Osman (dynasty)

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Coat of arms of the House of Osman

The House of Osman ( Ottoman خاندان آل عثمان İA ḫānedān-ı āl-i ʿOs̲mān , German 'dynasty of the house of Osman' ; alsoسلالهٔ آل عثمان sülāle-yi āl-i ʿOs̲mān ) was the ruling dynasty of the Ottoman Empire named after him . Founded by Osman I , it provided the Turkish emirs and sultans from 1299 to 1922 and the caliphs of Islam from 1517 to 1924 .

Until the 15th century, heir to the throne was the son of the ruler to whom rule fell. With his Ḳānūnnāme , Mehmed II permitted the fratricide of the sultans . The regulation of the succession to the throne has followed the principle of seniority since Ahmed I and according to statutory law since the Ottoman constitution . After independence from the Seljuk Empire , the monarchs first carried the title of Emir (Gazi), and from Murad I the title of Sultan and Padishah . The residential towns of the house were Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1335-1365), Edirne (1365-1453) and Kostantiniyye / Istanbul (1453-1922).

The name is derived from Osman I. , the founder of the Ottoman Empire.

Principality of Osman during the Anatolian Principalities (13th century)

Some Beyliks in Anatolia around 1300

After the Rum-Seljuk dynasty recognized the upper hand of the Mongols ( Ilkhan ) in 1235 , Turkmen tribes increasingly migrated to Western Anatolia. It created numerous Turkish principalities in central and western Anatolia that to the Byzantine Empire excluded (see figure). Osman's father Ertuğrul Gazi and his tribe moved from Eastern Anatolia to Eskişehir - Sakarya at the same time .

Osman I succeeded his father Ertuğrul in 1288 and became head of his tribe. The tribe belonged to the Kayi, a subgroup of the Oghusen . After the conquest of Karacahisar , Osman was appointed Bey / Prince by the Seljuk Sultan in 1288, thus establishing the Principality of Osman. As vassals in the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks , the principalities served in a federation of several principalities until Osman I declared his principality independent in 1299. His son Orhan I conquered Bursa in 1326 and consolidated the family's power in Anatolia .

Abolition of the Sultanate

On November 1, 1922, the Ottoman monarchy was formally abolished by the Turkish National Assembly under Mustafa Kemal . The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI. , left the empire on November 17, 1922 and went into exile in San Remo . His successor Abdülmecit II was only caliph. The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished on March 3, 1924, and the family was exiled. On March 4th, he left his palace at 5:00 a.m. Two of his four wives, son and daughter, personal physician, secretary and valet accompanied him. The tour company was stopped at the Swiss border because polygamists were not allowed to immigrate. Only an exception made the stay possible. Abdülmecit later lived in Nice. He died in Paris in 1944. During its six centuries of reign, the Osman house amassed a fortune, the size of which is estimated at 120 billion US dollars in today's purchasing power (as of 2010). When they went into exile, the family was expropriated.

Head of the family in exile (from 1924)

Head of the family Life Term of office Place of death title Lineage
Abdülmecid II. 1868-1944 1924-1944 Paris Abdülmecid II. Abdülaziz
Ahmet Nihad Osmanoğlu 1883-1954 1944-1954 Damascus Ahmed IV. Murad V.
Osman Fuad Osmanoğlu 1895-1973 1954-1973 Paris Osman IV Murad V.
Mehmed Abdülaziz Osmanoğlu 1901-1977 1973-1977 Nice Abdülaziz II. Abdülaziz
Ali Vâsıb Osmanoğlu 1903-1983 1977-1983 Alexandria Ali I. Murad V.
Mehmet Orhan Osmanoğlu 1909-1994 1983-1994 Nice Mehmed VII. Abdülhamid II.
Ertuğrul Osman 1912-2009 1994-2009 Istanbul Osman V. Abdülhamid II.
Osman Bayezid Osmanoğlu 1924-2017 2009-2017 new York Bayezid III. Abdülhamid II.
Dündar Ali Osman Osmanoğlu * 1930 since 2017 Ali II Abdülhamid II.

There are two lines in the family, each descended from Mahmud II :

A prince had to be of a paternal line and of Muslim faith. After the Turkish National Assembly had banned the family with a parliamentary resolution, the princes had to leave the kingdom within a day, the women and children within a week. They were taken across the border to Bulgaria on the Baghdad Railway. Sultan Mehmed VI. moved in with his wife in San Remo, a villa made available by the Italian king. In 1949 the government was authorized to allow the entry of former princesses. The widow of Mehmet VI. got the Turkish citizenship back. Mehmed VI's grandson, Prince Nazım, was allowed to settle in Istanbul in 1974. In 1991 the exile was lifted and the then head of the family, Prince Mehmed Orhan, traveled to the Republic of Turkey. In 2004, the 43rd head of the house, Ertugrul Osman, received Turkish citizenship through the initiative of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan . Since his death on September 23, 2009, Prince Osman Bayezid III. the head of the House of Osman.

coat of arms

The coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire was also the coat of arms of the imperial family, with the corresponding tughra of the ruling sultan.


  • MF Köprülüzade: Les origenes de l'Empire Ottoman . In: Etudes Orientalis III . Paris 1935.
  • David Nicolle : The Ottomans: 600 Years of Islamic World Empire . Tosa, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-85003-219-3 .
  • Josef Matuz: The Ottoman Empire - Basics of its History . Darmstadt 1994.
  • Anthony Dolphin Alderson: The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty . Oxford 1956.
  • Olga Opfell: Royalty who wait: the 21 heads of formerly regnant houses of Europe . 2001, ISBN 978-0-7864-0901-3 , pp. 141 ff. Chapter 14: HIH Ertugrul Osman, Prince of Turkey - Imperial House of Turkey (House of Osman) . Review in the European History Quarterly , Vol. 32, No. 2, 2002, pp. 297–298, ehq.sagepub.com (PDF)
  • Stefan Schreiner: The Ottomans in Europe: Memories and reports by Turkish historians . 1985.
  • Richard Franz Kreutel: Life and Deeds of the Turkish Emperors . 1971, ISBN 3-222-10467-0 .
  • Aşıkpaşazade , Richard Franz Kreutel: From the shepherd's tent to the high gate . 1959.
  • Wolfgang Günter Lerch : The Ottomans in exile are almost unknown outside Turkey - the forgotten dynasty . In: FAZ , December 20, 2007.
  • Wolfgang Günter Lerch: The Osman family had to go into exile in 1924 - in the shadow of Topkapi . In: FAZ , December 27, 2007

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Halil İnalcık: Devlet-i Aliyye - Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Üzerine Araştırmalar 1 - Klasik Dönem (1302-1606) . P. 5
  2. Halil İnalcık: Devlet-i Aliyye - Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Üzerine Araştırmalar 1 - Klasik Dönem (1302-1606) . P. 12
  3. ^ Burial ceremony for the head of the Ottomans held in New York . nex24.com; accessed on January 10, 2017