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Tughra ( Ottoman طغرى / طغرا İA ṭuġra, pl. ṭuġrāwāt , today's Turkish spelling: tuğra , IPA [ tuːra ]) is the name given to the name of the Ottoman Sultan , who - comparable to the handwritten signature and seal of Western rulers - handwritten and painted, but also in relief and mechanically duplicated as an imperial sign of the Sultan was used.

Origin of the term

Mahmud al-Kashgari called in the 11th century in his Dīwān Lugat at-Turk ( "collection of dialects of the Turks") the Oghuz term tughragh for the seal (ṭābi') and the signature (tawḳī') of Oghuz ruler (malik) . The form tughra can be explained by the dropping of the guttural Oghuz ending gh, which is common in Ottoman language . Mahmud al-Kāshgharī also knows the verb tughraghlanmak (in relation to a document it means to get a tughragh ). This corresponds to the Arabic tagh-ghara ("to place a tughra on it") attested by Muhammad al-Makrizi in 1270 . About the etymology of tughragh Mahmud al-Kāshgharī only says: "wa-lā adrī aslahu" (" I do not know its [the word tughragh ] origin"). According to this, it can be assumed that tughra is of Turkish origin, without the primary meaning being known.

Further etymological explanations of tughra refer to the legendary bird tughri or to the Arabic turra (upper margin of a document). An origin of tur-gha (y) (“let it be like that”) or doghru (“truth”) and a relationship with tugh , the horse's tail as a badge of rank of the Ottomans, were considered.

Text and shape of the Ottoman tughra

In its classic form from the 16th century, the Ottoman tughra combines the name of the Ottoman ruler and that of his father with titles borrowed from Persian and Mongolian as well as Arabic words and uses Arabic script . It can be attributed to both Ottoman and Arabic calligraphy .

From the first preserved, simple Tughra Orhan Ghazis to the magnificent Tughra Süleymans I, a constant development can be described. The tughras contain more and more text and, especially since Bayezid II, have become more and more elaborate. At the same time, their size increases, from about 7 cm wide for Orhan Ghazi to about 40 cm wide for Suleyman I - corresponding to the width of the documents in which they were used. What they have in common is that the words of the text are written over and into one another according to calligraphic criteria.

Ruler Original and transliterated text of the Tughra translation
Orhan Ghazi اورخان بن عثمان / Orḫān b. ʿOs̲mān Orhan, son of Osman
Bayezid I. بايزيد بن مراد خان / Bāyezīd b. Murād Ḫān Bayezid, son of Khan Murad
Murad II مراد بن محمد خان مظفر / Murād b. Meḥemmed Ḫān muẓaffer Murad, son of Khan Mehmed, victorious
Mehmed II محمد بن مراد خان مظفر دائما / Meḥemmed b. Murād Ḫān muẓaffer dāʾimā Mehmed, son of Khan Murad, always victorious
Selim I. سليم شاه بن بايزيد خان المظفر دائما / Selīm-şāh b. Bāyezīd Ḫān el-muẓaffer dāʾimā Shah Selim, son of Khan Bayezid, the always victorious
Suleyman I. سليمان شاه بن سليم شاه خان المظفر دائما / Süleymān-şāh b. Selīm-şāh Ḫān el-muẓaffer dāʾimā Shah Suleyman, son of Shah Khan Selim, the always victorious

Tughras are read from bottom right to top left, but small breaks in the sequence are possible.

The unbundled text of the Tughra Süleymans I.

Tughra Sultan Suleyman I.

The tughras of the subsequent sultans differ from the standard of the Süleyman's tughra only in that the titles şāh and ḫon the father and son are sometimes assigned differently or are missing and - as with Mehmed V. Reşad - a distinctive additional name is added. In addition, some tughras contain graphically determined additional lines. The designer seldom added his name to the tughra.

Classification of the individual parts
Development of the Beyze

Classification of the individual parts of a tughra (according to Paul Wittek - not all of these terms were applied to the tughra in Ottoman times):

  • sere ("palm"), the actual emblem with the name
  • beyze ("egg, oval"), the loops
  • tugh (" Rossschweif ", lit. "tufts"), the vertical bars with the zülfe ("curls"), the curved horsehair
  • ḥançer (dagger) or ḳol (arm), the long lines to the right

The development of the calligraphic form of the Ottoman Tughra began with the Tughras Orhan Ghazis and Murads I (right). Their comparison shows the development of the oval shapes later called Beyze . The Arabic letters Nūn curve more and more to the oval Beyze . The vertical lines of the vowels ( Alif ) , transferred as "a" , "o" and "u" , can be reinterpreted from 1348 onwards as the shafts of the Tugh , provided with the braces of the swaying horsehair.

