the Kerman.-Seldschuks (1048) Seljuks of Syria (1078) - made independent from the Great Seljuks empire in 1077 and then ruled over a significant empire centered on Konya . After the battle of the Köse Dağ (1243), the sultanate became dependent on the empire of the Mongolian Ilkhan and dissolved until 1307 "without a song".
After the defeat against the Seljuks in the Battle of Mantzikert in 1071, the interior of Asia Minor was finally lost to the Byzantine Empire . Oghusian-Turkish tribes who immigrated to Anatolia in the wake of the Seljuks founded several principalities , including the Saltukids , whose rule lasted until 1202. Suleiman , a son of the renegade Seljuq prince Qutalmish , who had also come to Anatolia with his followers, was appointed governor of the north-western provinces of the Seljuk Empire by Sultan Malik Shah I in 1074 . In this capacity he conquered the Byzantine cities of Nikäa (İznik) and Nicomedia ( İzmit ) in 1075 . In 1077 Suleiman rebelled against Malik Shah and proclaimed himself "Sultan of Rum". In 1078 he made Nicaea his capital.
In 1084 Sultan Malik Shah I captured Antioch (Antakya), which was held by Philaretos Brachamios at the time, in a surprise attack with the help of Suleiman . The residents fled to the citadel. When Suleiman committed suicide ( Anna Komnena ) or was killed on the orders of Tutush in Antioch in 1086 after a defeat against Tutush I , the Seljuk Sultan of Aleppo , the dynasty fell into a serious crisis: Suleiman's son Kılıç Arslan was held hostage at the Great Seljuk court and was only released again after the death of Malik-Shah I (1092).
Kılıç Arslan I was able to take back large parts of the lost territory. Following a loss to the Crusaders of the First Crusade at Nicaea and Dorylaeum (Dorylaion) in 1097, however, the Byzantines pushed him back to Anatolia. In the following years he was able to consolidate his power again. In 1101 he triumphed over the crusade participants , conquered Iconium (Konya) and made it the center of his empire. In 1107 he conquered Mosul , but fell in the same year in the battle against Muhammad I. Tapar , the son of Malik-Shah I.
The sultanate was in constant conflict with the Byzantine Empire, but was also a buffer state between Byzantium and the Muslim world. There were no significant shifts in the border with Byzantium. Between 1097 and 1176 the Sultanate was also in constant conflict with the Danishmends until the Seljuks finally defeated them and incorporated their territory into their empire. Iconium was exiled for some Byzantine renegades, and in some cases alliances with the Kingdom of Lesser Armenia and the Crusader states were formed .
The sultanate came under the rule of the Ilkhan through the defeats in the Battle of the Köse Dağ (1243) and the Battle of Aksaray (October 1256) against the Mongol commander Baiju and dissolved during the rule of the Ilkhan Öldscheitü (from 1304).
The up-and-coming Ottomans from the northwestern Anatolian principality of Osman Bey took over the inheritance of the Seljuks in Anatolia at the beginning of the 14th century and in 1386 conquered Konya, which had become the capital of the Karaman- Beyliks. In 1402 after the battle of Ankara the Ottomans lost Konya again, the beylik of the Karamanoğulları was restored again by Timur Lenk , but in 1466 Konya finally fell to the Ottoman Empire .
In the feudal Iqta system, the local peasants became subjects of the Seljuk emirs, who gave the land to their followers and soldiers. The owner of an Iqta received the dues of his fief, but could not bequeath it. In the 14th century, the Iqta system was replaced by land grants to soldiers that were tax-free.
The urban upper class now also consisted of Seljuks. The non-taxable Turkomans and Arabs served in the army , later also captured Christians and Georgian and Frankish mercenaries. The nomads were used at the borders to fight the "infidels", but there were also constant attempts to force them to settle and to push them back into the barren mountainous areas, a policy that continued or largely ended in the Ottoman and Turkish times came.
Family tree of the Rum Seljuks
|1. Suleiman ibn Kutalmiş
|2. Kılıç Arslan I
|3. Malik Shah I
|4. Mas'ud I
|5. Kılıç Arslan II
|7. Suleiman II
Kai Chosrau I.
|8. Kılıç Arslan III.
|10. Kai Kaus I.
|11. Kai Kobad I
|12. Kai Chosrau II.
|13. Kai Kaus II.
|14. Kılıç Arslan IV.
|15. Kai Kobad II.
|16. Kai Chosrau III.
Kai Kobad III.
- List of all Rum Seljuk rulers (contains names, titles, reigns, brief notes on the rule and a family tree)
- Claude Cahen: Pre-Ottoman Turkey , translated by J. Jones-Williams, New York 1968.
- Claude Cahen: The Formation of Turkey - The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century , translated and edited by PM Holt from: Claude Cahen: La Turquie Pré-Ottomane , Paris 1988; Pearson Exducation, Harlow, Essex 2001 ISBN 0-582-41491-1 .
- Carter Vaughn Findley: The Turks in World History . Oxford 2005, ISBN 0-19-517726-6 .
- Fazli Konuş: Selçukular Bibliyografyası , Erciyeş Üniversitesi, Konya 2006,
- Andrew Peacock: Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica , as of May 25, 2010 (English, including references)
- The name, Arabic روم, DMG Rūm with the basic meaning "Rome", was applied to the Rhomeans (proper name of the Greek-speaking Byzantines ) in Arabic, Persian and Ottoman literature . Rūm was thus the geographical name for Asia Minor , which was ruled by the Byzantine Empire, and was adopted by the Rum Seljuks. The Ottomans who followed the Seljuks derived the name Rumelia ( Rūm-īlī /روم ايلى) and referred to other areas that they had conquered from Byzantium. See Clifford Edmund Bosworth Rum in Encyclopaedia of Islam and Halil İnalcık Rumeli in Encyclopaedia of Islam
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth Saldjukids , section The Saldjuks of Rum in Encyclopaedia of Islam
- Klaus Kreiser , Christoph K. Neumann A Little History of Turkey , 2009, p. 47
- Michael Neumann-Adrian, Christoph K. Neumann: Turkey. A country and 9000 years of history , List, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-471-78225-7 , p. 155 (398 pages).