saffron


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saffron
Saffron (Crocus sativus), illustration

Saffron ( Crocus sativus ), illustration

Systematics
Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Monocots
Order : Asparagales (Asparagales)
Family : Iris family (Iridaceae)
Genre : Crocuses ( crocus )
Type : saffron
Scientific name
Crocus sativus
L.
Saffron harvest in Kashmir, India
Saffron bulbs for vegetative propagation

The saffron (from Arabic / Persian زعفران, DMG zaʿfarān , "the yellow", "saffron"), scientific name Crocus sativus , is a type of crocus that flowers purple in autumn. The spice, also known as saffron , is extracted from the stigmas of their flowers (the “styluses”) .

This plant species is a triploid mutant of the Aegean island native Crocus cartwrightianus . Because of the threefold set of chromosomes, it is sterile and can only be propagated vegetatively by tuber division. The root form Crocus cartwrightianus has significantly shorter, but also aromatic stigmas.

description

Each flower contains a stylus branching out into three stigmas . Only these sweet and aromatic scented pens are used as a spice when dried . To obtain one kilogram of them, you need around 150,000 to 200,000 flowers from a cultivation area of ​​around 10,000 square meters (1 ha); the harvest is purely manual work, a picker manages 60 to 80 grams a day. In addition, saffron only flowers once a year in autumn (and only for a few weeks). That is why saffron is one of the most expensive spices and is also known as "red gold". In retail, you pay between 4 and 30 euros per gram .

The number of chromosomes is 3n = 24, rarely 16.

botany

The saffron plant comes from the iris family and is a perennial species of crocus. The saffron tuber only drifts in autumn and survives in the ground for the rest of the year.

Because of the external similarity of saffron corm with an onion , saffron is often wrongly into the category of bulbs divided, but it is the saffron is a bulbous plant . Accordingly, the saffron bulbs themselves are often just as inappropriately referred to as onions.

The flower of the saffron plant is made up of 6 lilac-colored perigone leaves which open into the flower tube. Every saffron plant produces a light yellow style annually, which is located inside the flower tube. This light yellow stylus divides into three to six 2.5 cm - 4.5 cm long red stigma branches at the top of the flower. These scar branches represent the finished saffron spice after harvest.

Cultivation

Saffron is grown in Afghanistan , Iran , Kashmir , southern France , Spain , Morocco , Greece (around Kozani ), Turkey (in Safranbolu ), Italy ( Sardinia , Abruzzo , Tuscany ) and - again since 2006 and 2007 - in Austria (Pannonian saffron ( Crocus Austriacus ); Wachau saffron). Saffron cultivation has been documented in Italy since the 13th and in Germany since the 15th century. There is a small cultivation area of ​​18,000 square meters in the Swiss village of Mund , where between 1.5 and 2 kilograms of saffron are harvested per year - depending on the weather and temperatures. Saffron has been grown again in Germany since 2012/13, at the Doctorshof in Venningen (Palatinate), in Saxony near Dresden (Saxen-Safran), at Altenburg Castle (Thuringia) and in Bittenfeld (Baden-Württemberg).

“Around 200 tons of saffron are produced every year. If you judge by production quantities, then Iran comes first with approx. 170 to 180 tons annually. This makes up to 91% of the market share. "

Crocus sativus

use

Saffron from Austria, 2 grams
Dried saffron threads, origin Iran

Saffron tastes bitter-tart-hot, which, unlike the typical scent, does not come into play with normal doses. It contains carotenoids , especially crocin , so that dishes flavored with saffron turn an intense golden yellow color. It also contains the bitter substance saffron bitter , from which the aldehyde Safranal , which is responsible for the saffron aroma, is partially formed during drying . Other flavorings include isophorones . Well-known dishes with saffron are bouillabaisse , risotto alla milanese , lussekatter and paella . In Persian cuisine , rice dishes are particularly popular with saffron.

Saffron must be stored in tightly closing metal or glass containers, protected from light and moisture, as the spice quickly fades in the light and the essential oil evaporates relatively easily. Saffron was also used as a coloring agent; the water-soluble dye crocetin is glycosidically bound to the disaccharide gentiobiose in the plant ; this compound is known as crocin (see above). Already Pliny the Elder mentions saffron as a colorant. It was also used to imitate gold writing or to make tin or silver appear like gold . It was also used in mixtures with other pigments or dyes .

