|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||112 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||328.48 km 2|
|Residents:||556,780 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1695 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||01067-01328, 01465|
|Primaries :||0351, 035201|
|License plate :||DD|
|Community key :||14 6 12 000|
|LOCODE :||DE DRS|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Dirk Hilbert ( FDP )|
|Location of the city of Dresden in Saxony|
Dresden ( Upper Sorbian Drježdźany ; derived from Old Sorbian Drežďany for swamp or alluvial forest inhabitants ) is the capital of the Free State of Saxony . With around 557,000 inhabitants as of December 31, 2019, Dresden is the second largest Saxon municipality after Leipzig , the second largest city in the new federal states and the twelfth largest city in Germany .;
As the seat of the Saxon state government and the Saxon state parliament as well as numerous state authorities , the city is the political center of Saxony. In addition, important educational and cultural institutions of the Free State are concentrated here, including the renowned Technical University , the University of Technology and Economics , the University of Fine Arts Dresden and the University of Music Carl Maria von Weber Dresden . The at the same location independent city is both one of the six regional centers of Saxony and transportation hub and economic center of the conurbation Dresden , one of the economically most dynamic regions in Germany with more than 780,000 inhabitants. Innovations and cutting-edge technologies play an outstanding role in the Dresden area; Information technology and nanoelectronics are economically significant , which is why it is also positioned as the center of “ Silicon Saxony ”. The pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, machine, vehicle and plant construction, food, optical industry, services, trade and tourism sectors also generate great added value in the Dresden area.
Archaeological traces in the later urban area indicate a settlement as early as the Stone Age . Dresden was first mentioned in documents that have been preserved in 1206 and developed into the electoral, later royal residence and capital of the Saxon republics .
Dresden is internationally known as a cultural city with numerous important buildings such as the baroque Zwinger , outstanding museums such as the Old Masters Picture Gallery and famous orchestras such as the Saxon State Orchestra or the Kreuzchor . The old town of Dresden was largely reconstructed and shaped by various architectural epochs, in addition to the Zwinger, for example, the Frauenkirche am Neumarkt , the Semperoper and the Hofkirche as well as the Residenzschloss . The Striezelmarkt , founded in 1434, is one of the oldest and most famous Christmas markets in Germany. Dresden is also called Florence on the Elbe , originally mainly because of its art collections ; Its baroque and Mediterranean architecture as well as its picturesque and climatically favorable location in the Elbe Valley contributed significantly to this .
Location and area
The city lies on both sides of the Elbe to a large extent in the Dresden Elbe valley widening , embedded between the foothills of the Eastern Ore Mountains , the steep drop of the Lusatian granite slab and the Elbe Sandstone Mountains at the transition from the northeast German lowlands to the eastern low mountain ranges in southern Eastern Germany .
The northern and northeastern urban area therefore naturally belongs to the West Lusatian hills and mountains ( Dresdner Heide and Schönfelder Hochland ). In the south, the valley exits of the Erzgebirge outflows and high altitudes mark the transition to the Eastern Erzgebirgsvorland (more delimited as Dresdner Erzgebirgsvorland and Meißner Hochland ). The Dresden Elbe valley expansion is a sub-unit of the Saxon Elbe region . The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation assigned Dresden completely to the large natural landscape " D19 Saxon hill country and Erzgebirgsvorland ".
As a height reference for Dresden, the Altmarkt is the central square of the city with a height of , the zero point of the Elbe level is 102.73 m. The highest point in the urban area is the 383 m high Triebenberg located to the right of the Elbe , the lowest point is on the banks of the Elbe in Niederwartha at 101 m.
After partly large-scale incorporations, the city is the fourth largest city in Germany after Berlin , Hamburg and Cologne and ahead of Bremen and Munich and is in 13th place in the list of the 100 largest municipalities in Germany . The length of the city limits is 139.65 km. The extension of the urban area amounts to 22.6 km in north-south direction and 27.1 km in east-west direction.
Through the city to flow out of the navigable Elbe (length in the urban area: 30 km), the two in the Osterzgebirge springing left tributaries Lockwitzbach and Weißeritz and the right accruing Prießnitz . In addition, smaller rivers such as the Kaitzbach , Landgraben and Lausenbach also flow in the urban area .
After extensive incorporation with 63% green and forest areas, Dresden is one of the major cities in Europe with the highest proportion of vegetation area, of which the Dresdner Heide forms the largest closed forest area with 5876 ha . Dresden has a total of 7341 hectares of forest and 676 hectares of water. In the urban area there are four nature reserves with 298 hectares and eleven landscape protection areas with more than 12,000 hectares, partly congruent with ten FFH areas with almost 1900 hectares. Numerous listed gardens, avenues and parks as well as cemeteries form 112 natural monuments with 140 hectares or 15 protected landscape elements with 71 hectares. There are also three bird sanctuaries with 1612 hectares in the urban area.
The natural and cultural landscape of Dresden Elbe Valley with the Elbe meadows stretch for almost 20 km through the urban area, but is interrupted in the city center. At a particularly wide point close to the center it is cut through by the Waldschlößchenbrücke , which was built between 2007 and 2013 , which is why UNESCO removed the Elbe Valley from its World Heritage List in 2009 after years of controversy .
There are around 54,000 street trees in Dresden.
The majority of the rock near the surface in the urban area of Dresden are characterized by glacial deposits of the Pleistocene age. In the Elbe valley, fluvial deposits dominate , while in the area of the southern valley slope mostly aeolian sediments in the form of loess and loess loam occur. In the south and south-west these sediments are broken up by protrusions of the basement and transition storey. This is a diverse sequence of rocks of different degrees and ages, e.g. B. Cretaceous plans , Permian ( red-lying ) sedimentary rocks and volcanic rocks as well as Variscan intrusives . In the morphologically higher northern parts of the city, Proterozoic granitoids are also found near the surface.
With its humid climate, Dresden lies in the cool, temperate climate zone , but a transition to the continental climate is noticeable. Most of the inhabited urban area is in the Elbe Valley. There is a milder microclimate there than in the districts on the slopes and in the hilly countryside in the vicinity. The weather station at Dresden- Klotzsche Airport is located on the northern outskirts above the Elbe basin. At their location at is about 1–2 degrees colder than in the city center all year round.
In the period 1981 to 2010 the mean temperature in Klotzsche was 0.1 ° C in January and 19.0 ° C in July. The monthly temperatures in the city center are roughly similar to those in southwest German cities. With an annual mean temperature in the inner city of 10.4 ° C, Dresden is one of the warmest cities in Germany. The location between the warm Lausitz and the cooler Ore Mountains is particularly remarkable in summer. There can be temperature differences of up to 10 degrees on individual days between these two regions. The city limit is then in a certain way an isotherm at the same time . The Ore Mountains can have a warming effect on Saxony due to foehn weather .
Dresden has an average of 1641 hours of sunshine a year.
With an average of less than 40 mm, February is the driest month in the long-term mean from 1981 to 2010, and July is the driest; in the western parts of the city (station Dresden-Gohlis, 591 mm) there is an average of around 10% less precipitation than in the eastern parts of the city (station Dresden-Hosterwitz, 670 mm). The highest amount of rain within 24 hours fell on August 12, 2002 at 158 mm. The so-called Vb weather situation , which led to this precipitation event and affected the entire Saxon and Bohemian area, resulted in severe Elbe flooding .
The cold record in Dresden is minus 30.5 degrees Celsius, measured on February 11, 1929 in the city center.
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Dresden
Source: DWD; wetterkontor.de
Due to the location of Dresden on the Elbe and on tributaries from the Eastern Ore Mountains , flood protection had to be taken into account in the development of the city. For this purpose, free spaces were left and oxbow lakes were kept largely free of construction. In addition to this retention, there are flood channels designed to drain water more quickly. Systems for flood regulation , on the other hand, are rarely found in the city, but in the Ore Mountains to the south and on the upper reaches of the Elbe.
Nearby major German cities are Chemnitz (80 km southwest), Leipzig (100 km northwest) and Berlin (200 km north). The Czech capital Prague is 150 km south ; 230 km to the east is Breslau (Wrocław) , Dresden's closest twin city.
In the vicinity are the district of Bautzen with the town of Radeberg , the district of Saxon Switzerland-Eastern Ore Mountains with the towns of Pirna , Heidenau and Freital and the district of Meißen with Moritzburg and the town of Radebeul . All cities mentioned border directly on Dresden and form the core of the Dresden metropolitan area . A little further away are Meißen , Riesa and the mountain town of Freiberg . Other neighboring communities are the city of Wilsdruff and Klipphausen in the west, Radeburg , Ottendorf-Okrilla and Wachau in the north and Arnsdorf and Dürrröhrsdorf-Dittersbach in the east. Dohna , Kreischa and Bannewitz are located to the south .
Dresden belongs to the Euroregion Elbe / Labe .
At the beginning of the 20th century, Dresden was one of the five most populous cities in Germany. In 1933 the highest value in the history of the city was reached with 642,143 inhabitants. The census on May 17, 1939 showed 629,713 inhabitants, of which 281,379 men and 348,334 women. As a result of the Second World War , the city's population decreased to around 468,000 (census from 1946). By the mid-1980s, the population increased to around 520,000. Thereafter, the number of eligible residents with primary residence decreased through emigration and suburbanization to around 453,000 inhabitants by 1998 and was thus below the number of 1946, which affected a smaller area, despite the incorporation in the 1950s. After that it was increased by incorporation and is now increasing permanently due to a slight migration and birth surplus. The population on June 30, 2006 was exactly 500,068 (main residences only). On August 12, 2006, after extensive investigations, a newborn was symbolically identified as the 500,000. City residents subsequently welcomed by the Lord Mayor .
With more than 6000 births (in 2012), Dresden was until 2014 the “birth capital” among German cities. On December 31, 2017, according to the population register, there were 557,098 inhabitants in Dresden with a population density of 1,696 inhabitants per square kilometer. On December 31, 2018, according to the population register, 560,641 residents had their main residence in Dresden. On December 31, 2019, according to the population register, 563,011 residents had their main residence in Dresden with a population density of 1,715 residents per square kilometer. On March 31, 2020 there were still 562,132 inhabitants. Dresden ranks 44th among the largest cities in the European Union .
Germans with a migration background As of December 31, 2018, around 23,176 Germans with a migration background lived in Dresden (resident population of foreign origin and German citizenship ; corresponds to 4.1 percent of all Dresden residents).
Foreigners / refugees / asylum seekers The proportion of foreigners (resident population without German citizenship ) in Dresden was 8.0 percent on December 31, 2018. From 2010 to 2018, the proportion of foreigners rose from 4.7 to 8.0 percent or from 24,692 to 44,665 people. The largest groups of foreigners immigrated in 2014 included people from Syria (512 people), Eritrea (216), China (172), India (129), Tunisia (109) and Libya (78). In 2013, Dresden accepted 1,333 asylum seekers ; in 2014, 1,740 were expected. In July 2015, around 2,600 asylum seekers lived in Dresden. Due to the increasing number of refugees, Dresden planned to put 14 new transitional residences into operation by the end of 2016 or to expand the number of transitional residences to 19 locations.
In the urban area, 8087 hectares are building and open spaces, in 2011 there were 292,740 apartments with 286,889 households in Dresden.
How finely structured and differently populated the urban spaces are can be seen when comparing the outer and inner Neustadt. The Äußere Neustadt is the most densely populated district of Dresden with more than 15,000 inhabitants per square kilometer, while the Inner (historic) Neustadt has a much lower population density with around 4,000 inhabitants per square kilometer, but it is far higher than other districts.
The area with the most densely populated areas is the urban district of Blasewitz : This is mainly connected to the district of Striesen , and less so with the former municipality of Blasewitz . Dense settlement here is not a sign of poorer living space, as it could still be true in times of narrow backyard buildings , on the contrary: the principles for building in the 1880s led on the one hand to the Dresden villas as a type of apartment building, on the other hand this led despite more densely Development to a green district. The Elbe with its floodplains also acts as the boundary of urban space in the area of Blasewitz, which is why the densely populated areas on the left and the almost uninhabited areas on the right of the Dresdner Heide are very close to one another. Blasewitz itself was not annexed to Dresden until 1921, at which time large parts of today's city district (Striesen since 1892) belonged to the city. The Dresdner Heide, in turn, is located in the Loschwitz district , which is the most sparsely populated district with 268 inhabitants per square kilometer.
The Reformation took hold in Dresden in 1539. From around 1571 the city represented a strict Lutheranism . In 1661 there were catholic services again for the first time in Dresden. In 1697, Elector Friedrich August I caused the court to change to the Catholic faith in order to be crowned King August II of Poland . The Catholic communities were not put on an equal footing with the Protestant ones until 1807 and remained a small minority in terms of membership.
The end of the monarchy led to the separation of church and state after the First World War and to the election of the first Protestant regional bishop in 1922. During the GDR era, the proportion of Protestant church members fell from around 85% (1949) to 22% (1989). 1980 Dresden seat of a Catholic bishop , the Catholic Court Church to Cathedral of the Diocese of Dresden-Meissen was charged.
According to the 2011 census , 15.3% of the population were Protestant and 4.3% Roman Catholic . 80.4% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. At the end of 2019, 76,159 (14%) belonged to one of the Evangelical Lutheran churches and 26,438 (5%) to the Roman Catholic Church. At the end of 2018, 78,782 (14.1%) belonged to one of the Evangelical Lutheran churches and 25,776 (4.6%) to the Roman Catholic Church. A decrease in the number of Protestants contrasts with a slight increase in the number of Catholics. A majority of 81.3% of Dresden residents are not confessional today. The city administration estimated the number of members from other Christian denominations, such as B. the Russian Orthodox Church , Romanian Orthodox Church , free churches and non-Christian communities to about 5000 people. In 2011 about 760 Jews lived in Dresden . Other registered religious communities are Muslim, Buddhist and Hindu faith communities and the faith community of the Bahá'ís .
First settlement, city foundation and Middle Ages
The ford through the Elbe at the height of today's old town probably already existed in the early Middle Ages. However, despite the lucrative location on the Elbe and its fertile soils, settlement remained problematic due to the heavy forest cover. Dresden's name, derived from the Old Sorbian drežďany (= "swamp" or " alluvial forest inhabitant", plural form ) indicates an originally Slavic settlement. Dresdene was in what was then Gau Nisan , which was passed from Bohemia to the German King Konrad III in 1142 . came. The nearby Meißen was the seat of the Margraves of Meißen from 968 and thus developed into the central location of the Margraviate of Meißen , which was established in the course of the expansion and integration of the Sorbian settlement areas east of the Elbe and Saale . From 1156 the imperial burgraviate Dohna was located southeast of Dresden .
In 1206 Dresden is mentioned for the first time in a document that has been preserved: Acta sunt hec Dresdene . The document exhibited in Dresden deals with a court hearing for the razing of Thorun Castle on Burgwartsberg , which is located in the area of today's city of Freital south of Dresden between Potschappel and Pesterwitz . In a document dated January 21, 1216, Dresden is already mentioned as a city: "Acta sunt hec ... in civitate nostra Dreseden" .
In 1350, Dresden ( Altendresden ), today's Inner New Town, is mentioned for the first time as an independent settlement "Antiqua Dressdin". A presentation of the city right at the Old Dresden is documented so far not been established, but it should on December 21, 1403 William I have done.
It was not until March 29, 1549 that the right and left Elbe parts of the city formed a unit under Elector Moritz.
Early modern age
When the staple rights were obtained on September 17, 1455, Dresden was still a fairly insignificant city, but after the Leipzig division of the Wettin countries in 1485 it became the ducal residence of the Saxon rulers for centuries and was upgraded as an electorate and kingdom with the elevation of the Wettin rulers political and cultural center. With the transfer of electoral dignity within the House of Wettin ( Wittenberg surrender ), the city became the capital of the most important Protestant country within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation . During this time, important cultural institutions were established, which have made the city so special to the present day. The Dresden mint, initially built by Elector August 1556 in the immediate vicinity of the Residenzschloss , became the only mint in the Electorate after all state mints had been closed.
Isometric city view of Dresden, around 1634
Shape and dimensions of the city fortress , around 1750
In the Thirty Years' War , Dresden was never looted or destroyed, but around 1632 by Pest disturbed and famine, and general economic stagnation in its development. The story since the Thirty Years' War has been very eventful: On the one hand, the world-famous buildings and parks were built; on the other hand, the city was involved in almost all major European wars and was affected several times.