The fact that the shape of the Tughra originates from the hand dipped in paint of the allegedly illiterate Sultan Murad I , used as a stamp in 1365 , arose from a legend that probably originated in Ragusa ( Dubrovnik ) and has not yet been verified.

Function and use of the Ottoman tughra

Tughras of the sultans on documents

The use of the Ottoman tughra is well known from many surviving documents, in contrast to the use of its possible models, the oghuz and Seljuk tughras and seals (damga) , of which very few are mentioned.

Certificate of appointment ( berāt ) issued by Bayezid II (1486)
Fermān Sultan Mahmuds I, particularly richly illuminated tughra (1741)

The Ottoman tughra was primarily the stylized hand-fest (the official, originally handwritten name) of the Ottoman sultans. It gave validity to the imperial letters, like a seal, and certified them. The tughras on it were - depending on the preference of the sultan and his time, as well as the importance of the occasion and the addressee - simply executed (left) or written with precious colors or painted and magnificently illuminated (right).

The good state of preservation of many tughras comes from the fact that their documents were mostly rolled and sometimes folded and kept in silk bags or caskets. Some particularly richly illuminated foundation deeds (vaḳfiye) were protected as collections of pages or bound by hard covers.

In the lifetime of Sultan Suleyman I, an estimated 150,000 documents were produced and almost always, mostly in the head part, with his formula, which remained the same as usual. Very few tughras are considered to be mechanically replicated. The imperial meaning of the tughra is sometimes indicated by a remark under the tughra : tevḳīʿ-i refiʿ-i hümāyūn ("The sublime, glorious insignia"), nişān-ı şerīf-i ʿālī-şān-ı sulṭānī ("The noble, high -fortune sultanānī ”), Ṭuġra-yı ġarrā-yı sāmī-mekān-ı ḫāḳānī (“ The high-ranking enlightened Tughra of the Great Khan ”) or ʿalāmet-i şerīfe (“ The noble sign ”). Some letters also have the addition ʿalāmet-i şerīfime iʿtimād ḳılasız (“May you trust my imperial sign”). The tughra was sometimes omitted from edicts addressed to addressees in the capital.

Tughra and signature (bottom right) of Nişāncı Tevḳīʿi Cafer on excerpts from a Mülk-nāme of Sultan Mehmed IV. (1662)

Occasions for imperial letters were, for example, foundations, appointments, promotions, diplomatic embassies, authentications, the transfer of immovable property, the settlement of disputes, i.e. all kinds of edicts. The documents were mostly written in differently stylized Ottoman Turkish. Exceptions were the originals of some foundation deeds formulated in Arabic and letters to Arabic-speaking rulers and notables as well as to the native Sanjakbeys of the Arabic-speaking provinces.

The respective Nişāncı was responsible for the application of the Tughras. After the Nişāncı rose to head of the imperial chancellery and participant of the Dīwān, according to a law of Mehmed II, he had to be a scholar, if possible a professor at a medrese . He usually drew the tughra in his office or in Dīwān or had them drawn there. He also often signed the fermāne wearing a tughra as a witness. It is believed that he called in assistants, who were often of high rank, given the abundance of letters that arose. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Nişāncı could delegate the attachment of the tughras to a specially employed Ṭuġrakeş (also called Ṭuġrāʾī , Ṭuġra-nüvīs or Tevḳīʿi ). This or the Nişāncı brought in an illuminator for elaborately designed tughras . Normally the tughra was attached when the document was finally written. At the instigation of the Sultan, however, the Nişāncı could also add Tughras to empty writing sheets so that decrees that became necessary quickly outside the capital could be dispatched immediately. A representative of the sultan, for example one of the viziers , was then given the power to draft a decree directly on site and to have it written under the prefabricated tughra. The same was done when the Sultan was not in Istanbul and decrees were necessary. Unauthorized writing or painting of the tughra could be punishable by death.

Tughras of the sultans on and in buildings as well as on coins and other objects

Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall reported that in 1804 he saw the "Tughra, that is, the intricate signature of Sultan Urchan, carved in stone" over the gate of a decaying mosque in İznik that was built by "Urchan" (Orhan Ghazi) , but this is no longer the case today can be verified.