In order to preserve the aromatic scent, saffron should not be boiled for long. It is advisable to soak the scarring for a few minutes in a little warm water and to add the liquid to the dish towards the end of the cooking time. An even more intense color is obtained if the saffron threads are freshly ground in a mortar.

Medical importance

Saffron has played an important role in medicine in the Orient for thousands of years. Even today the plant is valued for its medicinal properties and international research is being carried out on saffron extract in particular. Studies have shown a nerve-strengthening effect of saffron extract. They also showed that saffron has a mood-lifting effect in mild to moderate depressive moods , e.g. B. in the context of PMS , (post) menopause and baby blues . The studies came to the conclusion that saffron extract is just as suitable for depressive moods as an antidepressant .

Counterfeit and substitute products

The counterfeiting of saffron is still widespread today: counterfeits can consist of a mixture of turmeric . Saffron threads are also counterfeited, but anyone familiar with the look and smell can tell the difference. A more reliable chemical proof is adding caustic soda to a solution of some “saffron powder”: If it is pure saffron, the solution remains yellow; if it contains turmeric, it becomes cloudy and turns red. This test was already common among spice dealers centuries ago. It is based on the different chemical properties of the colorants contained in saffron and turmeric.

False saffron ( safflower ) is a term for the safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius ), which used for dyeing silk was used. This spice colors the dish weaker than real saffron and does not add its own flavor. The tubular flowers of safflower can be distinguished from the thread-like stigma of saffron with the naked eye. With real saffron, the stigma legs must be about two to three centimeters long, curled in a funnel shape and notched at the top.

In antiquity and the Middle Ages, the safflower was also regarded as a harmful juice laxative under the names crocus ortensis and crocus ortolanus .

Saffron for homeopathic applications is monographed in the European Pharmacopoeia and contains the common tests for the identity and purity of saffron.

To curb counterfeiting and replacement products and to increase consumer safety , are quality criteria defined. Characteristics such as coloring power, aroma concentration (Safranal) and concentration of bitterness (Picrocrocin) are grouped into four categories. In addition to the international ISO standard 3632, there are also national standards.

Common names

The other German trivial names Chruogo ( Old High German ), Croc (Old High German), Broze (Old High German), Brugo (Old High German), Gewürzsafran, Kruago (Old High German) exist or existed for saffron (Latin Crocus and in German often synonymous with Krokus ), Saffaran ( Middle High German ), Saffart (Middle High German), Saffaren (Middle High German), Safferain (Middle High German), Safferen (Middle High German), Safferon (Middle High German), Safferntblume ( Bern ), Saffran (Middle High German), Saffrat (Middle High German), Saffrath) ( Oriental saffron (Latin Crocus orientalis ), Safrich ( Swabian ), Schaffner (Middle High German), Seydfarb (Middle High German), Sintvarwe (Old High German), Soffraen (Middle High German) and Suffran (Middle High German).

history

Saffron harvest. Florentine manuscript of Tacuinum Sanitatis , 14th century

The use of saffron is attested in frescoes of the Minoan culture on Crete as early as 3,600 years ago; the origin of the species can be localized by plant genetic studies in Attica . Saffron was traded in the Mediterranean area by the Phoenicians , among others , who used it as a medicinal and spice agent. It was already a luxury item in ancient times . There were heavy penalties for forging or cutting saffron.

In the ancient Orient , garments dyed with saffron or at least saffron-yellow were part of the ruler's garb. This special cultural significance was taken up and continued several times in Greek mythology . So you want Iliad of Homer under the couch of According to Zeus and Hera have grown saffron. Saffron-colored clothing is also attested in Greek myths for Dionysus , Jason , the newly born Heracles , but above all for goddesses and rulers.

Homer reported that every asking price for saffron was paid. In the Middle Ages, on the other hand, it was three times as expensive as pepper . In many cultures it was customary to color the wedding veil yellow with saffron. Wealthy Romans sprinkled saffron threads on their wedding beds.

With saffron ointments were medicated patch ( oxycroceum : vinegar and saffron patch) prepared balms and scented oils and flavored dishes, whose intense aroma beside Cicero u. a. Petronius in the Cena Trimalchionis reports: omnes enim placentae omniaque poma etiam minima vexatione contacta coeperunt effundere crocum, et usque ad os molestus umor accidere (“All cakes and all apples, if you touched them only gently, began to spatter saffron water until the unpleasant liquid hit us on our faces. ”). As Pliny the Elder noted, it was used as a medicine and wine additive, and Emperor Heliogabal is said to have preferred to bathe in water mixed with saffron.