In 1685 Altendresden burned down completely. It was then rebuilt over several decades and completed in 1732 as the "New Royal City". The district is therefore called the new town. Under Friedrich August I , known as August the Strong, Dresden achieved the cultural significance that it has up to modern times through the Dresden Baroque and the opulent court festivals of the Dresden Court . In December 1745 the city was conquered by Prussia for the first time during the War of the Austrian Succession . It was again unsuccessfully occupied by Prussia in the Seven Years' War in 1756. When the Austrian army approached the city, the Prussian governor called for retaliatory actions and partially burned the city down. In 1760 Prussia besieged Dresden unsuccessfully and bombarded the city center . In 1785 Friedrich Schiller wrote the poem To Joy for the board of the Masonic Lodge " To the Three Swords " in Dresden . This poem was set to music by Ludwig van Beethoven for his 9th symphony . The melody of the theme of this setting is the anthem of the European Union .
In the spring of 1791 in the nearby town of Pillnitz , the Pillnitz Declaration was an initial for the more than 150 years of hostility between Germany and France. In it, the predominantly German monarchs called on the European powers to crush the French Revolution .
19th and early 20th centuries
In the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon in 1813, the decisive battles of the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig in the Dresden area took place. Saxony, and with it Dresden, fought on the side of France; the city was further fortified by the French and protected by their troops. Napoleon won one of his last victories on German soil on August 27, 1813 in the Battle of Dresden . The southern suburbs of Dresden were partially badly destroyed, and the large number of wounded made the city of Dresden a large field hospital.
The on March revolutions following May uprising in Dresden from 3 to 9 May 1849 forced the Saxon King Friedrich August II. , To leave the city. He was only able to win them back through Prussian support. Well-known participants in the uprising were Richard Wagner and Gottfried Semper ; both then left Saxony. After the revolution was suppressed, the Dresden Conferences took place here in 1850/1851 , the only ones during the time of the German Confederation at which all states were represented.
In the further 19th century Dresden was spared from wars and became the capital of one of the wealthiest federal states in the German Empire . During the First World War , the city remained unaffected by direct combat operations, but the population declined by almost 20,000 people between 1910 and the first post-war year 1919.
The 11th German Fire Brigade Day took place in Dresden from July 17th to 19th, 1880 .
After the November Revolution of 1918, Dresden became the capital of the (first) Free State of Saxony . It was one of the ten largest cities in Germany and was a cultural and economic center of the Weimar Republic. In 1919 the Dresden Secession was founded , the best-known member of which was Otto Dix . This group was preceded by the Vereinigung Brücke before the First World War . In 1925, the Palucca School in Dresden was founded alongside the existing College of Fine Arts, an important school of the performing arts . The Saxon State Opera was an important stage for world premieres. The theater of the State Theater was built by 1913 .
Although Dresdner Bank , founded in 1872, moved its head office to Berlin in the 19th century, Dresden remained an important banking location, especially for smaller family-run private banks, until the 1920s. Leading companies existed here between 1918 and 1933 in (electrical) mechanical engineering, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as in tobacco processing and the food and luxury goods industry. Some of these companies (often in a newly founded form) have survived to the present day. The tram operations taken over by the city in 1909 were privatized again in 1930 as Dresdner Straßenbahn AG .
time of the nationalsocialism
The approximately 5,000 Jewish residents of Dresden , who were still members of the community in 1933, were expelled or later deported to concentration camps. The anti-Semitism in Dresden is mainly through the diaries Victor Klemperer ( "I witness will give away up to the last") documents. After the Second World War, only 41 Jews lived in the city.
During the book burnings on May 10, 1933, the work of Erich Kästner from Dresden was to be "symbolically erased forever". The mainly expressionistic cultural life of Dresden from the first quarter of the 20th century ended in 1933. The works of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Max Pechstein , Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and Otto Dix from this period were part of the exhibition Degenerate “Art” . 56 works from the New Masters Gallery were confiscated. The State Opera, shaped by works by Richard Strauss , was also in distress. As early as March 1933, a theater scandal staged by the SA during a “Rigoletto” performance drove its famous long-time general music director Fritz Busch from Dresden; Erna Berger , once discovered by Busch , now employed at the Berlin State Opera and performing as Gilda that evening, witnessed this barbarism. The Strauss opera “ Die Schweigsame Frau ” was premiered there in 1935 thanks to its Jewish librettist Stefan Zweig thanks to the prominence of its composer, but had to be taken off the program after only three repetitions and disappeared from the scene in Germany.
During the November pogroms in 1938 , the Old Synagogue (Semper Synagogue ) was burned down. Numerous shops and apartments were devastated and looted in front of the police, and Jewish citizens were mistreated. The male wealthy Jewish citizens were then deported to concentration camps in order to force them to emigrate and to Aryanize their assets .
Between 1939 and 1945 there were concentration camp prisoners, mainly from the camps in Auschwitz and Flossenbürg , in satellite concentration camps in the city . Several hundred women had to do forced labor in the armaments industry at Zeiss Ikon (685 women in the Goehle plant and 400 women in Dresden-Reick) and in the universal machine factory (685 women). There was also a subcamp at Schandauer Straße 68 in Dresden-Striesen for the Berlin armaments factory Bernsdorf & Co. 500 Jews had to do forced labor here in the Striesen metalworks and, after the bombing of Dresden, were for the most part provisionally moved to Pirna and later to Zwodau and Theresienstadt evacuated. 497 children were born in the “ Kiesgrube Dresden ” care facility for foreigners , 225 babies and toddlers died there. The remaining private banks owned by the Jewish family were forcibly attached to the Dresdner Bank. Dresden had been a military center for centuries and was used to set up major military units until 1945 . The Albert town north of the center was designed as a self-sufficient military town and was in the era of National Socialism further.
During the Second World War , the first air raids were carried out on the greater Dresden area as early as August 1944, after which the city prepared for bombings. During the air raids on Dresden , large parts of the city area were badly damaged by British and US bombers in four consecutive night attacks from February 13 to 15, 1945 . The exact number of victims is uncertain. In the past, individual publications - and continued undeterred in many historical revisionist and right-wing extremist publications - incorrectly stated around 350,000 dead. The International Red Cross Report of the Joint Relief 1941–1946 also reported an incorrect number of 275,000 victims. More recently, the number of victims has been corrected to 22,700, at most 25,000. According to the historian Frederick Taylor , the wrong number of victims goes back to a forgery by the Nazis themselves: a zero was simply added to it in order to raise the mood against the Allies in neutral media and countries. The damage to buildings is also often stated too high. 60 percent of the urban area were badly affected by the attacks, 15 km² starting from the inner city were even completely destroyed; Districts in the north and northwest, however, were hardly destroyed. Wroclaw , which was encircled from mid-February 1945 to May 6, was supplied primarily from Dresden-Klotzsche Airport , located north of the then city limits , before Dresden itself was occupied by the Red Army on May 8, the day of the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht . Previously, in a covert action without the knowledge of the other by five people, u. a. by Paul Zickler and Erich Stöckel named on a memorial plaque, who thwarted the demolition of the Blue Wonder planned by the SS .
From 1952 to 1990 Dresden was the capital of the Dresden district of the same name .
During the period of socialism, many remnants of the heavily damaged city were removed. Many of Dresden's ruins, including the remains of the Sophienkirche , but above all the historical residential buildings, were removed or blown up. The historic city center was gutted and continuously rebuilt. The surroundings of the once so busy Prager Strasse resembled a wasteland before it was rebuilt in the socialist style in the early 1960s.
The historic monumental buildings, such as the Ständehaus (1946), the Augustusbrücke (1949), the Kreuzkirche (until 1955), the Zwinger (until 1963), the Catholic Court Church (until 1965), the Semperoper ( until 1985), the Japanese Palace (until 1987) and the two largest railway stations (partly continuously). Some of this work dragged on for decades , shaped by the overall economic situation in the GDR , and was sometimes interrupted for a long time. The castle was secured for many years and parts of it were reconstructed (such as the stable yard ). Reconstruction only began in 1986 and continues to this day. The ruins of the Frauenkirche were to remain on Neumarkt as a memorial against the war .
While the Theater and Schloßplatz were built on at least according to the historical model in 1990, the Neumarkt remained completely undeveloped. The Altmarkt, on the other hand, is characterized by buildings of socialist classicism and spatial design and orientation according to socialist ideals (e.g. Kulturpalast ).
From 1955 to 1958 a large part of the art treasures looted by the Soviet Union was returned, so that from 1960 many museums of the State Art Collections could be opened in reconstructed facilities or interim exhibitions. The important orchestras such as the Staatskapelle appeared in alternative venues (for example in the Kulturpalast from 1969). Parts of the cultural institutions were moved out of the city center (for example the state library in Albertstadt ).
Ruins of the castle, on the right the only remaining surrounding walls of the Taschenbergpalais , 1985
Helmut Kohl speaks on December 19, 1989 in front of the ruins of the Frauenkirche on Neumarkt
Outer Neustadt , which was almost undamaged during the war , was preserved due to civil protests. It was threatened with demolition in the 1980s, as its development was severely neglected and therefore in poor condition.
In Prohlis and Gorbitz , large prefabricated housing estates were built on previously undeveloped land. The Johannstadt and other areas in the city center were also built over in large-block construction. The villa districts in Blasewitz , Striesen , Kleinzschachwitz , Loschwitz and on the Weißen Hirsch have been largely preserved .
Until the end of the Cold War , the 1st Guards Armored Army of the Soviet Army and the 7th Panzer Division of the National People's Army were stationed in and around Dresden . After the reunification in the GDR in 1989 , the Soviet / Russian troops were withdrawn from Germany and the NVA dissolved in the early 1990s , in accordance with the provisions of the Two-Plus-Four Treaty of 1990 .
Between September 30 and October 5, 1989, special trains took the refugees from the West German embassy in Prague to the Federal Republic via Dresden and Plauen . Especially on the night of October 4th to 5th, thousands of people gathered at the main train station. This led to violent clashes between security forces and citizens, some of whom demonstrated and some wanted to reach the trains to escape. On October 8, around 20,000 people marched through Dresden and demonstrated, among other things, for freedom of travel and freedom of expression. A large number of them were surrounded by the police on Prager Strasse . The " Group of 20 " was formed spontaneously and the next day presented the demands of the demonstrators to SED Mayor Wolfgang Berghofer . The next day, the first big Monday demonstration took place in Leipzig , just as it was in Dresden in the following weeks.
Some old buildings were demolished again in the city. However, many others have been restored with the help of tax subsidies. Many areas of Dresden are therefore considered examples of the successful restoration of architectural monuments and are listed as a whole as a whole.
Schillergarten with a view of Loschwitz, Elbe floods in August 2002
The Neumarkt with buildings designed according to historical models, 2011
In August 2002 the city was hit by the " flood of the century ". The Weißeritz and the Elbe flooded the city along with several of their tributaries. The Elbe reached a level that exceeded the heaviest flood to date in 1845 . The repair of the infrastructure continues after the flood to the present; affected structures were repaired much faster.
With the construction of the Waldschlößchenbrücke in 2013, Dresden received a fourth Elbe crossing for road traffic.
On October 30, 2005, the Frauenkirche was consecrated after ten years of reconstruction, which was largely financed by donations (“Miracle of Dresden”). In 2006 the city celebrated its 800th anniversary (formally on the day of its first documented mention on March 31). The highlight of the parade in August was a reenactment of the entire prince's procession by riders in historical costumes. On June 5, 2009, Barack Obama , a President of the United States, visited the city for the first time and met with Chancellor Angela Merkel in the Residenzschloss. He then visited the Frauenkirche.
In 2012, the Technical University of Dresden was accepted into the group of “elite universities” in Germany.
In October 2014 the anti-Islam and xenophobic movement Pegida , which received a lot of attention through demonstrations in Dresden and subsequently in other cities in 2015, began. On April 21, 2015, the city, together with the Swedish city of Vara, received the European Prize , which is awarded annually by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe to municipalities that have made a contribution to the European idea.
Urban area development and urban structure
→ Main articles: Development of the urban area of Dresden , list of the districts of Dresden , list of the city districts and localities in Dresden and list of the statistical districts of Dresden and list of streets and squares in Dresden
Originally the oldest part of the city was on the right bank of the Elbe, i.e. north of the Elbe. The Altendresden district no longer exists. After it burned down, it was rebuilt in 1732 as the New Royal City , later simply Neustadt , and is congruent with today's Inner New Town . The district south of the Elbe is therefore now referred to as the historic old town . The flatter southern valley location has favored a stronger development, so that the entire city has shifted to the south. The city does not expand evenly, but rather follows the Elbe valley in a south-easterly or north-westerly direction. Dresden grew everywhere, initially through suburbs that were initially in front of the city fortifications .
The surrounding communities have been incorporated since 1835, when Dresden expanded to the north and west. Since then 65 rural communities , the four estate districts Albertstadt , Wilder Mann , the Gorbitzer and Pillnitzer Kammergut as well as the city of Klotzsche have been incorporated into Dresden. Rural communities that were incorporated after 1990 received the special status of “ locality ” within the municipal structure by law . The largest incorporation was that of Schönfeld-Weißig in the east of the city area.
Dresden is not only a sprawling city with different structures in the individual districts because of the incorporation in the 1990s. Many districts have a preserved village center ; some are completely preserved in the village. Other defining structures are those of the suburbs and the individual development of city villas as well as the prefabricated building districts . There are districts, some of which have different structural features in close proximity.
The original city included districts, which in the current structure almost all belong to the city districts of Altstadt and Neustadt . In addition to these parts lying within the city fortress, suburbs emerged outside the city walls, but mostly on Dresden's corridor. Some of them had been laid out on the instructions of Saxon rulers and some were named after them ( Friedrichstadt , Albertstadt , Johannstadt ). Further Dresden suburbs were named after city gates or arterial roads ( Wilsdruffer Vorstadt , Pirnaische Vorstadt ) or after - no longer existing - natural features ( Seevorstadt ). The Antonstadt is now largely known under the term Äußere Neustadt . The other suburbs named after kings were retained as a term. Later the city grew, especially in the 19th century, when more villages were built up more densely. The term suburb was no longer used for other parts of the city after the First World War.
Pieschen - incorporated in 1897
Trachau - incorporated in 1903
Kaditz - incorporated in 1903
Löbtau - incorporated in 1903
Leuben - incorporated in 1921
Coschütz - incorporated in 1921
Wachwitz - incorporated in 1930
City districts and localities since 1990
Since 1991 there has been a breakdown into ten local offices (for the urban area before 1990) and nine localities (areas incorporated after 1990). With the introduction of the local constitution and the 2019 election, the designation "local office" was reversed and urban districts were set up, which in turn also correspond to the incorporated "localities".
They are districts or districts of the urban area as of December 31, 1990 and each have a district office , i.e. a town hall on site , as well as a district council within the meaning of the Saxon municipal code, which deals with all important matters that affect the city district to be heard by the city council and its committees . The city district advisory council is chaired by the mayor or a person appointed by him. This authorized person is usually the head of the administration of the city district (Stadtbezirksamtsleiter). The honorary members of the city district councils are directly elected. The district councils (as individuals) must have their main residence in the respective city district.
The district with the largest population is that of Blasewitz , the largest in area that of Loschwitz . Dresden city center is located in the districts of Altstadt and Neustadt . Until the main statute was changed in September 2018, the city districts were referred to as local office areas. Accordingly, city district councils, city district offices and city district office heads were previously called local advisory boards, local offices and local office heads.
The nine localities, some of which themselves consist of several districts , are - with the exception of the localities Oberwartha and Schönborn - were only integrated in the late 1990s and until then independent municipalities. Another exception is the district of Kauscha , which belonged to Bannewitz until 1999 and was incorporated into the Prohlis district.
There is a local council for each village, which - in contrast to the city district councils - is elected directly by the local people at the same time as the city council. Each local council elects a local mayor for its locality . In contrast to the local councils, the local councils have their own decision-making powers and have their own budgets within the city budget, which they themselves have at their disposal. If their decision-making powers are not derived from the Saxon municipal code, the respective incorporation contracts regulate their competencies in detail.
The largest and most populous village is Schönfeld-Weißig , which extends in the Schönfeld highlands . In turn, it emerged from several former communities that had initially merged as the community of Schönfeld-Weißig in the 1990s.