It is certain that tughras were attached to and in buildings as symbols and decorations , especially from the 18th century . For example, Sultan Mahmuds II. Tughra (see above) was attached as a sculpture together with a seal of King Solomon in a prominent place, namely above the Miḥrāb of the Yaschar Mehmed Pasha mosque in Pristina, which was built in 1834 .

Tughra at the Gate of Bliss
Tughra Abdülhamids II and
Wilhelm II's
monogram in the dome of the German Fountain in Istanbul (1900)
Library seal of Mahmud I.

In the more recent construction phases of the Topkapi seraglio in Istanbul, Tughras were used on and in buildings as jewelry and as an imperial symbol. The tughra to the right of the entrance of the "Gate of Bliss" (Bāb-ı saʿādet) , which was redesigned in the Rococo style in the 18th century, is an example of this.

Abdülhamids II. Tughra can be found at the German Fountain in Istanbul, which the German Emperor Wilhelm II had built in 1900. Medallions, which have been worked into the interior of the dome above the eight ends of the columns as mosaics, alternately show the tughra of Abdülhamids II and the monogram of Wilhelm II.

The earliest known Ottoman coins with tughra come from Murad I and Emir Suleyman (bin Bayezid), who was proclaimed Sultan in Adrianople during the Interregnum (1402–1413) and was strangled in 1410 on behalf of his brother Musa. After him, other sultans had coins marked with their tughras from time to time, increasingly from Mehmed II onwards, and regularly from Suleyman II onwards. Around 1700, a variety of Ottoman gold ducats was even called "Tughrali". The obverse (the head) of a coin is called “tura” in today's Turkish, even if it no longer has a tughra.

Library seals that have been pressed on books and writings donated by a sultan also contain a tughra. They were used in the libraries of manorial foundations (Vakıflar). An example of this is the library seal of Mahmud I, which, in addition to the tughra, contains a quotation from the Koran from Sura 7:44.

Over the centuries, an abundance of official, semi-official and private items were provided with the tughra of the respective ruling sultan, such as gravestones, medals, flags, postage stamps, weapons, saddlecloths and utensils from the Sultan's household.

Tughras and similar signatures of dignitaries and family members of the sultans

Feasts of the sons of Orhan Ghazi (1324)
Solid Kara Mustafa Paschas (1683)
Hand-held Iskender Husein Paschas (1516)
Signatures linear and in the type of Pençe and Tughra (1404)

The oldest Ottoman signatures similar to the Tughras, called Pençe ("hand festivals"), are on the edge of a Vaḳfiye from 1324, which also bears the earliest Tughra Orhan Ghazis (see above). These Pençe come from Orhan's sons Sultan b. Orhan, Suleyman b. Orhan and Ibrahim b. Orhan, who acted as witnesses along with other people.

Later dignitaries such as viziers and sandjakbeys or the Sheikhul Islam also endowed their letters with a pence . Usually it was added at the edge and rotated by 90 °.

First, the adjusted Pençe the viziers with Beyze , Hançer and the occasional formula "Muzaffer dā'imā" the Sultanstughras (left). In the 17th century, however, they were given a new, standardized form, on which the Beyze are missing and which can thus be significantly differentiated from the Tughras of the sultans. This new form can be seen on one of the most famous letters with the pençe of an Ottoman dignitary, the request of Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pascha to surrender to the Viennese authorities during the Second Turkish Siege of Vienna in 1683 (right, see also below the Tughra of the Crimean Tatar Khan Murad Giray).

The transition from the linear signature to the Pençe and Tughra is conveyed by the signatures of the witnesses on a Vaḳfiye from 1404 (right).

A tughra with imperial claims used Cem , the son of Mehmed II. As Sandschakbey of Karaman in May 1481, about two weeks after the death of his father, the Sultan Mehmed II. The tughra calls him “Cem b. Meḥemmed Ḫān muẓaffer dāʾimā “. It is located on a fermān in which Cem asks the kadis and sanjakbeys of the neighboring provinces to support him and, as he assures, to give him the money he is entitled to from his father's last tax collection. He needed the money to fight for rule with his brother Bayezid, who defeated him and became Sultan Bayezid II.