When, as part of the Islamic expansion in the early Middle Ages, trade in the Mediterranean came under Arab control, the previous Greek (κρόκος) and Latin (Crocus sativus) names for saffron were replaced by the Arabic “zaʿfarān”, which is also the word for the plant comes from most European languages.

Medieval and modern anecdotes and reports on the intoxicating effects of saffron, which have been found in medical and botanical literature since antiquity, owe the expressions in sacco croci dormivit ("He slept on a saffron sack"), crocum edisse ("Saffron have eaten ”) and the proverbial Le fol na que faire de saffren documented in the French vernacular of the Middle Ages , in its Latin version croco stultus non eget (“ The stupid / madman / fool doesn't need saffron <more> ”). This describes a very exuberant, 'crazy' behavior that is supposed to remind of the person under the influence of high doses of saffron. Writes Peter Lauremberg (1585-1639) in his Apparatus plantarius :

“De hilaritudine in pectus concitanda, a croci esu, res est apud Medicos & Botanicos celebratissima, apud quos experimento comprobatum est, drachmas circiter tres, cum vino haustas, tanta laetitia homines perfundere, ut iis contingat nimio risu exsolvi, ebriis similes etiam dejici de bona mente, & ridendo aut finire vitam, aut vehementer periclitari. Amatus Lusitanus citat ad Testimonium exemplum Mercatoris, qui plus nimio assumens, tam profuse in risum solutus est, ut fere illi prae cachinno rupta fuerint ilia. Idemque scribit se observasse in alio sacco croci pleno indormierat. Hoc est quod Galenus annotavit Lib. II Med. Loc. Crocum caput opplere, & perturbare arcem rationis ... "
“The matter of the cheerfulness evoked in the soul through the consumption of saffron is very well known among doctors and botanists, who have been shown in experiments that about three drachms of saffron (~ 13.5 to 18 g) <mixed> with wine Filling people with such great happiness that it happens to them that they burst into excessive laughter, they become like drunkards, often even lose their minds and either die with laughter or are in great danger. As proof, Amatus Lusitanus cites the example of a trader who ate more than too much and broke out into such immoderate laughter that his bowels almost ripped apart with roaring laughter. And he writes that he saw the same thing with another who fell asleep on a sack full of saffron. The following notices Galen in Lib. II Med. Loc. that the saffron floods the head and confuses the seat of the mind ... "
Cover picture from JFH von Todenfeld . Crocologia . 1671

In the 17th century, Johann Ferdinand Hertodt von Todenfeld wrote the Crocologia seu curiosa Croci Regis vegetabilium enucleatio, an extensive work that brings together countless pharmaceutical recipes for the treatment of various diseases from diarrhea and dropsy to hypochondria caused by the saffron plant.

From the 16th century onwards, saffron production became very important in the English Saffron Walden .

At the beginning of the 20th century Austria was the cultivation center of Central Europe. The saffron of the highest quality has also been referred to as Crócus austriacus.

According to the nursery rhyme Backe, Bake Kuchen , saffron is one of seven essential ingredients in a good cake, which it turns yellow. The text goes back to a 15th century “ mus ” recipe with the same description of ingredients.