The “introduction of the local constitution for the entire urban area of Dresden”, which had only been discussed unofficially for years, was an election campaign topic in 2014 and should be introduced for the next city council election in 2019 . The change to the Saxon municipal code in 2018, through which the rights of the local councils are strengthened, ultimately prevented the introduction of the local constitution.
Origin of the name of the districts
Many district names, like the city name Dresden, are of Sorbian origin. Typical endings of the names are " -itz " and - originally a suffix connection with the previous one - " -witz ". Both endings have adjectival functions; the former are derived from appellatives , the latter from personal names and are therefore patronyms . -nitz is etymologically not a separate ending, but a combination of stem-ending -n with the ending -itz .
The endings that were Germanized in the wake of the Ostsiedlung thus often go back to original (medieval) ownership. Leutewitz, for example, was first known as Ludiwice “with the Ludic, d. H. mentioned by the people of Lud, village of Lud ”. Pillnitz was originally called Belenewitz "Village of Belan". Other district part names have been formed from geographical features; so Klotzsche means "cleared forest".
Very few place names like Langebrück actually have their origin in the German language. The (more recent) place names “Weißer Hirsch” and “ Wilder Mann ” both go back to inns that were located on the outskirts of the city. The district name Gittersee is a folk etymology and developed from the Slavic “Geterssin”.
Politics and administration
The total of 70 city councilors in Dresden are elected for a term of five years using the three -person multiple- vote system common in Saxony at the municipal level - with cumulation and variegation being possible. The city itself is divided into electoral districts before each local election , which are based on an approximately equal number of voters, but this shifts its boundaries from election to election. The distribution of seats in the city council is calculated according to the D'Hondt procedure ( KomWG) and on this basis, initially using the highest number of votes on the electoral list in the constituencies and then the number of votes personally achieved on the electoral list within the constituency, in turn the elected Person or the chosen persons.
The main body of the city is the city council ; it exercises statutory competencies and issues generally applicable ordinances, defines the principles and makes the resolutions according to which the city administration (including the mayor ) has to act. As a body, it directly determines matters that are not within the competence of the mayor. The members of the individual parties in the city council form parliamentary groups. The city councils work in eleven decision-making committees and an advisory committee, and also participate in seven advisory boards. The individual member has extensive questioning and information rights as well as a joint right to inspect files.
The Lord Mayor, in turn, is solely responsible for giving instructions under federal and state law. He heads the city administration, is responsible for day-to-day business and represents the city. In accordance with the regulations of the Saxon Municipal Code (SächsGemO), he is directly elected by the citizens for a term of seven years . Are placed at his side seven councilors who are responsible for individual business groups and forward them independently. They have the title of “Mayor”, with the “First Mayor” constantly representing the Lord Mayor. This came into full effect from the end of 2014 to mid-2015, as the Lord Mayor Helma Orosz had retired early for health reasons. Your deputy, the First Mayor Dirk Hilbert ( FDP ) since 2008 , was elected the new mayor in the second ballot on July 5, 2015 with 54.2% of the vote.
The city council has appointed advisory councils for senior citizens, foreigners and the disabled as well as for confidential matters, but the latter has not met once since 1994.
The city administration of Dresden has around 7,200 employees in 2020, compared to 6,200 in 2010. They are spread over more than 50 locations in the city.
Historical development of the city administration
At the top of the city there had been a council with a mayor since the 13th century (1292) . This was elected by the council and changed annually. He was a volunteer. The city was able to expand its influence on the surrounding area through the Dresden Bridge Office of the Kreuzkirchgemeinde , which, in competition with the Altzella Monastery, acquired goods and villages, especially in what would later become the city.
After the introduction of the General City Regulations of the Kingdom of Saxony in 1832, there were also elected city councils in addition to the mayor . Like Cologne and Munich , Dresden became the fourth German city to cross the 100,000-inhabitant limit after Berlin, Hamburg and Breslau in 1852, making the city a major city. In 1853, Mayor Friedrich Wilhelm Pfotenhauer was first awarded the title of Lord Mayor , which was then reserved for large cities . In 1874 the city left the administration and became an " exemte city" ( independent city ). It remained the seat of the Dresden District Administration (or both AHM Dresden-Altstadt and -Neustadt) and the District Administration Dresden . With the GDR district reform in 1952, Dresden was defined as an urban district ; the Dresden-Land district was given a new layout, with which it continued until its dissolution in early 1996.
After the end of the Second World War , the Soviet city command in 1945 initially set up an administration. In September 1946, as a town council , a city council elected. In subsequent elections until 1989, all parties and organizations appeared on a common list of the National Front .
After the accession of the GDR to the Federal Republic of Germany was initially still chosen as the city council since 1994, known as the City Council committee again. The chairman of this body was a special president from 1990 to 1994 (or a president: Evelyn Müller, CDU ). The election of the mayor was a matter for the city council. After the introduction of the southern German council constitution in Saxony, the mayor, now directly elected by the people, has also been chairman of the city council since 1994.
The incumbent since 2015 is Dirk Hilbert from the FDP, who prevailed in a runoff election with 54.2% of the votes against Eva-Maria Stange (SPD).
In the last local election on May 26, 2019, the following city council was elected:
|Parties and constituencies||Percent
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||20.5||15th||15.7||11|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||18.3||13||27.6||21st|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||17.1||12||7.0||5|
|THE LEFT.||THE LEFT.||16.2||12||20.9||15th|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||8.8||6th||12.8||9|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||7.5||5||5.0||3|
|FW||Free voters Dresden||5.3||4th||0.1||-|
|PIRATES||Pirate Party Germany||2.4||1||3.3||2|
|The party||Party for work, the rule of law, animal welfare, elite support and grassroots initiative||1.8||1||0.9||-|
|FREE CITIZENS||Alliance of Free Citizens of Dresden||1.5||1||5.3||2|
|NPD||National Democratic Party of Germany||0.6||-||2.8||2|
|Turnout in percent||66.9||49.0|
The following parliamentary groups have formed in the city council: GREEN (15 members), CDU (including FREE CITIZENS, 14 members), AfD (12 members), DIE LINKE. (12 members), SPD (6 members), FDP (5 members), FW (4 members). The Councilor of the PIRATES and the Councilor of the PARTY are non-attached.
Coat of arms of the state capital Dresden
|Blazon : "In the split shield on the right on a golden background a black Meißner lion with red tongues rising to the right and two black Landsberg stakes on the left on a golden background."|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The lion stands for the margraviate of Meißen , the " Landsberger Pfähle " for the margraviate of Landsberg , both core lands of the Wettins , who have ruled the city since the Middle Ages. Both heraldic symbols can be traced back to 1309 in the city's seals. Originally the stakes were blue (compare the coats of arms of Leipzig and Chemnitz ), but they were later colored black to avoid confusion with these cities. The city colors are therefore black and yellow.|
Local political issues with supraregional resonance
A heated discussion broke out about the construction of a new Elbe crossing, the Waldschlößchenbrücke , when UNESCO saw the construction of the bridge as so essential that it put the World Heritage Site, which was added in 2004, on the Red List of World Heritage in Danger only two years later . Construction began in November 2007, and the new Elbe bridge was opened in August 2013. Dresden was the only place in the world to lose the title of World Heritage Site in 2009.
Debt-free city through WOBA sale
In March 2006 the city council decided to sell the housing association Woba Dresden with 47,000 apartments to the US investment company Fortress Investment Group LLC . This made Dresden the first virtually debt-free city in Germany. The sale was controversial and sparked wide media coverage. He was secured with an extensive social charter , u. a. a free occupancy right for 8,000 apartments for a total of 20 years, and, in order to protect the tenants, numerous restrictions regarding terminations and rent increases. On June 21, 2007, the city council adopted a debt ban in the main statute with 37 votes to 12 (with 9 abstentions) . While in 2006, at the time of the sale, the Dresden real estate market was characterized by a high vacancy rate, in recent years investors such as Capital Holding SA and Intershop Holding AG ( MiKa-Quartier ), Adler Real Estate AG ( Hufewiesen Alttrachau ) or Immokles AG ( Lingner Altstadtgarten Dresden ) discovered the housing market in Dresden as a profitable form of investment. In the meantime, the Dresden housing cost ratio, at 32% of total income for families, is higher than in Stuttgart and tied for fourth place on par with Nuremberg . Political solutions to this problem such as the repurchase of former urban apartments like in Berlin or the founding of state-owned housing associations like in Bavaria are not in sight in Dresden, since the city's debt-free status is to be maintained.
The rebuilding of the Neumarkt - in which density and whether modern or historicized - is an example of the international interest in Dresden architecture. The Historical Neumarkt Dresden Society was founded because of this dispute.
Policy statement against right-wing extremism
On October 30, 2019, the Dresden City Council passed a declaration of principle against right-wing extremism. This found attention in the international as well as national reporting under the term proclamation of the Nazi state of emergency . Lord Mayor Hilbert distanced himself from this term only a few hours later. The declaration of principle was passed across parliamentary groups with the votes of the SPD , Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , Die Linke , FDP and non- parliamentary groups and provides for “strengthening democratic everyday structures”, “citizenship and civil society alliances that actively support human rights” support to help victims of right-wing violence, to consistently prosecute perpetrators and not to allow the spread of misanthropic and extremely right-wing attitudes in public places without being contradicted.
The constituency 161 (Dresden II) includes all districts north of the Elbe and some western parts south of the Elbe and extends into the district of Meißen . Arnold Vaatz from the CDU is a member of this constituency .
City partnerships exist with the following cities:
- Coventry , United Kingdom, since 1959
- Wroclaw , Poland, since 1959
- Saint Petersburg , Russia, since 1961
- Skopje , North Macedonia, since 1967
- Ostrava , Czech Republic, since 1971
- Brazzaville , Republic of the Congo, since 1975
- Florence , Italy, since 1978
- Hamburg , Germany, since 1987
- Rotterdam , the Netherlands, since 1988
- Strasbourg , France, since 1990
- Salzburg , Austria, since 1991
- Columbus , Ohio , United States, since 1992
- Hangzhou , People's Republic of China, since 2009
There has also been a friendship with the Polish city of Gostyń since 1976 .
Consulates and missions abroad
In addition to a Czech consulate general , Dresden is home to the honorary consulates of Denmark , Ecuador , Finland , Italy , Cape Verde , Kazakhstan , Croatia , Lithuania , Luxembourg , the Netherlands , Austria , Panama , the Philippines , Switzerland , Slovenia , Spain , South Africa , and South Korea Hungary . There is also an institute français in Dresden .
Culture and sights
Dresden is a world-class city of art and culture and was a UNESCO World Heritage Site from 2004 to 2009 . The city is home to over 50 museums, more than 35 theaters and cabaret stages, outstanding orchestras and well-known buildings from various eras . Major events attract guests from home and abroad every year. The art prize of the state capital Dresden is awarded annually.
Theaters and stages
The Saxon State Opera Dresden in the well-known building of the Semperoper was founded in 1841 at its current location, the Theaterplatz. The building of the opera was destroyed twice in its history. Overall, in more than 50 years of its 160-year history, the State Opera was forced to play in a different location than the Semperoper. In the Semperoper and its predecessor buildings, operas a . a. premiered by Richard Wagner and Richard Strauss . The opera's orchestra is the Sächsische Staatskapelle ( see section Music ). The Semperoper also has a chamber stage, "Semper Zwei".
The Staatsschauspiel Dresden operates the “Schauspielhaus” - commonly known as the “Big House” - and thus the largest theater in the city, as well as the “Little House” on Glacisstrasse. The Theaterkahn , a stage on an Elbe ship, is located on the Theaterplatz .
Theaters for modern forms of performance are the Young Generation Theater , which also includes a puppet theater , the neubauLABOR in the Small House of the State Theater and in particular the Hellerau Festival Hall , which houses the European Center for the Arts . Other theaters and performance venues are the Societaetstheater , “die bühne”, “Das Projekttheater” as well as the “ Theater ruin St. Pauli ” in Neustadt and the “Boulevard Theater Dresden”. The cultural associations “Mimenstudio Dresden e. V. ”,“ Kulturverein riesa efau ”and the“ Motorenhalle - Project Center for Contemporary Art ”also show performances; The Derewo dance theater is also located in Dresden.
The Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden is the oldest continuously performing orchestra in the world and is still one of the best ensembles ever. Its predecessor, the Königliche Hofcantorey , was founded by Moritz von Sachsen in 1548. At the beginning of the 17th century the Dresden court orchestra began to accompany opera performances ; its conductor Heinrich Schütz composed and performed the first German-language opera Daphne with her in 1627 in Torgau . Martin Opitz wrote the text book after the Italian opera by Jacopo Peri . Johann Georg Pisendel , concertmaster since 1728, introduced a "modern orchestral direction", which made the orchestra a leader in Europe in the first half of the 18th century.
Music directors in the 19th century were among others Carl Maria von Weber , Heinrich Marschner and Richard Wagner as an assistant . Christian Thielemann has been chief conductor since September 2012 .
The Dresden Philharmonic , the city's concert orchestra, was founded in 1871 and is also internationally respected. Until 1915 the orchestra was called "Gewerbehaus-Kapelle", until 1923 "Dresdner Philharmonisches Orchester". More recently chief conductors have included Kurt Masur and Marek Janowski . The current chief conductor is Michael Sanderling .
The Dresden Symphony Orchestra, founded in 1996 by Sven Helbig and Markus Rindt, is a young orchestra . The symphony orchestra is almost self-supporting through its members. It is dedicated exclusively to contemporary music apart from the normal concert repertoire and the crossover area . In 2004 it was awarded the ECHO Klassik and, together with the Pet Shop Boys, set the film Battleship Potemkin anew.
Other orchestras are the “ensemble courage”, a special ensemble for contemporary (chamber) music, which was awarded the advancement award of the city of Dresden in 2004, Sinfonietta Dresden , a chamber orchestra with a variety of tasks in the city's musical life and its own series of concerts, the Dresden Baroque Orchestra , the Dresdeners Kapellolisten as well as the Virtuosi Saxoniae .
Two famous choirs with a long history have their home in Dresden:
- The Dresdner Kreuzchor (Capella sanctae crucis) is a boys' choir of the Kreuzkirche and is identified with it, but has been an urban choir since it was founded. According to his own account, it was as old as the city itself and was founded in the 13th century (which, however, is not the case).
- The boys' choir of the cathedral (former court church) in turn are the Dresden Kapellknaben , which, in contrast to the Kreuzchor, is a church choir.
Other choirs in Dresden are:
- Dresdner Kammerchor - internationally renowned choir with a broad repertoire ( early music to romanticism to world premieres), founded in 1985 and directed by Hans-Christoph Rademann
- The Saxon Vocal Ensemble - founded in 1996 with a focus on early music and directed by Matthias Jung .
- Dresden Philharmonic Choirs - founded in 1967, work mainly with the Philharmonic Orchestra, the current director is Gunter Berger
- Knabenchor Dresden - founded in 1971 by student teacher Manfred Winter, directed by Matthias Jung
- Singakademie Dresden - one of the most important amateur choirs in Central Germany, emerged from the Dresden teachers' choir founded in 1884, consisting of children's, chamber, oratorio and senior choirs, directed by Ekkehard Klemm
- Chorus 116
Sven Helbig is also the producer of the band Polarkreis 18 , which in 2008 was the first Dresden band to achieve a number one hit in the German single charts with Alone Alone . In the 1970s, Dresden was a center of rock music in the GDR with bands like electra and Lift . The members of these bands were primarily students from the Carl Maria von Weber Academy of Music . Here, among others, Veronika Fischer began her musical career. In the early 1990s, the Friends of Italian Opera were considered by many journalists to be the best and most innovative band in the new countries . Ray & the Rockets released Dresden's first rock 'n' roll sound carrier in 1998, 44 years after the “invention” of rock 'n' roll.
Well-known composers who worked in Dresden are, for example, Fritz Geißler , Jörg Herchet , Heinrich Schütz , Richard Wagner , Carl Maria von Weber and Jan Dismas Zelenka . Some composers have their residence in Dresden, including Thuon Burtevitz , Alexander Keuk , Wilfried Krätzschmar , Karoline Schulz , Jorge García del Valle Méndez and Udo Zimmermann .