Also some more Sultan sons ( sehzade ) that a Sanjak managed, had their own Tughras. This is documented for Bayezids II sons Şehin-şah, Ahmed, Alem-şah and Korkud as well as for Süleyman I as Şehzāde and his sons Mehmed and Bayezid. Süleyman's sons even employed their own Nişāncı . It is known from Şehzāde Mehmed that he marked a splendor code from his possession with a seal comparable to that of the Sultanstughras. However, this seal was only 22 mm wide.

Towards the end of the 19th century, it became common for sultan's sons, sultan's daughters, and princely mothers to wear their own tughra-like insignia, which they sometimes designed themselves. The shape of these insignia was based on the tughras of the sultans, but also reflected contemporary tastes due to their proximity to historicism (use of old Arabic scripts such as Kufi ) and European Art Nouveau . They were used, for example, on envelopes.

After his deposition as sultan and his appointment as caliph from 1922 until the abolition of the caliphate in 1924, Abdülmecid II claimed his own caliph tughra.

Statutory ban on the Ottoman tughra

Coat of arms with tughra, removed from a building and taken to the Topkapi Museum

In the middle of 1927, Law No. 1057 stipulated the removal of Tughras as well as Ottoman coats of arms and inscriptions from state and public buildings within the Republic of Turkey. Tughras from state and city buildings had to be housed in museums. If the artistic value is at risk during dismantling, the tughras should be covered on the spot. The decision-making power over the respective procedure lay with the Ministry of Culture. The main purpose of this law was to remove those tughras from the public that were once installed to represent Ottoman rule.

Since imperial buildings such as the Topkapi Seraglio or the Türben of the ruling families were converted into museums, the Tughras there were not endangered. Outside the Turkish Republic, the Tughras were able to partially survive in the area of ​​the former Ottoman Empire, for example at the port gate in Belgrade.

Occurrence of the Tughra outside the Ottoman Empire (selection)

Tughra of Karamanoğlu Damad II İbrahim Bey (1432)
Safavid Tughra of Shah Abbas II (1664)
Tughra by Khan Murad Giray (1683)
Russian tughra (1695)
Mughal Tughra (1776)
Mongolian Damga in an Ilkhan text (1292)

Tughras of the Rum-Seljuk sultans are not known. Only one signature of Sultan Kai Chosrau II , which had a comparable, imperial function, is known. Your text, written in large and red letters, is simply “Sultan”.

After the fall of the Seljuks, the rulers of the Anatolian Emirates ( Beylik ) and sometimes their sons used pronounced tughras. This applies not only to the early Ottomans, but also to the Karamanoğulları , the Saruhanoğulları , the Candaro ğulları and the Aydınoğulları . An example of this is the tughra of Karamanoğlu Damad II. İbrahim Bey on a deed of foundation from 1432 (left). The four Beyze , six Tugh and the names of four generations in the Sere are extraordinary . In some Beylik coins with tughra were also minted.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Egyptian Mamluks used a tughra that differed from the Ottoman typeface. The lettering of the Mamluk sultans was not intertwined, as was the case with the Ottomans, but essentially followed a single horizontal writing line. It is possible that the Mamluks took over the use of the tughra by the Seljuks and the ʿalāma by the Fatimid caliphs . The horizontal line and the high shafts of the letters of the Mamluk Tughra can be found, for example, in later calligraphic representations of the Muslim creed.

The traveler Jean Chardin reported in 1686 (German 1687) of a tughra of the Safavid Shah Abbas II on a letter of protection he received (similar to the top right):

" The [...] figure is called Nichan / is as much as the mark and signature / [...] / The Secretarius and secret writer / so to produce such patents and to sign himself afterwards / knows how to make the features so fine and clear / as if they'd been drawn by the ruler. The whole heading and signature consists of colorful letters [...] "

In addition, the tughra was used as an emblem by the Ḫāns of the Crimean Tatars from the late 16th century, especially in the 17th century . The Ḫāne, who had to pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire at this time, used tughras in most cases, which were more like the pençe of the Ottoman dignitaries. This is particularly clear in the tughra of Ḫān Murad Giray (top right) on a letter of order from 1683 to the “noble, high and low and the whole population” of the city and fortress of Wiener Neustadt , in which the Ḫān demanded money, horses and sable furs . His tughra and the letter are very reminiscent of the pençe and the surrender letter of the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pascha from 1683 (see above).

The peculiarity of the Russian tughra shown below, which is on a letter of friendship from Ivan V and Peter the Great from 1695, is that it has five tugh instead of the three Ottoman ones (which also serve as Alif and Lam ) and den instead of the ruler's name Lettering «بعناية رب العالمين»(“ In the care of the ruler of the world ”), who refers to God (sura 1).