swell

Historical illustrations

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Thomas Schmidt, Tony Heitkam, Susan Liedtke, Veit Schubert, Gerhard Menzel: Adding color to a century-old enigma: multi-color chromosome identification unravels the autotriploid nature of saffron (Crocus sativus) as a hybrid of wild Crocus cartwrightianus cytotypes. In: New Phytologist. Volume 222, number 4, June 2019, pp. 1965–1980, ISSN  1469-8137 , DOI: 10.1111 / nph.15715 .
  2. Saffron - the "red gold" of Switzerland. Contribution to the ARD broadcast “[w] wie know” on February 3, 2008.
  3. Ann-Kathrin Hipp: Saffron Crocuses. Five friends harvest red gold. In: Der Tagesspiegel from November 6, 2017.
  4. ^ Tropicos. [1]
  5. Pannonian saffron . Entry no. 185 in the register of traditional foods of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Regions and Tourism . Retrieved February 14, 2013.
  6. Moriz Kronfeld : Past and present of saffron cultivation in Lower Austria. In: Leaves of the Association for Regional Studies of Lower Austria , New Series, 26, 1892, pp. 69–75.
  7. ^ Emil Karl Blümml : From the past of saffron farming in Lower Austria. In: Zeitschrift für Volkskunde 10, 1900, p. 340 f.
  8. Arno Borst: Life forms in the Middle Ages. Frankfurt am Main / Berlin / Vienna 1973, paperback edition there 1979 and 1982, p. 390.
  9. ^ Emil Karl Blümml (1900): Crocus austriacus = C. sativus L. var. Culta autumnalis.
  10. ^ Munder Safran ( Memento from December 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
  11. www.altenburger-safran.de .
  12. Saffron - History ( Memento from December 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  13. ^ Food Rev. Int. 16: 39-59 (2000)
    KR Cadwallader; in: P. Winterhalter, R. Rouseff (Eds.): Carotenoid-Derived Aroma Compounds ; ACS Symposium Series 802; Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 2002; Pp. 220-239.
  14. M. Moshiri, M. Vahabzadeh, H. Hosseinzadeh: Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review . tape 65 (6) . Drug Res (Stuttg), June 2015, p. 287-295 .
  15. A. Akhondzadeh Basti, E. Moshiri, AA Noorbala, AH Jamshidi, SH Abbasi, S. Akhondzadeh: Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial. tape 31 (2) . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, March 30, 2007, p. 439-442 .
  16. TALASAR: Prescription-free mood enhancer in the pharmacy | TALASAR®. Retrieved January 3, 2019 .
  17. M. Agha-Hosseini, L. Kashani, A. Aleyaseen, A. Ghoreishi, H. Rahmanpour, AR Zarrinara, S. Akhondzadeh: Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. tape 115 (4) . BJOG, March 2008, p. 515-519 .
  18. L. Kashani, S. Esalatmanesh, F. Eftekhari, S. Salimi, T. Foroughifar, F. Etesam, H. Safiaghdam, E. Moazen-Zadeh, S. Akhondzadeh: Efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in treatment of major Depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. tape 297 (3) . Arch Gynecol Obstet., March 2018, p. 717-724 .
  19. L. Kashani, S. Eslatmanesh, N. Saedi, N. Niroomand, M. Ebrahimi, M. Hosseinian, T. Foroughifar, S. Salimi, S. Akhondzadeh: Comparison of Saffron versus Fluoxetine in Treatment of Mild to Moderate Postpartum Depression : A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial. tape 50 (2) . Pharmacopsychiatry, March 2017, p. 64-68 .
  20. AA Noorbala, p Akhondzadeh, N. Tahmacebi-Pour, AH Jamshidi: Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. 97 (2) edition. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005, p. 281-284 .
  21. ^ Emil Ernst Ploß: A book of old colors. Technology of textile colors in the Middle Ages with an outlook on solid colors. 6th edition. Munich 1989, p. 83.
  22. Lorenz Fries : Synonima and just explanation of the words as one is to write in the artzny, all herbs, Wurtzlen, Bluomen, Somen, rocks, juices and other things… Strasbourg 1519, sheet XVI
  23. Udo Benzenhöfer : Johannes' de Rupescissa Liber de consideratione quintae essentiae omnium rerum German. Studies on Alchemia medica from the 15th to 17th centuries with a critical edition of the text. Stuttgart 1989, p. 126.
  24. ^ Constantinus Africanus : De gradibus quos vocant simplicium liber. In: Constantini Africani post Hippocratem et Galenum… Henricus Petrus, Basel 1536, pp. 342–387; here: p. 363.
  25. European Pharmacopoeia; 4th edition; 4/1624: Crocus for homeopathic preparations; Pp. 1085-1086.
  26. ^ Saffron quality ( memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
  27. ISO standard 3632 on saffron .
  28. ^ Georg August Pritzel , Carl Jessen : The German folk names of plants. New contribution to the German linguistic treasure. Philipp Cohen, Hannover 1882, p. 118, ( online ).
  29. Zahra Nematia, Dörte Harpkea, Almila Gemicioglu, Helmut Kerndorff, Frank R. Blattner: Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an autotriploid that evolved in Attica (Greece) from wild Crocus cartwrightianus. In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Volume 136, 2019, pp. 14-20, doi: 10.1016 / j.ympev.2019.03.022 .
  30. Homer, Iliad 14.348.
  31. Ferdinand Orth : Safran . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IA, 2, Stuttgart 1920, col. 1728-1731, here col. 1729.
  32. Ulrike Bültjer: Lexicon of herbs and spices. Bassermann Verlag, Munich 2011, p. 52.
  33. Dieter Lehmann: Two medical prescription books of the 15th century from the Upper Rhine. Part I: Text and Glossary. Horst Wellm, Pattensen / Han. 1985, now at Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 34), ISBN 3-921456-63-0 , p. 232.
  34. Petri Laurembergii Rostochiensis, Apparatus Plantarius Primus… Merian, Frankfurt 1632, p. 44 (digitized version )
  35. ^ Johann Ferdinand Hertodt von Todenfeld : Crocologia seu curiosa Croci Regis vegetabilium enucleatio: continens illius etymologiam, differentias, tempus quo viret & floret ... Trescher, Jena 1671 (digitized version )
  36. ^ Recordinguttlesfordhistory.org.uk: Saffron Walden
  37. ^ Entry on saffron in the Austria Forum  (in the Heimatlexikon) accessed on October 26, 2012.