Museums and galleries
Dresden has an extraordinarily diverse museum landscape - a composition of historically grown and valuable younger institutions. Dresden's cultural contribution, which has lasted for centuries, is represented by around 50 museums, including many semi-public and private institutions.
The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister has been located in the Semperbau of the Zwinger since 1855. The most famous exhibit is the Sistine Madonna by Raphael , which was originally painted as an altarpiece in 1512/13 . With other works by Rembrandt , Rubens and Canaletto , the gallery carries pictures of the Renaissance and Baroque . The term "Old Masters" is intended to create the epochal demarcation to the painters of the New Masters Gallery of later eras.
The New Masters include painters such as Caspar David Friedrich , Max Liebermann , Max Slevogt , Otto Dix and artists from the Brücke group . The gallery thus carries works of Romanticism , Impressionism and Expressionism . In contrast to the old masters, many of the artists in this gallery had a personal connection to Dresden, in that they studied, taught or lived here at the art academy .
Another facility of the SKD is the Green Vault . It houses the collection of the Saxon electors and kings. The treasure in the form of jewelry and representative exhibits is a collection of European goldsmithing and fine crafts. The most famous works were created by the court goldsmith Johann Melchior Dinglinger and his sons. The court in Delhi on the birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurang-Zeb is one of the outstanding pieces in the collection. The cherry stone carved with 185 human heads is particularly well-known.
A special SKD museum is the Mathematical-Physical Salon , which is also located in the Zwinger. It contains mathematical and physical instruments from the Baroque and Enlightenment periods, as well as globes and astronomical cartographies. It is one of the earliest evidence of the connection between culture and science in Dresden and was founded in 1728 from the general art collection. The foundations of this collection were laid there centuries before.
Further facilities of the art collections are the arts and crafts museum in Pillnitz Castle , the copper engraving cabinet with the Josef Hegenbarth archive , the museum for Saxon folk art , the porcelain collection - a collection of Meißner porcelain , the puppet theater collection , the sculpture collection and the art gallery in the Lipsius building .
The German Hygiene Museum serves since its inception in 1912 health , human biology and medical education of the general population. The best-known exhibit is the Transparent Woman , which allows a three-dimensional view of all internal organs.
In the north of the city, in the former barracks suburb of Albertstadt , is the Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr . It was rebuilt from 2006 to 2011 according to plans by Daniel Libeskind ( see Modern Buildings ). 10,000 objects testify to the cultural history of violence. The collection includes weapons and military equipment from several centuries.
Other museums under municipal responsibility are the Technical Collections , the Carl Maria von Weber Museum , the Kraszewski Museum , the Kügelgenhaus - Museum of Dresden Romanticism , the Schillerhäuschen , the Palitzsch Museum , Leonhardi Museum and the Kunsthaus Dresden .
Particularly noteworthy among the authors who have spent at least part of their lives in Dresden are Volker Braun , Heinz Czechowski , Durs Grünbein , Erich Kästner , Victor Klemperer , Theodor Körner , Karl Mickel , Ludwig Renn , Friedrich Schiller , Ingo Schulze , Ludwig Tieck and Józef Ignacy Kraszewski .
Well-known authors who currently have their residence in Dresden are, for example, Marcel Beyer , Ralf Günther , Undine Materni , Thomas Rosenlöcher , Volker Sielaff , Uwe Tellkamp , Jens Wonneberger and Michael Wüstefeld .
In addition, Dresden-based associations are dedicated to promoting contemporary literature, such as the Literary Arena, the Literature Office and the Dresden Literature Forum.
The Saxon State Library - Dresden State and University Library is located in the south of the city on the campus of the Technical University . It was created in 1996 from the merger of the Dresden University Library with the Saxon State Library, which was founded in 1556 as the court library. With around nine million holdings, it is one of the largest libraries in Germany and has the legal deposit right for books published and appearing in Saxony. The Deutsche Fotothek is located in the library .
There are university libraries at the University of Economics and Technology, the University of Music Carl Maria von Weber, the University of Fine Arts and the joint campus of the Dresden University of Cooperative Education and the Dresden Evangelical University.
With the municipal libraries, the city has one of the most intensively used libraries in Germany. It lends 5.4 million items a year. In addition to the central library, there are 19 district libraries and a mobile library .
The cinema landscape is extremely diverse. In Dresden there are 18 cinemas with around 10,700 seats. With the CinemaxX in Blasewitz (opened in 2000), the UCI in Elbe-Park (opened in 1997) and the Ufa-Kristallpalast on Prager Straße (opened in 1998) there are a total of three multiplex cinemas . After its opening, Dresden, with over 12,000 cinema seats in 2001 and 2002, was the German city with over 200,000 inhabitants with the most seats per inhabitant. After population growth, Dresden was in third place in these statistics in 2010, behind Augsburg and Magdeburg. The UFA Palace in particular is architecturally interesting; the eye-catching “glass crystal” designed by the architectural office Coop Himmelb (l) au (see section Buildings ) stands right next to the equally striking circular cinema from GDR times.
Despite the accumulation of multiplex cinemas there are still various cinemas and the Schauburg in Neustadt a big "classic" cinema. Despite the competition, the Schauburg, for example, was repeatedly voted the most popular cinema in surveys by a city magazine. The arthouse cinemas include, above all , the arthouse cinema east , the cinema in the roof , the cinema in the box and the Thalia . The cinema in the factory (KIF for short) was reopened in 2006 , but it is not a pure art house cinema . It is worth mentioning its unusual ambience in a former factory, which, among other things, impresses with its unusual color scheme.
Dresden is known as the city of the Baroque , whereby Dresden, with the exception of the Inner Neustadt, is not a baroque city in the actual professional sense. In the field of architecture, the Dresden Baroque developed, whereby the structures that have been preserved were mostly built for Saxon monarchs and some of them can be assigned to the Neo-Baroque. There are some preserved examples of the original bourgeois baroque. On the other hand, many buildings are mistakenly assigned to the Baroque: large areas of the city were built either in the Renaissance or Classicism style , but above all in the neo-building style of historicism after the baroque period. In contrast to the actual baroque objective of classifying it in clear symmetrical forms, attention was paid to open spaces for the Elbe in urban planning .
In addition to Gothic buildings (original building of the Kreuzkirche , demolished Sophienkirche ) and Renaissance buildings ( Residenzschloss ) as well as buildings from the 19th century, the city was mainly influenced by the Dresden Baroque and its magnificent buildings. The Frauenkirche is a landmark of the city . After the destruction of Dresden on 13/14 In February 1945 there were only two side walls around the mountain of rubble. Since then, its site has been perceived as a war memorial , especially when it comes to the annual commemoration of February 13, 1945 . Since the reconstruction, which was completed in 2005, the Frauenkirche has also seen itself as an "international [s] symbol for peace and reconciliation". In the first two and a half years after it opened, it was visited by five million people.
The city's cultural landmarks are the Semperoper and the Zwinger . The Semperoper was rebuilt from 1977 to 1985 according to the original plans of the second opera building (1878 to 1945) by Gottfried Semper . It is a building of historicism and mainly bears elements of classicism . With the exception of the Sempergalerie , which was built from 1847 to 1854 , the Zwinger was built from 1711 to 1728 in the Baroque style as a location for royal festivals and art exhibitions on a former bastion of the city fortress. The remains of the city wall were preserved on the south side . Here is the crown gate , which is modeled on the royal crown . It was one of the first buildings to be rebuilt and restored after the Second World War .
The Brühlsche Terrasse extends in the city center along the banks of the Elbe. It is a combination of several buildings and is located on the old city fortifications about ten meters above the Elbe. The casemates , the former inaccessible fortifications of the city, under the terrace are accessible in the form of a museum. Buildings that are included in the Brühlsche Terrasse are, for example, the Albertinum , the Art Academy and the Secondary School . At the eastern end are the Maiden Bastion and the Brühl Garden .
The Dresden residential palace was the residence of the Saxon electors and later kings . It has been expanded and changed many times over the course of its history. It therefore has a great many architectural styles in different wings and parts of the overall structure. The oldest structures can be seen on engravings from the 15th century. The Georgenbau is one of the few surviving Renaissance buildings in Dresden. The reconstruction of the palace began in 1986 and is well advanced in 2015 and it is used extensively by the Dresden State Art Collections . The stable yard could be completed as the first independent element of the castle complex . The architectural unity of the Schlossplatz count nor the Court Church ( see below ), the Princes and until the end of the 19th-century House of the Estates .
On the edge of the city center is the Great Garden , a park with features of baroque horticulture and symmetrical routing, but with free courses of forest. The summer palace is located there . The Great Garden was not part of the world cultural heritage.
On the outskirts of Dresden, directly on the Elbe, is Pillnitz Castle . This consists of three palaces in the baroque and China-fashionable architectural style and was used as a summer residence. At the Palais on the Elbe side is the famous staircase to the Elbe, via which it was possible to land at this castle by gondola from the city center . It went down in European history through the Pillnitzer Declaration .
The cultural landscape of Dresden Elbe Valley, which extends from Pillnitz Castle to Übigau Castle, was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 2004 , but was removed from it again in 2009 with the construction of the Waldschlößchen Bridge . UNESCO saw the bridge as a threat to the landscape as a world heritage site.
At the beginning of the 20th century, important reform architecture buildings were built in the Dresden area. For the first German garden city Dresden-Hellerau , founded in 1909, efforts have been underway since about 2011 to apply for admission to the UNESCO World Heritage Site for this Dresden district . Well-known artists and architects such as Richard Riemerschmid , Hermann Muthesius , Theodor Fischer , Kurt Frick and Heinrich Tessenow were involved in the design of the reform settlement founded by Karl Schmidt-Hellerau .
The most famous landmark of the city is the Evangelical Church of Our Lady . It is internationally known as a memorial against war and as a testimony to reconciliation . After its destruction on February 14, 1945 as a result of the air raids on Dresden and many years of reconstruction, which was largely financed by donations from around the world, the Frauenkirche was consecrated on October 30, 2005. With its high and wide dome , it dominates the cityscape, which can be seen from the walk-in lantern at the top. The original by George Bähr was one of the few outstanding examples of bourgeois baroque . The church was built from 1723 to 1743 and replaced a Gothic predecessor . The construction time of 17 years was certainly very fast for those times when you consider that the reconstruction with much better cranes and construction equipment took about ten years. The church in its old form as in its new building is a little more than 91 meters high.
With the reconstruction of the Frauenkirche, the Catholic Court Church is once again the second tallest church building in the city. It was built between 1739 and 1751 and consecrated to the Holy Trinity ("Sanctissimae Trinitatis ") in the same year . Also destroyed on February 13, 1945, it was still used to celebrate church services from June 1945. In 1962 the main nave could also be used again. In 1964 the Hofkirche was elevated to the status of Kon-Cathedral (svw. Mit-Cathedral ). When the bishop moved from Bautzen to Dresden, it has been the cathedral of the Dresden-Meißen diocese since 1980 .
The main Evangelical Church is, however , the Kreuzkirche located on the south-east edge of the Altmarkt . It is the largest church building in Saxony and has been handed down since the 13th century due to destruction or fire with subsequent rebuilding in a different form.
The Sophienkirche , which stood on Postplatz in the immediate vicinity of the Zwinger, was one of the few Gothic buildings in the city. Despite its good state of preservation, the ruins of this church were torn down as part of a socialist-anti-church setting and had to give way to the HO restaurant “Am Zwinger” ( called Fresswürfel by the Dresdeners ), which in turn did not survive the start of the market economy. Today, on the one hand, the cholera fountain and , on the other hand, through the efforts of civic engagement, elements of the Busmannkapelle of the former Sophienkirche provide information about the previous location. The Sophia treasure in the Dresden City Museum is associated with her .
The Zion Church in the southern suburbs also fell victim to the Second World War - as one of the youngest churches in the city at the time. After the foundation stone was laid in 1901, the Art Nouveau church was finally consecrated in September 1912. On the night of the bombing on February 13, 1945, the church burned down completely. In a barrack in the immediate vicinity of the ruin, activities of the Protestant student community took place from 1949, which shared the premises with the Zion community from 1956. In June 1981 the construction of the new Zionskirche in Bayreuther Strasse began, which was made possible thanks to the support of the Swedish Church. Its solemn consecration took place on October 31, 1982.
The anti-church attitude of the socialist era led to the fact that several ruins of Dresden churches were finally cleared in the 1950s, some of which could have been rebuilt: In addition to the Church of St. Sophia, these were the Church of St. John , the Church of St. James , the Anglican and American Church , the Church of Ehrlich'schen Stift and the Church of the Redeemer Andreas , the Reformed Church , the Scottish Church and in the sixties the Catholic Church of St. Franziskus-Xaverius in the Inner New Town.
Other church ruins could be saved from demolition and partly rebuilt. The tower and remains of the wall of the Trinity Church in Johannstadt , built in neo-Renaissance style , were preserved and individual rooms were rebuilt in the 1990s after the ruins had been cleared and secured. Today it serves the Evangelical-Lutheran Johanneskirche congregation Dresden-Johannstadt- Striesen again as a church space, the Förderverein as an event location, among other things for concerts, the open social youth work of the congregation as a contact point for children and young people from the district and acts as an issuing point for the Dresdner Tafel . The St. Pauli Church in the Hechtviertel is used intensively as a summer theater by a non-profit association.
The Dreikönigskirche with its death dance relief is located in the Inner New Town . Their war ruins were rebuilt in connection with the completion of Neustädter Hauptstrasse . From 1990 to 1993 it was the seat of the Saxon state parliament .
The Christ Church , located in the Strehlen district on a hill on the Kaitzbach, was built in the years 1902–1905. Built by the Dresden architects Schilling & Graebner , it represents one of the most modern and daring church buildings of its time in Germany and is assigned to reform architecture .
The old synagogue was destroyed on November 9, 1938 during the Night of the Reichspogrom . The architect of the sacred building, which was built from 1838 to 1840, was Gottfried Semper . Only one of the two Star of David could be saved from the old building. The New Synagogue , which was inaugurated on November 9, 2001, was built almost exactly at the same location .
There are many architectural monuments from the 19th and 20th centuries in Dresden. The neo- German romanticism is represented as well as neoclassical buildings and buildings from the Wilhelminian era , Art Nouveau and modern as well as postmodern . Some of these new structures build on their predecessors or are used to renovate these structures. At the present time, projects by internationally important architects are again being carried out in Dresden.
The building of the Saxon State Parliament consists of several wings. The old southern part, built between 1928 and 1931, belongs to the Bauhaus style and now houses the offices of the MPs. The building was originally built as a state tax office and was used by the SED district management from 1945 to 1990 . The glass wing in the north and the "New Terrace" in front of it on the Elbe were newly built. The plenary hall and the meeting rooms are located along the river in this glass extension. Another building that is part of the architecture of the Weimar Republic is the German Hygiene Museum , which opened in 1930 . It is located in the extension of the main axis of the Great Garden between this and the city center. The multi-wing building takes up the symmetry of the baroque park, so it was deliberately integrated into the existing urban landscape as a modern building. It mainly bears style elements of late historicism and as such makes use of various European architectural styles.
The city's congress center is located directly opposite the state parliament . It is intended to close off the city center to the west, consists largely of glass and its facade shape takes up the curves of the river. Another facility for large events is the Kulturpalast , which was built from 1962 to 1969 and remodeled from 2013 to 2017. It closes the old market in the direction of the rebuilt Frauenkirche and, before its reconstruction, broke the emptiness in the gutted city. The rest of the environment on the Altmarkt was created by buildings in the style of neoclassicism.
In the northern Albertstadt, the former garrison complex, is the Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr . Its building (the arsenal), which replaced the Albertinum in the old town as an armory in 1875 , was renewed, rebuilt and reopened in 2011 according to plans by Daniel Libeskind . Libeskind is also the architect of the Imperial War Museum North in Trafford near Manchester .
On November 10, 2006, the Dresden Central Station , rebuilt and modernized according to plans by Norman Foster , was reopened. As with the Reichstag in Berlin or the British Museum , the old structure and condition of the building is combined with new materials and shapes. The main focus of the main railway station was on the renovation of the roof equipped with a translucent Teflon - fiberglass was occupied -fabric. The filigree steel construction of the station hall and the simply falling fabric stand out against each other. The roof shape of the tear-resistant material provides further insights into the structure of the steel girders . Also following efforts by Foster, the glass dome of the reception hall, which had been covered with a solid roof for a long time, was made translucent again. As a result, the building has become lighter and more transparent overall.