Tughras were also used by the Mughals and the Pashtuns . The depicted Mogul tughra is reminiscent of the stamps ( damga or al-tamgha ) of the Ilkhan , which were given to them by Kublai Khan , the Mongol ruler of the Yuan dynasty. In the literature these are mentioned as possible models for Ottoman tughras.

Incidentally, the various Tughra styles found their way into pious calligraphy for writing verses from the Koran and other religious texts in different times, rooms and scripts; the distribution area extended to Bengal .

Pakistani coin with tughra

In some Islamic countries there were and are stamps and coins with state names in the Tughra style. An example of this is a coin from Pakistan from 1965, i.e. before the separation of Bangladesh . On the back there is a tughra with the words written in Urduپاکستان / Pākistān andحكومت / ḥukūmat  / 'government' are included. In addition, the two words can also be read in Bengali language and script .

In modern art, the Tughra style emancipated itself and became a creative medium for very different contents and statements. Tughras can also be found in some mosques in Germany, for example in the foyer and prayer room of the mosque of the Islamic Forum Penzberg

See also


  • Franz Babinger : The grand tughra: a contribution to the history of the Ottoman document system . Special print, Leipzig 1925.
  • CE Bosworth , J. Deny, Muhammad Yusuf Siddiq: Tughra (t.) . In: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition . Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, CE Bosworth, E. van Donzel and WP Heinrichs. Volume X, Brill, Leiden 2000, ISBN 90-04-11211-1 .
  • Klaus Brisch (ed. And translator): Treasures from the Topkapi Seraglio: the age of Suleyman the Magnificent . Berlin 1988.
  • Jean Deny: Tughra . In Martinus T. Houtsma (ed.): EJ Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936 . Photomechan. repr., Leiden n.d. (English)
  • M. Uğur Derman: Seal of the Sultan: Ottoman calligraphy from the Sakıp Sabancı Museum . Guggenheim, Berlin 2001, ISBN 0-89207-243-1 .
  • İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin: Vakfiye tuğraları . Ankara 2004 (Turkish and English)
  • İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin, Sıddık Çalık: Selçuklu ve beyliklerde vakfiye tuğraları . Ankara 2005 (Turkish and English)
  • Ernst Kühnel: Islamic writing . Graz 1972
  • Ayşegül Nadir (Ed.): Osmanlı Padişah Fermanları. Imperial Ottoman Fermans . London 1986 (Turkish and English)
  • Suha Umur: Osmanlı padişah tuğraları . Istanbul 1980 (Turkish)

Web links

Commons : Tughra  - collection of images, videos and audio files

References and comments

  1. ^ Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925.
  2. a b c d e Jean Deny, Leiden o. J.
  3. al-Kāšġarī: Dīwān Luġāt at-Turk. Volume 1, Maṭbaʿa-ʾi ʿĀmire, Istanbul 1333 (1915), p. 388.
  4. Mahmūd al-Kašgarī: Compendium of the Turkic dialects (Dīwān Lugāt at-Turk) . Turkish Sources VII. Part I-III. Harvard: Harvard University Printing Office, 1982-1985.
  5. ^ Ayşegül Nadir, London 1986, pp. 27, 59.
  6. Suha Umur, Istanbul 1980.
  7. Ayşegül Nadir, London 1986, pp. 11-14.
  8. a b c d e f g "b." Is reproduced in the scientific literature as "bin", "ben" and "ibn"; “Muẓaffer” and “el-muẓaffer” also meet as “muẓaffar” and “al-muẓaffar”; "Dā'imā" is often adapted to the Arabic grammar and written "dā'iman".
  9. Klaus Brisch, Berlin 1988, p. 76.
  10. ^ Paul Wittek: Notes sur la turgha ottomane. In Byzantion XVIII, Brussels 1948, p. 314.
  11. a b c İsmet Keten u. Mehmet Nuri Şahin, Ankara 2004, p. 25.
  12. ↑ As told by Joseph Hammer-Purgstall in History of the Ottoman Empire . First volume, Pest, 1827, p. 173, see also Johann Christian von Engel: The history of the Free State of Ragusa . Vienna 1807, p. 141.
  13. ^ Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, pp. 189f. After that, correspond tugh the three middle fingers of Hançer thumb that "dā'imā" the little finger and the Sere the palm. Accordingly, Murad I would have used the left hand, which is considered to be ḥarām .
  14. ^ Sheila S. Blair: Islamic Calligraphy . Edinburgh 2006, reprinted 2007, pp. 270-273.
  15. The most valuable colors were gold ( gold powder mixed with lemon juice , saffron , water and gum arabic and polished with horn or ivory after writing ) and blue (made from ground lapis lazuli ). See Ernst Kühnel: Islamic Writing . Graz 1972, p. 83.
  16. ^ Istanbul - The City and the Sultan . [catalog of the Exhibition], Amsterdam 2006, catalog numbers 248 u. 250.
  17. ^ Klaus Brisch, Berlin 1988, catalog number 11.
  18. ^ Istanbul - The City and the Sultan . [catalog of the Exhibition], Amsterdam 2006, catalog numbers 143.
  19. ^ Josef Matuz: Rulers' certificates of the Ottoman sultans Süleyman the Magnificent. A chronological directory. Freiburg im Breisgau 1971 and the law firm of Süleyman des Magnificent . Wiesbaden 1974.
  20. It was common to keep the text formula. Mustafa III only. changed the text of his tughra during his reign. He exchanged the title ḫān for the title şāh . See Suha Umur, Istanbul 1980, pp. 268 f.
  21. The terms tevḳīʿ (from Arabicتوقيع), nişān (from Persianنشان) and ʿalāmet (from Arabicعلامة) are synonyms for tughra .
  22. A brief introduction to Ottoman filing and diplomacy .
  23. ^ Josef Matuz: On the language of the documents of Suleyman the Magnificent. In Acta Orient. Hung. XXVI (2–3), 1971, pages 285–297 freidok.uni-freiburg.de (PDF)
  24. Klaus Brisch, Berlin 1988, p. 77.
  25. Ayşegül Nadir, London 1986, p. 14 f.
  26. Just as the Nişāncı rose from insignia maker to head of the chancellery among the Ottomans, the Tughra scribe also became state secretary among the Seljuks, which is evident from the name of the Persian physicist, astrologer and alchemist Muʾaiyad ad-Dīn Abū Ismāʿīl al-Ḥusaynṭn ʿ Ṭuġrāʾī, who at the beginning of the 12th century held the second highest rank in the Seljuk administration. See also en: Al-Tughrai .
  27. An example: Josef Matuz: An unusual Ottoman grand vizier title . (PDF; 3.7 MB).
  28. ^ Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, p. 195.
  29. ^ Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, p. 191 f.
  30. ^ Ottoman coins and Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, plate 105.
  31. Ottoman coins .
  32. ^ Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, p. 192.
  33. ^ "Tura" in the Türk Dil Kurumu
  34. "tura" in Nisanyansozluk
  35. ^ Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall: Treatise on the seals of the Arabs, Persians and Turks: (presented in the historical-philological class on March 9, 1848). Vienna 1850, p. 10 f. Online University and State Library of Saxony-Anhalt
  36. File: Ottoman grave Istanbul March 2008pano.jpg .
  37. File: Gallipoli-star-BBen Co..jpg .
  38. File: Timbre Ottoman 1901 20paras bright.jpg .
  39. Dagger knife with scabbard ( Memento of the original from June 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.tuerkenbeute.de
  40. Tughra on the sheath for throwing skewers ( Memento of the original from June 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.tuerkenbeute.de
  41. Sumptuous saddle cloth ( Memento of the original from June 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.tuerkenbeute.de
  42. ^ Istanbul - The City and the Sultan . [catalog of the Exhibition], Amsterdam 2006, catalog number 199 (18th century armchair), catalog number 119 (die for pastilles, late 18th century).
  43. M. Uğur Derman: Seal of the Sultan. Ottoman calligraphy from the Sabancı Museum, Sabancı University, Istanbul . Berlin 2001, p. 9.
  44. İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin u. Sıddık Çalık, Ankara 2005.
  45. Suha Umur, Istanbul 1980, pp. 133-143 u. 78-80.
  46. ^ A b Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, p. 196 and plate 105.
  47. ^ Friedrich von Kraelitz-Greifenhorst: Studies on the Ottoman doctrine of documents. I. The hand feasts (Penče) of the Ottoman. Viziers. In communications on Ottoman history . Volume II 1923-1926, Neudruck Osnabrück 1972, pp. 257-268 u. Table I-III.
  48. İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin u. Sıddık Çalık, Ankara 2005, p. 144.
  49. File: Ferman Cem Sultan.jpg .
  50. Ayşegül Nadir, London 1986, p. 38 f.
  51. Suha Umur, Istanbul 1980, pp. 133-143, 155f and 161-167.
  52. Friedrich von Kraelitz-Greifenhorst: The Tughra of the Ottoman prince. In: Mitteilungen zur Ottoman Geschichte , Vol. 1, Vienna 1922.
  53. Friedrich von Kraelitz-Greifenhorst: The Tuğra of the Ottoman princes. In communications on Ottoman history . Volume I 1921-1922, reprint Osnabrück 1972, p. 167 f.
  54. a b antikalar.com Mektup Kâğıtlarındaki Sultan ve Şehzade İnisyalleri.
  55. Act No. 1057 of May 28, 1927 on the removal of all tughras and inscriptions on state and public buildings within the Republic of Turkey, RG No. 608 of June 15, 1927; Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Dahilinde Bulunan Bilumum Mebanii Resmiye Ve Milliye Üzerindeki Tuğra Ve Methiyelerin Kaldırılması Hakkında Kanun ( Wikisource ).
  56. File: Port Gate tughra.jpg .
  57. The Damga serves here to certify the pasting of new pages to the decree. You can tell by the color change under the damga. See Sheila S. Blair: Islamic Calligraphy . Edinburgh 2006, reprinted 2007, p. 272 ​​f.
  58. Compare with this the ma'qili by Ahmad Karahisar around 1550.
  59. İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin u. Sıddık Çalık, Ankara 2005, p. 40 and 66.
  60. İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin u. Sıddık Çalık, Ankara 2005, p. 30 f.
  61. The text of the Tughra is "Ibrāhīm b. Meḥmed b. ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn b. Ḳaramān “ . See İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin, and others. Sıddık Çalık, Ankara 2005, p. 34.
  62. İsmet Keten, Mehmet Nuri Şahin u. Sıddık Çalık, Ankara 2005, p. 34.
  63. Images of coins in Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, plate 105, 7-10.
  64. File: Mamluk tughra.jpg .
  65. ↑ Compare with a tughra from Delhi from 1325 .
  66. ^ Sheila S. Blair: Islamic Calligraphy . Edinburgh 2006, reprinted 2007, p. 206.
  67. ^ Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, p. 192 f.
  68. cf. Creed depicted by the Ottoman calligrapher Es-Seyid Mehmed Nuri (19th century).
  69. ^ Franz Babinger, Leipzig 1925, footnote 27.
  70. Friedrich von Kraelitz-Greifenhorst : Letter of invitation and contribution from the Tatar Ḫan Murād Giraj from 1683 at Wr. Neustadt. In communications on Ottoman history . Volume I 1921-1922, reprint Osnabrück 1972, p. 223 ff and Plate III.
  71. Sagit F. Faizov: Тугра и Вселенная. . Мохаббат-наме и шерт-наме крымских ханов и принцев в орнаментальном, сакральном и дипломатическом контекстах (tugra i Vselennaja Mochabbat-name i SERT name krymskich Chanov i Prinčev v ornamentalnom, sakralnom i diplomaticeskom kontekstach, [ German: tughra and Muhabbet universe. -name and şart-name of Crimean Tatar khans and princes in the ornamental, sacred and diplomatic context]) . Archives art, Moscow 2002, fig. 71 u. 72.
  72. See also Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall: History of the Ilchane, that is: the Mongols in Persia . Darmstadt 1842, table of contents: keywords Siegel, Temgha, Temghadschi - and Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall: History of the Golden Horde in Kipchak, that is: the Mongols in Russia . Pesth 1840, p. 182 f, 218 u. 306
  73. Bengali calligraphy See also the work of the Sudan-born Osman Waqialla ( memento of August 8, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) from 1980 and of Hassan Musa, born in 1951 .
  74. ^ Sheila S. Blair: Islamic Calligraphy . Edinburgh 2006, reprinted 2007, p. 611 ff.
  75. Emma Mages: Writing in contemporary sacred architecture: the mosque in Penzberg compared with the Ohel Jakob synagogue and the Herz-Jesu-Kirche in Munich. Herbert Utz Verlag, Munich, pp. 22-25.
  76. E.g. recognizable in the background on the wall in this photo , taken during a visit by the German Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier .
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on March 25, 2009 .