  38. Pedanios Dioscurides . 1st century: De Medicinali Materia libri quinque. Translation. Julius Berendes . Pedanius Dioscurides' medicine theory in 5 books. Enke, Stuttgart 1902, p. (Book I, Chapter 25): Krokos (digitized version )
  39. Pliny the Elder , 1st century: Naturalis historia book XXI, chapters 81–82 (§ 137–139): Crocus (digitized version) ; Translation Külb 1855 (digitized version )
  40. Galen , 2nd century De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus , Book VII, Chapter X / 57 (based on the Kühn 1826 edition, Volume XII, p. 48): Crocus (digitized version)
  41. Avicenna , 11th century: Canon of Medicine . Translation and adaptation by Gerhard von Cremona , Arnaldus de Villanova and Andrea Alpago (1450–1521). Basel 1556, Volume II, Chapter 129: Crocus (digital copy) ; Chapter 165: Crocoma (digitized version )
  42. Constantine the African , 11th century: Liber de gradibus simplicium . Pressure. Opera . Basel 1536, p. 353: Crocus (digitized version)
  43. Circa instans 12th century print. Venice 1497, p. 194r-v: Crocus (digitized version )
  44. ^ Pseudo-Serapion 13th century, print. Venice 1497, sheet 121r-v (No CLXXIII): Zahafaran. Crocus (digitized version)
  45. Abu Muhammad ibn al-Baitar , 13th century, Kitāb al-jāmiʿ li-mufradāt al-adwiya wa al-aghdhiya. Translation. Joseph Sontheimer under the title Large compilation on the powers of the well-known simple healing and food. Hallberger, Stuttgart Volume I 1840, pp. 530-532: Zafaran. Crocus sativus (digitized version)
  46. ^ Konrad von Megenberg , 14th century: Book of nature. Output. Franz Pfeiffer . Aue, Stuttgart 1861, p. 392 (V / 25): Saffran (digitized)
  47. Herbarius Moguntinus , Mainz 1484, Part II, Chapter 16: Crocus (digitized version)
  48. Gart der Gesundheit . Mainz 1485, chapter 121: Crocus. Saffron (digitized version )
  49. Hortus sanitatis 1491, Mainz 1491, Part I, Chapter 145: Crocus (digitized version)
  50. ^ Otto Brunfels : Ander Teyl des Teütschen Contrafayten Kreüterbůchs . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1537, p. 14: Crocus. Saffron (digitized version)
  51. Hieronymus Bock : New Kreütter Bůch . Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, Part II, Chapter 76: Saffron (digitized version )
  52. Leonhart Fuchs : New Kreütterbuch… Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, Chapter 167: Saffran (digitized version )
  53. ^ Pietro Andrea Mattioli : Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 17r – 18r: Saffran (digitized)
  54. Petri Laurembergii Rostochiensis, Apparatus Plantarius Primus… Merian, Frankfurt 1632, pp. 42–47 (Caput VI): Crocus (digitized version )
  55. ^ Nicolas Lémery : Cours de chymie… Paris 1675. Translation: Johann Christian Zimmermann. Nicolas Lemery. Nicolai Lemeri cursus chymicus, or perfect chymist: who teaches the most sensible, easiest and safest way to prepare the chymic preparata and processes occurring in medicine; translated from French . Walther, Dresden 1754, p. 322 (Part II, Chapter 24): Elixirium Proprietatis (digitized version )
  56. Nicolas Lémery: Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, p. 235: Crocus (digital copy) ; Translation: Complete Lexicon of Materials. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, column 366: Crocus (digitized version)
  57. Albrecht von Haller (editor): Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and the art of pharmacy clearly and completely [...]. Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, Sp. 499–504: Crocus (digitized version )
  58. ^ William Cullen : A treatise of the materia medica. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, pp. 312-314: Crocus (digitized) . German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, pp. 352–356: Safran (digitized version )
  59. ^ Jean-Louis Alibert : Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale. Crapart, Paris Volume II 1804/05, pp. 641-643: Safran. Crocus (digitized version)
  60. August Friedrich Hecker 's practical medicine theory. Revised and enriched with the latest discoveries by a practicing doctor . Camesius, Vienna, Volume I 1814, pp. 458-462: Crocus. Saffron (digitized)
  61. ^ Mathieu Orfila : Traité des poisons… Paris 1814-1815. Translation: Sigismund Friedrich Hermbstädt : General toxicology or poison science: in which the poisons of the mineral, vegetable and animal kingdoms from the physiological, pathological and similar. medico-judicial aspects are examined. After the French of Mr. MP Orfila . Amelung, Berlin 1818, part III, p. 232 (digitized version)
  62. Jonathan Pereira’s Handbook of Medicines Doctrine. From the point of view of the German Medicin edited by Rudolf Buchheim . Leopold Voss, Leipzig 1846-48, Volume II 1848, pp. 117–121: Crocus sativus (digitized version)
  63. Johann Gottfried Rademacher : Justification of the misunderstood, intellectual empirical teaching of the old divorced secret doctors and faithful communication of the result of 25 years of testing this teaching on the sickbed . 2 volumes. Berlin 1841–1848, 3rd edition 1848, Volume I pp. 197–198: Saffron as a liver remedy (digitized version )
  64. ^ Theodor Husemann : Handbook of the entire drug theory. Springer, Berlin 2nd ed. 1883, pp. 403-405: Crocus. Stigmata Croci (digitized version )
  65. ^ Robert Bentley , Henry Trimen : Medicinal plants. J. & A. Churchill, London 1880, Volume 4, No 274: Crocus sativus (digitized version)
  66. ^ Translation of the text by Franz Unterkircher. Tacuinum sanitatis ... Graz 2004, p. 79: Krokus. warm and dry complexion in the first degree. Preferable: grown in the garden, redder, more oriental. Benefit: pleases the heart and is good for a cold brain. Damage: creates disgust. Prevention of damage: with quince juice or spicy seasoned wine. What it produces: good, fine blood that is sharp, however. Beneficial for people with cold complexion, for old people, in winter and in northern areas.
  67. According to Hermann Fischer (Medieval Plant Science. Munich 1929, p. 85), the illustration for the chapter "Crocus saffran" in the Garden of Health shows common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) .