The newly built glass ball house is located directly at the main train station . The idea of a house in spherical shape was first realized in Dresden in 1928. The Kugelhaus , which was built for exhibition purposes, was located on the trade fair and exhibition grounds , which is now the site of the Transparent Factory , until 1938 . The new ball house, which has a pure glass facade, is supposed to take up the motif of the ball again.
One of the buildings of the modern age is the Ufa-Kristallpalast by the architectural office Coop Himmelb (l) au . This now well-known office built its first major project with this building. Despite its use-related compromises, it is part of deconstructivism , which can be seen above all in the building's large glass cube.
Other well-known glass-concrete structures are, for example, the World Trade Center and the Transparent Factory from VW , both located on the so-called “ 26er Ring ” (street around the old town from Ammonstraße , Wiener Straße , Lennéstraße and Güntzstraße).
One of the buildings that opposed the overemphasis on the glass is the synagogue , a building whose design was controversial because of the prominent location of the Gottfried Semper synagogue, which was destroyed in the Night of the Pogroms in 1938, directly on the Elbe. It consists of two wings, the prayer and community room. The prayer room is almost completely windowless to the outside. The twisted vertical edges are noticeable on the building. The building was named European Building of the Year in 2001.
The Saxon State Library - Dresden State and University Library is very similar in its view of glass . Most of the library's display and reading areas are underground. The only real facade of the building has the two towering transoms, which have little window area. Natural lighting of the library is achieved through light shafts and the large glass roof of the central reading room. The interior design appears calm and resembles that of a monastery library with a lot of niches, galleries and columns.
On the outskirts of the city center is the St. Benno-Gymnasium , one of the first new school buildings after 1989. The building designed by Behnisch Architects stands out due to its relaxed and colorful design.
A representative building from the 1990s is the building of the Saxon State Medical Association on Schützenhöhe.
In the years 2016 to 2019 the building of the former Oberpostdirektion was renovated. The old buildings were supplemented by two new buildings.
Dresden, located on both sides of the Elbe , has several Elbe bridges . The most famous is the Blue Wonder (actually Loschwitzer Bridge ), completed in 1893 . The steel truss bridge is one of the technical sights and is located a little upstream of the city center between Loschwitz and Blasewitz. It spans the Elbe over a length of 141.5 m.
In the city center there are four road bridges and one railway bridge:
The Albertbrücke follows the Waldschlößchenbrücke and was the last of the old stone bridges to be built. In addition to the bridge, which has been in need of renovation since 2008 at the latest, the temporary bridge "Kleine Albertbrücke" was built for non-motorized individual traffic at the end of 2011. The actual bridge renovation took place in 2014–2016. With the completion of the side of the bridge upstream of the Elbe in late summer 2015, it was opened for pedestrian, bicycle and tram traffic, which previously ran on a construction site track, and the Kleine Albertbrücke was dismantled.
The Carolabrücke follows about 640 meters further. It was originally an arched bridge resting on stone pillars with arches made of steel truss, but was replaced by a prestressed concrete bridge after it was destroyed in World War II. This carries with the four-lane B 170 one of the most important north-south connections in the city and also a separate track for the tram. During the GDR era it was called Dr.-Rudolf-Friedrichs-Brücke .
The Augustus Bridge follows another 600 meters downstream . It is also a reinforced concrete bridge, albeit with an arch construction and clad on the outside with sandstone. In the place of this bridge, opened in 1910 as Friedrich-August-Brücke , was the medieval, stone Dresden Elbe Bridge , which was extensively rebuilt under Augustus the Strong from 1727–1731 and then named after him. It is located in the old town center.
The last bridge downstream in the city center is the Marienbrücke , which actually consists of two bridges: a road bridge upstream and a five-track railway bridge downstream. Since both bridges are very close to each other and originally the railroad and road were run together on the bridge closer to the city, both bridges are often mentioned in the same breath.
Between the bridges in the old town, the Elbe bends around 90 degrees over a stretch of two kilometers. If you mentally lengthen the bridge axes, they meet at Albertplatz , which was deliberately designed as the focus of the traffic axes. Due to the numerous bridge piers in the Elbe arch, this route is one of the most difficult passages of the largely straightened river for inland navigation .
Further downstream is the wing bridge built between the wars that connects the districts of Kaditz and Cotta . The bridge superstructure was completely replaced in 2004 and now carries six lanes of Dresden's western bypass.
Other bridges in the city are the renewed A 4 motorway bridge and the Niederwarthaer railway bridge of the Berlin-Dresden Railway in the far west. Both bridges also have separate footpaths and bike paths. In addition, there is the road bridge between the Niederwartha and Radebeul district , which was completed in 2008 and which was built right next to the railway bridge there. The completion of a foreland bridge and the connection of the roads was delayed until December 12, 2011, as extensive rescheduling (extension from originally planned 68 m to 112 m) was carried out on the foreland bridge for reasons of flood protection .
For other Elbe bridges, there were already some very detailed plans that were abandoned in favor of the Waldschlößchenbrücke.
The two Dresden mountain railways are located on the slopes of the Elbe in the Loschwitz district . The funicular connects Loschwitz over a 547 meter long route with the Weisser Hirsch district 95 meters higher. On the opposite side of the side valley of the Loschwitzbach, the suspension railway connects the districts of Loschwitz and Oberloschwitz. It overcomes 84 meters in altitude over a length of 274 meters. Both institutions are among the first of their kind in the world; the funicular was opened in 1895, the suspension railway in 1901, the world's first mountain suspension railway. The mountain slopes make a trip with this means of transport belonging to the Dresden transport company very attractive. 100 years ago the slopes of Loschwitz were among the most expensive living spaces in Europe.
After 1905, numerous industrial buildings were built under the city planning officer, Hans Erlwein , which were deliberately designed so that they disrupt the cityscape as little as possible. The most striking example of this is the Erlweinspeicher , which is a listed building and is located a few meters behind the Semperoper. It was one of the first buildings to be constructed using reinforced concrete. Erlwein has broken the roof and facade into small structures so that the ten-story building does not appear too crude. In the spring of 2006, the conversion of the warehouse into a hotel was completed. Other important Erlwein buildings are the Gasometer in Reick and the (new) slaughterhouse in the Ostragehege , in which the Dresden Exhibition Center has been located since 1999 .
The old slaughterhouse is on the other side of the Elbe in the Leipzig suburb and is used as a venue for concerts.
The Yenidze tobacco factory was built in the style of a mosque between 1908 and 1909, within sight of the Erlwein warehouse, and is also a listed building. It is always mistaken for a sacred building . The architectural style was extremely controversial at the time, especially because of the distance to oriental culture. Since its restoration in 1996, the building has served as an office complex.
The railway line runs past the Yenidze between the main train station and Dresden-Neustadt train station . Similar to the Berlin Stadtbahn, it was built on viaducts through the narrow city center. Until the completion of the continuous rail system, there were branch stations: the Leipzig train station and the Silesian train station on the Neustädter Elbe side as well as the Berlin train station , the Bohemian train station and the Albert train station on the left Elbe , which were loosely connected by level railroad tracks.
The main station is unique in its structure: the middle section is built as a ground-level terminus for trains coming from Leipzig, Nuremberg or Berlin. On both sides, however, there are continuous elevated platforms towards Prague, each with an additional station hall. The station building is on the front of the terminus section between the through tracks.
The television tower is located on the edge of the eastern highlands and is 252 meters high. Due to its mountain location, it towers over the city by about 370 meters and was opened in 1969. Until 1991 there was a gastronomic facility at a height of almost 150 meters, i.e. about 268 meters above the city. The Niederwartha pumped storage power station is also located on the Elbe slope, albeit on the southern in the northwestern town of Cossebaude . It was built in 1930 and has an output of 120 megawatts. From the upper basin, the water flows 143 meters into the lower one, which is on the Elbe.
Other noteworthy technical structures are the Tolkewitz crematorium , the Saloppe waterworks and the Dresden-Neustadt automatic car park , which was recognized as one of 365 representative locations as part of the “ Germany - Land of Ideas ” initiative launched for the 2006 World Cup .
Fountains, monuments and sculptures
The most famous sculpture in Dresden is the Golden Rider , an image of August the Strong in Roman armor on horseback. He seems to be riding towards Warsaw as King of Poland . The monument is located on the main street in the historic new town. The model is believed to have been made by court sculptor Jean Joseph Vinache . The cannon smith Ludwig Wiedemann (1690–1754) drove the figures in 1733 in copper. In the same year August the Strong died and did not see the erection of his monument. The first fire gilding was applied in 1735 and the monument was consecrated on November 26, 1736. The figures are now coated with gold leaf .
In gratitude that the city was spared cholera , the cholera fountain was built in 1846 on the Postplatz. For reasons of space (the Postplatz was the hub of the Dresden tram network as early as 1920) it was later relocated a little away from the square near the Hofkirche. It is one of the few neo-Gothic buildings in Dresden.
At Albertplatz there is an artesian well 240 meters deep , which was originally intended to provide drinking water in the then rapidly growing Antonstadt , but could never achieve this. On Albertplatz there are two ornamental fountains, “Stille Wasser” on the left and “Stormy Waves” on the right, on the park-like and circular Albertplatz, between which the tram stops are located. A historical and also very famous fountain is the nymph bath in the Zwinger .
In memory of the victims of National Socialism, over 100 stumbling blocks have been laid since 2009 .
The achievement of the Dresden women in clearing rubble after the Second World War is honored by the monument to the rubble woman by Walter Reinhold from 1952. It stands, re-cast in bronze after 1990, in a green area in front of the New Town Hall. This monument was the first of its kind in the GDR.
There are around 300 fountains , water features and fountains in Dresden . These include modern facilities such as the “dandelions” on Prager Strasse (these are modeled on the fountains from socialist times that were located in the same place) or the fountains in front of the main train station, in which the glass roof of the underground car park is located.
- Old Jewish Cemetery
- Japanese palace
- Garden city of Hellerau with the festival hall
- Luisenhof in Loschwitz
- Pfunds dairy
- Dresden Exhibition Center
- Sarrasani (destroyed)
- Schiller house
- Municipal heathland cemetery
- Replicas of the Kursächsische Postdistanzsäule from the year 1722/32 from the former Wilsdruffer Tor (Postplatz) in Zschertnitz and on Freiberger Straße / Hertha-Lindner-Straße (Telekom) as well as the Kursächsisches Viertelmeilenstein No. 1 from Obergebirgische Poststraße as a memorial for the Zschertnitz district at the exit of Paradiesstrasse
Excursion destinations / recreation
Dresden has numerous excursion destinations both in its own urban area and in the surrounding area. The city's tourist value in particular results from its proximity to some of the already well-known regions or buildings, such as Moritzburg Castle, Meißen or the Ore Mountains and Saxon Switzerland. There are mainly trips on the nine historic paddle steamers of the Saxon Steamship Company - each a technology monument in itself.
The Schillergarten , an old restaurant in Blasewitz, is right next to the Blue Wonder . Is known Friedrich Schiller perpetuating the daughter of the then host as Gustel of Blasewitz in Wallenstein's Camp . The Schillerplatz, which is directly adjacent to the Blue Wonder, is one of the most important city centers outside the city center.
Large parts of the urban area are used for local recreation; some parts of the city are former health resorts. The total size of the recreational areas in Dresden is 1561 hectares (30.5 m² per inhabitant). 890 hectares of which are public green spaces and recreational facilities. There are also 369 allotment gardens in Dresden on an area of 792 hectares. Around 50,000 Dresden residents are active allotment gardeners (status: end of 2009). There are also 58 cemeteries in the city with a total area of 196 hectares, more than 50,000 street trees and around 900 publicly accessible playgrounds.
In the northeast of the city lies the Dresden Heath . With 58 square kilometers, it covers around 15% of today's urban area. It is comprised of the districts and localities Klotzsche , Weixdorf and Langebrück .
To the south, the Elbe meadows connect directly to the Dresdner Heide . These agriculturally used, riverside green spaces run through the entire city and thus form around 5% of the city's area. Silted up oxbow lakes of the Elbe directly adjoin the Elbe meadows, which have also largely remained pastures, wet or dry meadows.
About one kilometer upstream from the old town are the three Dresden Elbe castles with their parks: Albrechtsberg Castle , Lingnerschloss (Villa Stockhausen) and Eckberg Castle . They form the beginning of the Dresden Elbe slope , which runs from there to the city limits in the east. On these slopes, some of which border the Dresdner Heide, there are 24 hectares of vineyards.
Centrally on the Elbe side of the old town is the Great Garden , in which the Dresden Zoological Garden , the Park Railway (former pioneer railway ), the Botanical Garden of the TU Dresden and the Carolasee are located. The large garden is rectangular in plan, 1.9 kilometers long and almost 2 square kilometers in size. Other parks such as the Bürgerwiese and the Blüherpark adjoin the Great Garden , other small parks such as the Rothermundt - and the Beutlerpark are not far from it in neighboring districts. On the Neustadt side of the Elbe, at the Albert Bridge, are the perennial and rose gardens, both laid out in the 1930s.
With the Alaunpark and the Albertpark, there are also two large parks in Neustadt. Other large parks are the Blasewitz Forest Park and the Pillnitz Castle Park , in which the Pillnitz camellia is located. The approximately 200 year old tree is considered the oldest camellia in Europe. Especially the time when the tree blooms from February to April attracts many visitors.
At the Heinrich Schütz Conservatory in Dresden , 4,000 students receive a qualified education.
Club sports in Dresden
An early football club was the Dresden English Football Club . In the war years of the Second World War, the Dresden Sports Club (DSC) around the national player and later national coach Helmut Schön won the German Cup (Tschammerpokal) and the German championship twice. The Dresdner SC now only plays in the district league (7th division).
The today top-class soccer club SG Dynamo Dresden played continuously from 1968 to 1991 in the Oberliga , the top division of GDR soccer. The team won the championship a total of eight times. Of the 98 European Cup games, the biggest success was reaching the UEFA Cup semi-finals in 1989 . As runner-up in the last season of the Oberliga, Dynamo qualified for the Bundesliga , in which the club played until 1995. Then he had to relegate to the regional league because of his license withdrawal . Later in the reform of the regional leagues the qualifying place was missed, which forced the club to play in the major league. After Dynamo Dresden played in the regional league and the 3rd soccer league , the club is now back in the 2nd Bundesliga . The high debt situation from the first division and the lower income in the lower divisions almost led to the bankruptcy of the club. His home ground, the Rudolf Harbig Stadium , was completely demolished and replaced by a new stadium. The new stadium was a venue for the 2011 Women's World Cup in Germany. Since September 2018, the stadium, which is owned by the City of Dresden, has been renamed the Rudolf-Harbig-Stadion again after changing names . The fans were allowed to vote on the name on the Internet. The choice was still Dynamo Stadium.
For the 2007/08 season, the city's two top-ranked football clubs were renamed: 1. FC Dynamo Dresden is again called the Sportgemeinschaft and the currently second-highest-ranking Dresden football club FV Dresden-Nord was renamed SC Borea Dresden (with Borea replacing the name Nord) .
Much more successful than the men's soccer department of the DSC is today the women's department of the DSC in volleyball , which has won the German championship four times and in 2010 the Challenge Cup (European Cup) since its promotion to the Bundesliga .
Successful sports clubs in other sports are the Dresden Monarchs , who play in the GFL , the first division of American football , the HC Elbflorenz, which plays in the 2nd handball division, and the Dresden Ice Lions , who play in the DEL2 . The sledge ice hockey division (Dresden Cardinals) plays in the first division.
Dresden is also a historical chess center in Germany. The Dresden Chess Federation has more than ten chess clubs, some with a long tradition; in 2008 the Chess Olympiad was held here.
In grassroots very successful is Dresden night skating , the nocturnal as the first event of its kind skating on different routes made possible by the city. These events take place throughout the summer.
There is a wheelchair dance department (popular sport) at Tanzclub Saxonia e. V. Dresden (in cooperation with the association Eureha e.V.). In addition, there is training in wheelchair tournament dancing in order to build on the successes of the past few years, where a couple were multiple German champions and achieved 3rd place at the 2004 World Championships in Tokyo.
Other associations are:
- FV Dresden 06 Laubegast e. V., football
- SG Dresden Striesen , football
- SSV Turbine Dresden e. V. , football
- Dresden Titans , basketball
- USV TU Dresden , multi-discipline association
- Saxon Mountaineering Association with 15,375 members (as of December 31, 2018); second largest association in Dresden, largest DAV section in Saxony, founded on March 1, 1911
- Dresden section of the German Alpine Club with 5,876 members (as of December 31, 2018); Second largest DAV section in Saxony, second oldest section in East Germany after the Leipzig section , founded on April 9, 1873
- Academic Section Dresden with 602 members (as of December 31, 2018); founded on June 10, 1901
The modernization of sports facilities was neglected for years. The demolition of the old Rudolf Harbig Stadium began on November 19, 2007 . The last max. The arena approved for 23,000 spectators was replaced by a new stadium at the same location, which was completed on September 15, 2009. The new stadium, which was designed as a pure soccer arena and is usually used as a soccer stadium, but also partly for American football, concerts and as a congress venue for Jehovah's Witnesses , has space for a maximum of 32,066 spectators and was the venue for three preliminary rounds and one Quarter-final game of the 2011 Women's World Cup .
Other sports facilities are the Margon Arena , the BallsportArena and other facilities in the Ostragehege , in which an athletics hall has been built and some tennis courts have been made flood-proof, as well as the indoor swimming pools and the diving hall on Freiberger Straße . There is a horse racing track in the Seidnitz district .
The Äußere Neustadt is one of the largest preserved urban areas of the Wilhelminian era in Germany. At the same time, there is the largest scene and pub district in the city with around 175 restaurants . Emerging from the poor condition of the building fabric, an alternative cultural scene developed there in the city. In 1989, some residents formed a community of interests in protest against the poor housing situation and demolition plans , and in 1990 proclaimed the Colorful Republic of Neustadt , thus establishing the character of a trendy district.
There is the highest concentration of clubs, bars and pubs in town. The condition of the district has improved a lot in recent years, which is why it is one of the most popular residential areas for young people in Dresden due to its diverse cultural offerings. The spectrum of bars is very diverse and ranges from jazz bars, indie and electro clubs to small-room disco.
The city's thirteen student clubs are located on the south side of the Elbe, near the universities . Most of them are supported by the Studentenwerk Dresden , but are usually independent associations. Founded in the 1960s, the " Bärenzwinger " in the vault of the former casemates under the Brühl Terrace is one of the oldest and once most famous student clubs in Dresden. The other clubs are mostly located, partly in the dormitories and in the canteens of the Technical University and the University of Technology and Economics. Since the “Bärenzwinger” was downsized in 2000, the “Club Mensa ” (CM) has been one of the best-known student clubs in Dresden.
The Tonne jazz club , founded in 1977, is very well known and resided in the barrel vault of the ruins of the Kurländer Palais from 1979 to 1997 . After that, it was in vaulted cellars in the Waldschlösschen area and in the Innere Neustadt , was re-established after bankruptcy and has been located again in the Kurländer Palais, which has since been rebuilt since 2015. The Triebwerk techno club , which was located in the rock cellar area from 2002 to 2013 , also achieved great fame .
In the industrial area north of the city center in the direction of Klotzsche, known as the “industrial site”, quite a few industrial buildings have been converted into discotheques and concert halls ( Kulturzentrum Strasse E ), so that more people are now in the area on weekend nights than on work days. Well-known clubs in the industrial area include Sector Evolution , Objekt klein a and Club Paula . Further clubs and venues for concerts are located in the area of the old slaughterhouse, an industrial monument in the Leipzig suburb, including Klub Neu , Alter Schlachthof and Club Puschkin .
The nightlife also includes concert halls and halls that are used permanently or temporarily for events with stages. Permanent concert facilities are the old slaughterhouse , which can hold up to 1,800 visitors, the " Beatpol " (until 2007: "Starclub") in Briesnitz and the open-air stage " Junge Garde " in the Great Garden . Occasionally, the trade fair in the Neue Schlachthof , the congress center and parts of the campus of the Technical University and the Elbwiesen are used for concerts. Concerts are also held during the film nights on the banks of the Elbe .
In Dresden there are various festivals and major events throughout the year . The musical events in particular enjoy international significance. District festivals with different backgrounds complete this offer.
The Dresden Film Festival takes place in April . It is a major animation and short film festival . The Dresden Music Festival , whose original forerunners were the music festivals of the baroque court, has a much more extensive tradition . They are known throughout Germany as an event for classical music .
In 1971 the first International Dixieland Festival was held. It is now one of the most important jazz and blues events in the world . With around 500,000 visitors annually, it is also the largest cultural event in Saxony. Elements of the festival such as the jazz mile that stretches across the city can be reached without admission. The main part of the festival takes place in many clubs and bars.
The Dresden International Dance Week takes place every spring . Since 1992 she has presented international class ensembles from ballet , dance theater to contemporary dance at several venues in Dresden.
Opposite the old town silhouette, the film nights have taken place on the banks of the Elbe every year since 1990 . The first time the event lasted ten days. Films, events and concerts now attract 150,000 viewers in around 60 days, making the event the largest of its kind in Germany.
An event with a political origin is the Bunte Republik Neustadt . The micronation of the same name existed in the Äußere Neustadt district from 1990 to 1993 as a protest against the ailing living conditions . There was a corresponding district festival as early as 1990, which is still being held. In 2001 and 2002 there were riots during the festival, while the last few years have been peaceful. The festival has remained one of the alternative scene culture.
The Elbhang Festival takes place every year along the right bank of the Elbe on the Dresden Elbhang . It extends from the Loschwitz district to Pillnitz . The highlight is among other things a dragon boat - Regatta . After the Elbe flood in 2002 , which included Laubegast in addition to the Kleinzschachwitz district , the island festival takes place there on the other side of the Elbe .
In summer, events take place in the evening and night. At the end of June or beginning of July, the research institutions and universities invite you to the Long Night of Science . The event offers the universities, institutes and cooperating technology companies the opportunity to present their work to a large audience. The Museum Summer Night has been taking place at the beginning of July since 1999. In 2015 it was renamed Museum Night and took place on the third Sunday of September in 2016 and 2017 due to a decline in visitors in previous years (due to the football World and European Championships often taking place on the same day); since 2018 it has been held again in July without giving reasons . The Night of the Churches has followed a similar concept since 2003, when around sixty churches and meetinghouses of Christian denomination open their doors. It has been taking place every 2 years for some time, in 2016 it was canceled due to the German Evangelical Trumpet Day and has been on pause since then.
The city festival takes place in August. It extends over the entire city center. In addition to live music, it offers a program tailored to families , which has around 500,000 guests annually.
Further festivals and events in summer are the Dresden Art Festival, the Culture Night and night skating, which often takes place on Fridays in summer. Several thousand inline skaters roll a course on closed streets through the city.
The folk dance festival and barrel organ meeting take place in autumn . Further events in autumn are the Dresden Days of Contemporary Music , the Bardinale literature festival and the Festival of Magic, as well as the Village Church Day every two years . In 1997, the highlight of the magic arts activities in Dresden was the triennial World Championship of the international umbrella organization FISM .
Since 2004, the CCC event "Datenpuren" has been held annually on a weekend in autumn .
The Dresden Striezelmarkt takes place during Advent . This Christmas market , which has existed since 1434, is one of the oldest in Germany. It is usually built on the old market and is one of the biggest tourist attractions during the Christmas season. The name of the store is derived from its main product, the Dresdner Stollen ("Striezel"). One of the highlights of the market is the Dresden Stollen Festival .
At the same time as the Striezelmarkt, a medieval Christmas market takes place every year in the stable courtyard of the Residenzschloss , at some other places in the city such as Prager Strasse, Neumarkt or Hauptstrasse there are parallel Christmas markets.
On January 13, 2006, the Dresden Opera Ball took place in the Semperoper for the first time in 67 years . The Opera Ball now takes place regularly every year and is becoming increasingly popular. The star guest of the 2009 Opera Ball was the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.
The festival of Saxon puppeteers and marionette players takes place in February.
Economy and Infrastructure
Dresden forms the center of what is currently the most economically strong area in the new federal states and is one of the economically strongest areas in Germany. In 2016, Dresden generated , within the city limits, a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 20.725 billion and thus occupied 15th place in the ranking of German cities by economic output . The GDP per capita was € 39,134 in 2017 (Saxony: € 31,453, Germany € 41,358). In 2016 there were around 324,900 gainfully employed people in the city. The purchasing power index per inhabitant was 90.1 in 2013 (Germany: 100). It can be observed that the purchasing power index per inhabitant is decreasing every year. In a European comparison, Dresden would receive an index of around 121 (EU-27: 100) compared to the former administrative district Dresden 87.7, Saxony 86.1 and Germany 115.1. The manufacturing industry has a particularly high share in total economic output. The microelectronics companies alone achieved sales of more than three billion euros. In the Future Atlas 2016 , the city of Dresden was ranked 28th out of 402 rural districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects". According to the study, Dresden ranks first among all cities and districts in eastern Germany.
The city's trade tax revenue amounted to 305 million euros in 2018.
At the end of 2019, 15,700 people (5.3 percent) were unemployed in Dresden, the lowest level since 1990. In March 2020, the proportion of unemployed in Dresden compared to all civilian labor force was 5.5 percent. The absolute number given was 16,410 people. Around a third of the unemployed are long-term unemployed, in October 2018 that was 5,470. The unemployment rate in Dresden averaged 6.1 percent in 2017. Due to the corona pandemic, the unemployment rate rose to 6.2 percent (18,426 unemployed) in April 2020, to 6.4 percent (19,254 people) in May 2020, to 6.5 percent (19,479) in June 2020 and in July 2020 6.7 percent (19,950). There are also around 60,000 short-time workers.
266,000 employees subject to social security contributions work in the city, of which 25,000 are dependent on tourism. There are around 94,000 in-commuters, the highest figure in years. Around 225,000 employees have their primary residence in the city , of which around 56,000 are out-commuters. Due to the balance of outward and inward commuters of 40,000 people, Dresden is a commuter city .
Around 20 percent of employees have a university degree . This high number and the many institutions of applied research show that the Dresden economy is moving away from the structural principle of the " extended workbench ". The weak point of Dresden's economic structure remains the small number of company headquarters in the city: All of the major settlements in recent years have only been entered as subsidiary companies in the Dresden commercial register.
In the urban area, an area of 307 hectares is farmed and 10,885 hectares are used for agriculture.
Dresden is known worldwide as a tourist destination. Every year around seven million guests visit the city, of which 1.1 million spend an average of around two days in Dresden. These values are currently among the top values in Germany and Europe. Tourism is strongly supported by events in cultural life. The number of visitors rose to 8.8 million in 2005 (the year the Frauenkirche opened). The annual turnover through tourism is around half a billion euros.
In 2011 there were 1.9 million overnight guests, including around 20 percent from abroad; 116 hotels offered around 20,000 beds. It is a high density in a national comparison of 26 hotels of the upper and luxury class . The capacity is still being expanded; the bed occupancy is around 50 percent. Together with the Dresden Exhibition Center and the new congress center , the city is also trying to distinguish itself as a congress and conference location. The Saxon casinos operate the " Spielbank Dresden " in the Café Prague in Dresden , one of three casinos in Saxony.
Mainly companies from the fields of microelectronics, information and biotechnology as well as electrical engineering are active in the city, which use the proximity of the university and numerous research institutes. The city's fields of competence lie in the areas
- Microelectronics, information and communication technology
- New materials and nanotechnology
- Mechanical and plant engineering / vehicle, aerospace technology, solar technology
- Biotechnology, pharmacy and vaccines
- Tourism, trade and markets
- Education, arts, humanities and social sciences
Many of the fields of competence did not just emerge in recent years. Some, such as microelectronics, which had a center in Dresden before 1989, were successfully expanded.
Due to the possibilities of close cooperation between industry and the universities and research institutions located here, the city is developing more and more into one of the leading centers for semiconductor production in Europe. In the past few years, new production facilities for leading companies such as Globalfoundries and Infineon have emerged . Robert Bosch GmbH's new semiconductor plant is scheduled to go into operation at the end of 2021. Many areas of the supplier industry ( clean room technology , special machine construction , silicon wafers ) are located in and around Dresden, so that, based on the Silicon Valley in California, the term Silicon Saxony is often used.
Through research in the field of nanotechnology and materials, it is hoped to become a leading business location for the emerging nanoelectronics , which will represent a quantum leap for electronic data processing. The economic use of special electromagnetic properties of superconductors ( Meißner-Ochsenfeld effect ) is also being worked on.
In addition to the microelectronics and semiconductor industry, the software industry is also represented, for example by the T-Systems subsidiary T-Systems MMS and the branches of the software manufacturers SAP Deutschland AG & Co. KG, Amazon , LogMeIn and the Polish Comarch . There are also numerous small and medium-sized companies and startups in the field of software development, such as Lovoo .
After the fall of the Wall, Siemens AG set up a location in Dresden. In 1991, the group bought the transformer and X-ray factory "Hermann Matern" from the Treuhandanstalt , which goes back to Koch & Sterzel AG. Around this plant in the Übigau district, the group took over a plot of land of around 350,000 square meters.
Volkswagen had the luxury vehicle ( VW Phaeton ) of the parent brand of the Volkswagen Group manufactured in the Transparent Factory . In March 2016, the 15th year after commissioning, production was stopped and in April 2017 the non-exclusive production of the e-Golf started after a conversion of the systems . The Airbus Group (until 2013 EADS) has a subsidiary in Dresden, Elbe Flugzeugwerke, especially for the conversion of Airbus aircraft. The site is also involved in the development of the Airbus A380 . On the one hand, parts of the interior fittings come from the factories; on the other hand, one of the two material test procedures is carried out at IABG / IMA. Many suppliers to the automotive industry for electronic components produce in Dresden. A subsidiary of Linde designs and plans plants for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
Dresden has played an important role in the pharmaceuticals and pharmaceuticals sector for more than a hundred years. Many processes for the industrial production of pharmaceuticals were developed and used here. The former Sächsische Serumwerk Dresden (today part of the GlaxoSmithKline group) is an internationally important supplier of flu vaccines . For example, she counts the US Department of Health among her most important customers. The pharmaceutical production located in neighboring Radebeul and looking back on a long tradition (as Chemische Fabrik Dr. F. von Heyden and Arzneimittelwerk Dresden ), which now belongs to the Italian Menarini Group, is also gaining in importance .
Furthermore, the cigarette manufacturer Philip Morris ( brand f6 ) is based in Dresden, which as VEB Vereinigte Zigarettenfabriken Dresden (VEZIFA) was the parent company of VEB Kombinat Tabak during the GDR era. With Feldschlößchen AG, what is now Saxony's largest brewery brews its beers here.
Before it was destroyed by the air raid, the city's representative shopping center with numerous specialty shops was located on Prager Strasse , while the large department stores dominated the area around the Altmarkt . The restart in 1952 marked the construction of the department store on Wilsdruffer Strasse near Postplatz. If this building stood for the awakening Dresden at the time, its importance for the city at the beginning of the 1950s can hardly be traced back to the newer surrounding buildings.
The largest concentration of department stores and shops is now in Dresden city center on northern Prager Strasse and on the Altmarkt. There have branches of the large department store chains located and together with the Old Market Square Gallery and the Centrum-Galerie one of the major shopping centers of the city. The Altmarkt-Galerie was extended to Postplatz by 2011 and has since then had more than 200 stores, including many unique brand stores in East Germany such as Hollister , Apple and O'Neill . The area is accessed by several tram stops. The main train station, at the southern end of Prager Straße, has also been an important center of retail trade since its completion and the development of Wiener Platz .
In contrast, Königstrasse in Dresden-Neustadt has established itself as a shopping street for high-quality goods and luxury items - previously the privilege of Prager Strasse . Shops in this price range are strongly interwoven with the city's tourism. A similar structure has developed on Neumarkt around the Frauenkirche.
Neustädter Hauptstrasse , which has been converted into a pedestrian zone, had "its best time" in the 1980s. Nearby is the Neustädter Markthalle , a small shopping center with 20 dealers in a reconstructed Art Nouveau building.
Significant shopping centers were also created again in old district centers such as Schillerplatz in Blasewitz. Other facilities such as the Elbepark are concentrated outside the city center at motorway exits and thus have a significantly supra-regional influence. The price pressure on retail space in the city center from large shopping centers in the periphery is also noticeable in Dresden and is often criticized. In the city center, just 22 percent of retail sales are achieved. That is comparatively little, even though there are several secondary centers.
Traditional companies / former companies
One of the best-known companies was Dresdner Bank , founded on November 12, 1872 . The operational management was relocated to Berlin as early as 1885, but the bank remained entered in the commercial register of the city of Dresden until 1950 .
The paddle steamer fleet operated by the Saxon Steamship Company is the largest and oldest in the world. The paddle steamer Stadt Wehlen , built in 1879 and named after the town of Wehlen in Saxon Switzerland , is the oldest ship in the fleet. Around 500,000 passengers travel on the 13 ships every year.
The cooperative Konsum Dresden , a trading company that was founded in 1888 as the “Konsumverein Vorwärts”, is only a little younger . Contaminated and overpriced food meant that several Dresden families wanted to shop themselves and trade with one another. A store network was set up with its own production and logistics structures and the first consumer meat factory opened in Dresden as early as 1931. Today the company still operates over 40 branches and has around 25,600 members.
The " Sachsenwerk , Licht- und Kraft AG" was founded in 1903 and mainly built transformers and switching devices for electrical lighting as well as large electrical machines . The plant has been a major manufacturer of tram and locomotive engines since the 1920s. Today VEM Sachsenwerk GmbH is part of the VEM Group .
In 1907 the production of the toothpaste Chlorodont began in the attic of the Löwenapotheke , which from 1917 onwards was produced and marketed on an ever larger scale in the newly founded Leowerke . The successor company still uses the space today.
With the Center for Microelectronics Dresden (ZMD) and the Robotron combine , the era of microelectronics and computer production began in Dresden in 1961. In 1989 there were around 4,000 employees at the Center for Microelectronics, and up to 68,000 people were employed in the Robotron combine. The ZMD operated from 1961 to 1976 as the Dresden Molecular Electronics Laboratory (initially AME, from 1969 AMD). After further renaming and privatization in the 1990s, around 300 engineers, technicians and skilled workers worked in the company now known as “ZMD AG”. The Robotron combine was dissolved in 1990 and its sub-operations were privatized. Of these successor companies, only Robotron Database Software GmbH still exists in Dresden with 442 employees (fiscal year 2017/2018).
Dresden mechanical engineering has a tradition as a direct supplier to the local pharmaceutical , optical and food manufacturing industries. The Saxon industry was able to gain competitive advantages primarily through the use of precision mechanics in large machine construction. The history recently continued with the special machine builders for clean room technology.
Until the post-war period, Dresden and the surrounding area was a focus of the German optical-precision engineering industry, especially in the field of camera construction. The Ernemann works , Zeiss Ikon , which Ihagee (invention of the one-eyed miniature - SLR ), the camera works Niedersedlitz and the VEB Pentacon ( Praktica cameras) Here were located also in Dresden in 1923 by the 18-year-old learned. Photographer Martin Hanke Hama founded.
The Elbe Flugzeugwerft , which now operates as Elbe Flugzeugwerke and belongs to the Airbus Group (until 2013 EADS), was an important aircraft construction plant very early after the Second World War, which was located on the northeastern edge of Dresden-Klotzsche Airport on part of the site of the former Air War School 1 was built. With the Baade 152 , the first German airliner with jet engines was built there in the 1950s . By decision of the Politburo of the SED , aircraft construction in the GDR and with it this project had to be stopped in 1961 due to a lack of sales opportunities.
|Company name||Founded||Current status||Branch|
|APOGEPHA Arzneimittel GmbH||1882||Independent family business||Pharmaceutical products|
meanwhile VEB Elbechemie Dresden
|1907||GmbH & Co. KG||Dental hygiene|
|Li-iL||1910||GmbH in private ownership||Hygiene products|
|Lingner works||1892||Destroyed in 1945; merged with VEB Elbe-Chemie||Oral hygiene|
|Saxon Serum Factory Dresden||1911||GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Dresden, subsidiary of the GSK group||Flu vaccine|
meanwhile VEB Verkehrsbetriebe der Stadt Dresden
|1872||AG owned by the city||Local transport|
meanwhile VEB Energiekombinat Dresden
|1930||Municipal company since 1997||energy|
|Clemens Müller||1855||Expropriated in 1945/46, from 1951 with Seidel & Naumann VEB Typewriter Factory (e) Dresden||sewing machines|
|Elbe aircraft yard||1955||Subsidiary of the Airbus Group||Aircraft construction|
|Glasses body||1864||1946 VEB Karosseriewerk Dresden (KWD) , privatized in 1994||Bodies|
|Laubegast shipyard||1898||independent AG||Inland shipbuilding, last of the iron shipyards in Dresden|
|Seidel & Naumann||1870 (1868 Naumann)||Expropriated in 1945/46, from 1951 with Clemens Müller VEB Typewriter Plant (e) Dresden, from 1980 Kombinat Robotron, from 1990 Robotron Erika GmbH, liquidated in 1992||Sewing machines, bicycles, typewriters, calculators|
|VEB Mikromat||since 1992 GmbH||Machine tools|
|Balda AG||1909||Headquarters relocated to Bad Oeynhausen||optics|
|Ernemann-Werke AG||1889||1926 to Zeiss Ikon||optics|
formerly Ernemann-Werke AG and others
|1926||Nationalized in 1955 , integration into what was later to become Pentacon||optics|
VEB Pentacon Dresden
formerly Zeiss Ikon , Ihagee , Kamera-Werke Niedersedlitz , Meyer-Optik Görlitz and others
|1955||Subsidiary of J. Schneider Optische Werke, outsourced Meyer-Optik GmbH insolvent 1991, camera works Niedersedlitz partially restituted (today camera factory Dresden )||optics|
|Joint stock association of the Societätsbrauerei zu Dresden||1836||Gastronomy brewery at Waldschlösschen||Brewery|
|Feldschlößchen Brewery||1883||Part of Frankfurter Brauhaus GmbH ( TCB Beteiligungsgesellschaft )||Brewery|
f6 Cigarette factory
meanwhile VEB Dresdner Zigarettenfabriken
|1909||Part of the Altria Group||Tobacco products|
VEB Dresdner Süßwarenfabriken Elbflorenz
formerly Hartwig & Vogel
|Specialty bakery Dr. Quendt||1876||Dr. Quendt KG is privately owned||Food|
|Consumption Dresden eG||1888 as a consumer association "Forward"||Independent consumer cooperative with around 25,600 members, Konsum Dresden eG||Grocery store, specialist in food and drink|
|Dr. Doerr Feinkost GmbH & Co. KG||1933 as a delicatessen factory Dr. Herbert Doerr||Family business of the Doerr family||delicatessen|
Koch & Sterzel AG
meanwhile VEB TuR "Hermann Matern" Dresden
|1904||Subsidiary of Siemens AG||Electrical engineering / X-ray equipment|
|Radio H. Mende & Co.||1922||June 1945 dismantling; 1948–1969 VEB Funkwerk Dresden, 1969–1990 VEB Robotron-Meßelektronik Dresden||Radio equipment, electrical measurement technology|
|Sachsenwerk||1903||Part of the VEM group||Electrical engineering|
|Center for Microelectronics Dresden||1961||independent AG||microelectronics|
|Dresdner Bank||1872||Relocated to Frankfurt am Main in 1950 , merged with Commerzbank in 2009||Bank|
|Dresden security and locking company||1902||Nationalized in 1945||safety|
|German workshops Hellerau||1898||1946–1989 VEB , privatized in 1992||Furniture|
|Eg-Gü||1890||New beginning 2006 in Lichtenau b. Chemnitz||Shoe polish / cleaning products|
|Eschebach works||1867||Liquidated in 2004||Furniture|
|Novatic group||1990||Paints and coatings|
Dresden is one of the most important junctions in road and rail traffic in Eastern Germany and has an airport. Around 3335 hectares of the urban area are used for traffic areas.
The following table shows the breakdown of the distances covered in Dresden by means of transport (referred to as a modal split in terms of transport technology) and their changes since 1991.
|Means of transport \\ year||2018||2013||2008||2003||1998||1991|
motorized private transport
(car, motorcycle, moped)
|local public transport (ÖPNV)||20th||21st||21st||20th||21st||22nd|
In the past few years, the share of journeys made with public transport has remained relatively constant. The share of motorized individual transport rose sharply after the fall of the Wall, but has been falling again in the last ten years. By contrast, the proportion of journeys made by bicycle has risen continuously since 1991.
The Dresden railway junction connects five main and long-distance routes. Dresden Hauptbahnhof is one of 20 long-distance hubs in Germany and, along with Dresden-Neustadt station, is the city's most important train station. Dresden has direct long-distance traffic connections in daytime traffic with Leipzig , Berlin , Prague , Erfurt , Magdeburg , Rostock , Warnemünde , Frankfurt am Main , Wiesbaden , Hamburg , Hanover , Brno , Bratislava and Budapest, among others . There are night connections to Zurich . There were night train connections to Budapest and Vienna until the timetable change in December 2017 , since then a change in Prague has been necessary for these destinations. The Dresden S-Bahn connects the city with the surrounding area and the airport. In regional traffic, Dresden is connected to Lausitz , Chemnitz , Zwickau as well as Leipzig and Hof .
In the metropolitan area of Dresden there are four federal highways . By the northwestern urban area which leads A 4 in the direction Görlitz or Chemnitz and Erfurt with five connection locations . From the A 4, the A 13 branches off in the far north of the city in the direction of Berlin and west of Dresden the A 14 to Leipzig.
The A 17 , completed in 2006, begins in the west of Dresden and touches the city to the south with three junctions. It is also the European route E 55 and leads through the Ore Mountains to Prague . The A 17 runs in tunnels under two districts of Dresden. The motorway is particularly important for long-distance truck traffic in the north-south direction and relieves the main streets of the city during rush hour , as it runs parallel to and close to the conurbation around Dresden and thus benefits commuters from Pirna and Heidenau . The high costs of the new route and the associated promotion of urban sprawl were criticized . The newly developed residential locations would generate new commuter traffic in the long term and make up for the relief. The impact on the city's air supply was also viewed critically.
The following federal highways also run through the city: The B 6 , B 97 , B 170 and B 173 . The city of Dresden, with its many four-lane streets and strongly increased, comparatively high travel speeds, was considered car-friendly, although the very high level of public transport was not or is not denied.
The Elbe Cycle Path , which was voted Germany’s most popular long-distance cycle path for the eleventh time in a row by members of the ADFC in 2015 , runs continuously along the Elbe within the city with a few exceptions. In the Germany-wide surveys on cycling friendliness ( bicycle climate test ), Dresden ranks in the middle of the field behind Chemnitz and Leipzig (in the test in 2014 it was 21st out of a total of 38 cities with over 200,000 inhabitants). In the municipal citizens' survey in 2014, 71% of those questioned stated that the city administration should be more committed to cycling. At the very first participation in the competition: Nevertheless, the Dresdner enthusiasm for cycling City cycling 2011 winner in the category Fahrradaktivste city with the most competitive kilometers .
In total, the road network in municipal administration comprises 1,400 km of roads, 1,908 km of footpaths and 370 km of cycle paths.
In addition to the S-Bahn, twelve trams and over 30 bus routes operated by Dresden's public transport company and some bus companies (see bus transport in Dresden ) also serve local public transport . Regionalverkehr Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge GmbH operates important overland routes with connections to Dresden . Trams have been running in the former Saxon residence town since 1872, initially as horse-drawn trams , and increasingly electrically from 1893. At the same time, there were two competing private companies whose external distinguishing features were the different vehicle colors (therefore they were referred to as “yellow” and “red” companies in the population). These were combined in 1905 in the Dresden City Tram. Since then, the tram network has been operated under the same direction, initially by the city itself, and over time by different carriers that are more or less dependent on the city. The Dresden tram is known for the large Hechtwagen used between 1931 and 1972 . Even in the Weimar Republic there was sometimes a three-minute cycle. Since the last line changeover, twelve tram lines have been running on an approximately 204 km long line network that extends to the neighboring towns of Radebeul , Coswig and Weinböhla ; this overland railway is marketed as a cultural route for tourism .
The Dresden transport company has been modernizing its network and fleet for years. Since June 2010, only low-floor trams from Bombardier Transportation from Bautzen with comfortable, stepless entrances have been in use. The Tatra T4D wagons are occasionally used only for special services , and also for the regular frequency consolidation of line 3 during the lecture period.
In addition to the bridges (each with local public transport by rail, bus or tram), three Elbe ferries enable the crossing over the Elbe : from Johannstadt to Neustadt, from Niederpoyritz to Alttolkewitz and from Kleinzschachwitz to Pillnitz.
In the Loschwitz district there are also the historic mountain railways: a funicular to the posh district of Weißer Hirsch and a suspension railway to Oberloschwitz , at whose mountain station there is an excellent view of the city and the south-western area.
The paddle steamers of the White Fleet operate on the Elbe and provide exclusively tourist connections up the Elbe into Saxon Switzerland and down the Elbe to Meißen . Dresden is also a stopping point for passenger ships operated by river cruise operators.
In the north of Dresden, in Klotzsche, Dresden Airport has been located since 1935 with national and international airlines. It was renovated after reunification and therefore has a well-developed terminal and good connections to local public transport. Dresden Airport has a limited night's sleep between midnight and 5 a.m., which also only allows limited air traffic in the additional off-peak times before and after.
Long-distance bus transport
In particular, the bus stop south of the main train station is not designed for the expanding long-distance bus traffic. Above all, there is a lack of shelters and benches. There are plans to build a central bus station north of the main train station at the western end of Wiener Platz . However, there are currently no precise plans (as of October 2014).
In addition to a large number of national lines, some international lines also serve Dresden. The cities of Amsterdam , Budapest , Brussels , London , Copenhagen , Paris , Prague , Stockholm , Vienna or Zurich can be reached without changing trains.
Dresden was and is an important rail hub in freight traffic, with the Dresden-Friedrichstadt marshalling yard belonging to its railway facilities . With the Volkswagen Group's automobile plants in Chemnitz , Zwickau , at the Czech subsidiary Škoda in Mladá Boleslav and in Dresden itself, the freight yard plays an important role as a logistics center. Every day, around 200 freight trains roll over the Elbe Valley Railway to and from the Czech Republic.
A special feature is the CarGoTram freight tram , which is operated by Volkswagen's Transparent Factory in the Great Garden . The railway was set up so that the inner city between the logistics center at the freight station in Friedrichstadt and the factory is not exposed to any additional loads from trucks.
Dresden's port is located on the left Elbe in Dresden-Friedrichstadt and serves the Elbe container line and the inland waterway line ETS-Elbe. In 2007 it also received a RoRo system with a maximum permissible load of 500 tons.
Dresden is at the intersection of the E 40 and E 55 , two important European roads . It has been possible to relocate long-distance freight traffic out of the city via the A 17 . The E 55 alone are used by more than 2000 trucks every day.
With the Sächsische Zeitung (SZ) and the Dresdner Neuesten Nachrichten (DNN) two traditional daily newspapers appear. The Sächsische Zeitung was an organ of the SED from 1946 and during the GDR era . Today it is majority owned by the Gruner + Jahr publishing house .
The forerunners of the DNN were newspapers of the NDPD ( Saxon Latest News ), LDPD ( Saxon Tageblatt ) and CDU ( Die Union ). Today the DNN belongs to the Leipziger Verlags- und Druckereigesellschaft, which is also a partner of the Leipziger Volkszeitung (LVZ). The publishing company Madsack has a 100% stake in the Leipziger Verlags- und Druckereigesellschaft , in which the Deutsche Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft (dd_vg), the media holding company of the SPD, has a stake of over 20% .
Other newspapers and magazines
The free Dresden Official Gazette (DDA) appears weekly as the city administration's publication organ. Since the first predecessor appeared in 1839, it is considered the longest-serving print medium in Dresden.
Dresdner Kulturmagazin (free) and Sax are monthly city magazines with an event calendar. The gastronomy magazine "Augusto" appears annually. Other magazines are Frizz , Spot , DD-INside , Skunk , SPIESSER , Urania , caz , Prinz and port01 , some of which are financed by advertising. Some of these sheets are also represented in other German cities.
Furthermore, in Dresden nor the free advertising papers are Wochenkurier , freitagSZ and Dresden at the weekend distributed, the latter two as a portfolio supplement to the publishing house of the Saxon newspaper ( DDV Media Group ). There are also advertising papers for the respective districts, for example the Leubener Zeitung for the Leuben district .
Radio and television
Since national radio programs could only be received in a few places in the city area in the valley, the 252 meter high television tower was opened in 1969 and is still in operation today.
In addition to the state broadcasting station of the MDR, there are numerous production and service companies in Dresden .
In addition to television stations in individual districts, which are operated by antenna communities, there is Dresden television as a private-law broadcaster for the entire city area. In addition, the local television broadcaster tvM (Meissen television) and the Dresden television offshoot 8Dresden broadcast around the clock via Kabel Deutschland . The regional sports channel 8Sport in Dresden is distributed via Primacom .
Dresden is home to two Saxon training and testing channels (SAEK) - one SAEK specializing in schools in the St. Benno-Gymnasium and one in the Pentacon media culture center. The interested citizen will find open studios here and can learn to produce, broadcast and go on the air (own radio station NEON 425 on 104.25 MHz in the Dresdner Kabel).
In addition to the public and private radio stations, there is also the free radio coloRadio in Dresden, which can be heard on weekdays from 6 p.m. to midnight and on weekends from 12 p.m. to midnight on the frequencies 98.4 and 99.3 MHz. ColoRadio shares these frequencies with apollo radio .
During the GDR era, for the most part no western TV channels could be received in Dresden, which is why Dresden was named the Valley of the Clueless . In the vernacular, the name of the ARD was interpreted as O uter R aum D resden. In order to still be able to receive West German television stations, several citizens' initiatives were founded from 1987 onwards which, with state tolerance , distributed signals from West German television programs received via satellite in small cable networks. In some cases, West German programs with poor terrestrial reception were already prepared in these cable networks at great expense and offered in fluctuating, but only really good quality on a few days. In addition, Czech television programs were also prepared, in which German-language films with Czech subtitles were sometimes shown.
Public institutions of supraregional importance
Due to its status as the state capital, numerous public institutions and bodies or corporations under public law at the state level have their headquarters in Dresden , such as the Saxon State Parliament , the Saxon State Chancellery , all ministries of the Saxon state government, the Saxon data protection officer , the State Criminal Police Office of Saxony and other state authorities. The principle of spatial separation of the legislative and executive branch of the judiciary was respected in Saxony in such a way that apart from the Court of Appeal for the ordinary courts all other top Regional Courts in Leipzig, Chemnitz and Bautzen are.
The Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital at the Technical University of Dresden, which was founded in 1954 by the Dresden Medical Academy , is the maximum care hospital for Eastern Saxony with around 1,300 beds. The municipal clinic Dresden-Friedrichstadt is a hospital for specialized care . (see also: List of hospitals in Dresden )
The Waterways and Shipping Office Dresden is subordinate to the Waterways and Shipping Directorate East and is mainly responsible for the Elbe over a length of 290 km. The Federal Customs Administration includes a customs investigation office and a main customs office based in Dresden. The latter and the associated customs office are subordinate to the Federal Finance Directorate in Potsdam . Until December 31, 2007 it was subordinate to the customs and excise department (ZuVA) of the Oberfinanzdirektion Chemnitz. At the end of this date, the ZuVA was dissolved.
The Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railways has a branch in Dresden.
In addition, the Saxon Academy of the Arts , the Saxon State Foundation for Nature and Environment , the Community Foundation , the Brücke / Most Foundation and, since 2006, the Gerhard Richter Archive have their headquarters in Dresden.
Education and Research
Dresden is already traditionally shaped as a location for important and future-oriented companies and institutions, which promotes further expansion into one of the world's leading technology locations, but as a city of art and culture also obliges the visual arts and humanities. The network of research, business and culture, the anchoring of science in the broader population as well as the scientific tradition and current role of Dresden have contributed to Dresden being named " City of Science " by the Donors' Association for German Science for 2006 . The associated events were closely linked to the city's 800th anniversary.
The anchoring of science and education in the population is particularly evident in the annual, well-attended Long Night of the Sciences .
Higher education and university research
There are nine universities in the city . Traditionally, their strengths and meanings lie in technology and business on the one hand, and in art and culture on the other. In total, more than 40,000 people study here. The students at the universities are looked after by the Studentenwerk Dresden .
The Technical University of Dresden (TUD), with almost 33,000 students and around 6,000 employees, ranks 18th among the largest universities in Germany. Its campus is located south of the city center near the main train station, and a large part is housed in the southern suburb . The Dresden International University (DIU) is a spin-off of the TU Dresden , where only postgraduate degrees can be obtained. In addition, a children's university in the form of a lecture series on various topics is organized at TUD every semester .
The largest technical college in Dresden is the Dresden University of Technology and Economics (HTW Dresden). The main buildings of HTW Dresden are located directly at the main train station. Until 1992 they housed the University of Transport “ Friedrich List ”, which since 1992 has formed the faculty of transport science of the same name at the TU Dresden. About 5000 students are currently studying at the HTW Dresden.
The Hochschule für Bildende Künste (HfBK), which is located in the city center on Brühl's Terrace, is important in the field of fine arts . The Palucca University of Dance Dresden and the University of Music "Carl Maria von Weber" (HfM) are also important in their fields .
Since December 2012, is also the United Nations University (United Nations University, UNU) represented by the Institute for Integrated Management of Material Fluxes and of Resources (UNU-FLORES) in Dresden. UNU-FLORES will deal with the focus of global change and resource management for the green economy.
In addition, there are other important educational institutions: the Staatliche Studienakademie Dresden ( vocational academy ), a branch of the Staatliche Studienakademie Sachsen and the Saxon Administration and Economic Academy e. V. as a pure training facility. The Army Officer School , which traditionally trains the officers of the German Army, can also be assigned to the higher educational institutions .
Non-university scientific institutions
The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft is currently building its largest location in Germany in Dresden with its eleven facilities and the institute center. As the leading sponsoring organization for applied research in Germany, it conducts contract research in its institutes. Research at the Fraunhofer institutions has become an important location factor for many high-tech companies. The company operates the Fraunhofer Center for Nanoelectronic Technologies (CNT) - integrated into the facilities of the former Qimonda plant - in cooperation with AMD Saxony and Qimonda in the form of a public-private partnership .
Other Fraunhofer institutes in Dresden are:
- Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology (FEP)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems (IPMS)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation and Infrastructure Systems (IVI)
- Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology (IWS)
Fraunhofer institute parts and centers in Dresden are:
- Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research (IFAM) - Dresden branch
- Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits (IIS) - Dresden branch
- Fraunhofer Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology (IWU) - Dresden branch
- Fraunhofer IVV, branch office for processing machines and packaging technology (IVV Dresden)
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society has been operating the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI CBG) in Dresden since 2001 . Since then it has developed into an important institute in the field of functional genomics through research programs such as Molecular Bioengineering Dresden . About 300 employees work in this institute.
Other institutes of the society are the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids (MPI CPfS) and Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems (MPI PKS).
The Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf e. V. (HZDR) belonged to the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community until 2011 and focuses on research in the life sciences (especially cancer research), energy research and materials research. The German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) has had a location in Dresden since 2009 .
Scientific community "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz"
- Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden
- Institute for Polymer Research Dresden V. (IPF)
- Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development e. V. (IOER)
- Ifo Institute for Economic Research (only branch with a focus on the economy in the new federal states)
Dresden has 29 grammar schools , nine of which are independent and one under state sponsorship. The Martin-Andersen-Nexö-Gymnasium provides an in-depth mathematical and scientific education , the Romain-Rolland-Gymnasium an in-depth linguistic education and the Semper-Gymnasium an in-depth artistic education. Dresden's old-language grammar school and at the same time the oldest school in the city is the Evangelical Kreuzgymnasium , the history of which goes back to the 13th century. The Saxon State High School for Music "Carl Maria von Weber" trains musically gifted students. There is also an elite sports school, the sports high school .
In addition to monarchs and politicians, the city's honorary citizens include scientists and artists who worked in Dresden - for example the scientist Manfred von Ardenne , the dance teacher Gret Palucca and the musician Richard Strauss .
sons and daughters of the town
The world-famous author Erich Kästner was born in Dresden and grew up in the Neustadt district. The painter Gerhard Richter is one of the well-known people who were born in Dresden . He studied at the art academy and is one of the most important German painters of the post-war period. Also from Dresden are the long-time SPD parliamentary group chairman Herbert Wehner and his FDP colleague Wolfgang Mischnick, as well as the soccer coach Helmut Schön , who led the Federal Republic of Germany to select the 1974 World Cup. The former Federal Minister for the Family , Christine Bergmann , was born in Dresden.
Other people who lived and worked in Dresden for a long time were (among others) Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg , Berthold Auerbach , Carl Gustav Carus , Johan Christian Clausen Dahl , Otto Dix , Felix Draeseke , Hans Erlwein , Caspar David Friedrich , Karl Gutzkow , Heinrich von Kleist , Victor Klemperer , Charlotte Meentzen , Pierre I Mercier , Daniel Pöppelmann , Sergei Wassiljewitsch Rachmaninow , Wilhelm Rudolph , Wolf Curt von Schierbrand , Gertrude Seltmann-Meentzen , Richard Wagner , Carl Maria von Weber , Maria Reiche , Mary Wigman , Erhard Ludewig Winterstein , Nicolaus Ludwig Graf von Zinzendorf and Otto Zirnbauer .
- Description of the royal Saxon residence city of Dresden and the surrounding area edited for foreigners. First part and second part in one volume. Reprint [of the edition] Dresden, Walthersche Hofbuchhandlung 1807. Heilbronn: Kleist Archive Sembdner 2010, ISBN 978-3-940494-43-6 .
- Fritz Löffler : The old Dresden. History of his buildings. Seemann, Leipzig 1999, (first edition 1955, 16th edition 2006), ISBN 3-363-00007-3 .
- Alexander McKee: Dresden 1945 - The German Hiroshima. Paul Zsolnay Verlag, Hamburg / Vienna 1983, ISBN 3-552-03529-X .
- Dresden (= values of our homeland . Volume 42). 1st edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1984.
- Heinz Quinger : Dresden. ( Art history city books ). Leipzig 1991.
- State capital Dresden: Land use plan. City Planning Office, Dresden 1998.
- State capital Dresden: Integrated urban development concept Dresden. Part I. Analysis and fields of action. City Planning Office, Dresden 2001.
- Ingeborg flag : Dresden (FSB architecture guide. City guide for contemporary architecture) . Verlag Das Example, Darmstadt 2004, ISBN 3-935243-48-0 .
- Thomas Widera: Dresden 1945–1948. Politics and society under Soviet occupation (= publications of the Hannah Arendt Institute for Research on Totalitarianism . Vol. 25). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 978-3-525-36901-2 .
- Ulrich Hübner, Ulrike Grötzsch u. a .: Symbol and truthfulness. Reform architecture in Dresden. Verlag der Kunst Dresden, 2005, ISBN 3-86530-068-5 .
- Eckhart Leisering: Acta sunt hec Dresdene - the first mention of Dresden in the document of March 31, 1206 , Sächsisches Staatsarchiv, Mitteldeutscher Verlag (mdv), Halle / Saale and Dresden 2005, pages 96, ISBN 978-3-89812-320-4 , Pp. 5/40 / 35-41 / 94.
- Karlheinz Blaschke , Reiner Gross , Holger Starke (eds.): History of the city of Dresden. Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the End of the Thirty Years War , ISBN 978-3-8062-1906-7 ; Volume 2: From the end of the Thirty Years War to the establishment of an empire. ISBN 978-3-8062-1927-2 ; Volume 3: From the founding of the empire to the present. Theiss, Stuttgart 2005-2006, ISBN 978-3-8062-1928-9 .
- Georg Dehio : Handbook of German Art Monuments - Dresden , edited by Barbara Bechter, Wiebke Fastenrath, Heinrich Magirius u. a., updated in 1996/2005 by Friedrich Kobler, Heinrich Magirius, Mathis Nitzsche and Hartmut Ritschel. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin, ISBN 3-422-03110-3 . (with 40 plans and floor plans).
- Thorsten Pietschmann: Dresden. Architecture and art (= Cybela picture manual architecture and art. Volume 2). Cybela Verlag, Oybin-Lückendorf 2013, ISBN 978-3-944470-00-9 .
- Jürgen Helfricht : Little Dresden ABC. Husum, Husum 2014, ISBN 978-3-89876-719-4 .
- Steffen Raßloff : Small history of the city of Dresden. Rhino Verlag, Ilmenau 2019, ISBN 978-3-95560-072-3 .
- Andreas Ruby: Las Vegas on the Elbe. In: The time. Hamburg 2000, 46th
With topics from Dresden:
- Oliver Bendel: Lost Sisters. Leipziger Literaturverlag, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3-86660-079-9 .
- Renatus Deckert (Ed.): The desert city. Seven poets about Dresden. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-458-34849-2 .
- Wilhelm von Kügelgen : memories of an old man's youth, a . a. ed. by Philipp von Nathusius , W. Hertz , Berlin 1870.
- Eberhard Panitz : Dresdner Novelle 1989. Verlag am Park, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-89793-232-6 .
- Detlev Schöttker (Ed.): Dresden. A literary invitation. Wagenbach Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8031-1239-7 .
- Uwe Tellkamp : The tower . Story from a sunken land. Novel. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-518-42020-1 .
- Mathias Ullmann : Without angels. VAT, Mainz 2009, ISBN 978-3-940884-20-6 .
- Tilo Richter (text), Hans-Christian Schink (photos): Industrial architecture in Dresden. Kiepenheuer, Leipzig 1997, ISBN 3-378-01019-3 .
- Reinhardt Balzk, Jürgen Leibiger (Ed.): Industrial history of the city of Dresden 1945–1990. Contributions to the city's 800th anniversary. Schkeuditz 2007.
Music in Dresden. Writings of the Academy of Music "Carl Maria von Weber" Dresden. Laaber-Verlag, Laaber 1995-2005.
- Volume I: The Dresden Opera in the 19th Century. Edited by Michael Heinemann and Hans John, ISBN 3-89007-310-7 .
- Volume II: The Dresden town music, military music corps and civil bands in the 19th century. Edited by Anneliese Zänsler, ISBN 3-89007-319-0 .
- Volume III: Dresden church music in the 19th and 20th centuries. Edited by Matthias Herrmann, ISBN 3-89007-331-X .
- Volume IV: Dresden and advanced music in the 20th century. Part I: 1900-1933. Edited by Matthias Herrmann and Hanns-Werner Heister, ISBN 3-89007-346-8 .
- Volume V: Dresden and advanced music in the 20th century. Part II: 1933-1966. Edited by Matthias Herrmann and Hanns-Werner Heister, ISBN 3-89007-510-X .
- Volume VI: Dresden and advanced music in the 20th century. Part III: 1966-1999. Edited by Matthias Herrmann and Stefan Weiss, ISBN 3-89007-511-8 .
- Volume VII: The Dresden Opera in the 20th Century. Edited by Michael Heinemann and Hans John, ISBN 3-89007-651-3 .
Further content in the
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- Internet presence of the state capital Dresden
- Line network maps for local public transport
- www.bausituation-dresden.de Blog with photos
- Historical photographs 1900/1914 (Bernd Nasner Collection)
- Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
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- State capital Dresden. The Lord Mayor (ed.): Fact Dresden. The Saxon state capital in numbers. 2012/2013. 20th (updated) edition, Dresden 2012, p. 8.
- State capital Dresden. The Lord Mayor (ed.): Fact Dresden. The Saxon state capital in numbers. 2012/2013. 20th (updated) edition, Dresden 2012, p. 16.
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- Claudia Michels: Carnival opera at the court of Emperor Charles VI. (1711–1740): Art between representation and amusement . Hollitzer Wissenschaftsverlag, February 1, 2019, ISBN 978-3-99012-601-1 , p. 85.
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- Oberwartha and Schönborn had already introduced the local constitution when they were incorporated into Cossebaude (Oberwartha) and Langebrück (Schönborn). So they remained independent parts of the city structure when Cossebaude and Langebrück were integrated with them to Dresden, whereby this leads to different types of local councils in practice .
- where that of Schönfeld-Weißig is the most far-reaching of these contracts in terms of content and time
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- Manuela Ludwig: From “Faust” to the “Throne of Love” The friends of Italian opera only come to Potsdam in 1992. Potsdam Latest News from November 19, 1991.
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