literature

  • Rita Henss: Saffron. Mandelbaum, Vienna 2017, ISBN 978-3-85476-541-7 .
  • Heidrun Janner: Saffron - Crócus sativus: historical, socio-cultural, phytochemical, economic and cultivation aspects of an old cultivated plant. Dipl. Arb., Univ. for soil culture, Vienna 1998.
  • Moshe Negbi: Saffron - Crocus sativus L. Harwood Acad. Publ., Amsterdam 1999, ISBN 90-5702-394-6 .
  • Ferdinand Orth : Saffron . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume IA, 2, Stuttgart 1920, Col. 1728-1731.
  • Heike E. Sunder-Plassmann: Saffron - Crocus sativus Linnaeus var. Culta autumnalis; Phytology, ingredients, production, processing, use, quality, marketing. Dipl.Arb., Univ. Vienna, Vienna 2005.
  • Maria Tscholakowa: On the history of the medicinal use of saffron (Crocus sativus). In: Kyklos. Yearbook of the History and Philosophy of Medicine. Volume 2, 1929, pp. 179-190.
  • Elisabeth Vaupel: Spices - Eight cultural and historical treasures. Deutsches Museum, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-924183-85-6 .

Movie

  • At table in Abruzzo . Documentary, Germany, 2004, 26 min., Script and director: Wilma Pradetto, production: ZDF , summary by arte.
  • Where the pepper grows - On the trail of the spices (3/3) Saffron and Vanilla (The Spice Trail - Vanilla And Saffron). Documentary, Great Britain 2011, 45 min., Original first broadcast: March 3, 2011 BBC Two, German first broadcast: September 15, 2012 ZDFneo

Web links

Commons : Safran  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Safran  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations