Neumarkt (Dresden)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dresden city arms
Place in Dresden
Frauenkirche and the first completed quarters
Basic data
place Dresden
District Inner old town
Created 13th Century
Newly designed since 1950 (especially since 1990)
Confluent streets Münzgasse , Salzgasse, Rampische Strasse , Landhausstrasse , Moritzgasse, Galeriestrasse, Jüdenhof
Buildings Frauenkirche , Art Academy , Johanneum
User groups Pedestrian traffic , bicycle traffic , public transport , underground parking
Neumarkt with Frauenkirche, 2012

The Neumarkt in Dresden is a square in the inner old town between the Altmarkt and the Elbe . Like the Theaterplatz , the Schloßplatz and the Altmarkt, it is one of the most important squares in Dresden's old town.

The Neumarkt was built in the 16th century after the old city wall was relocated, including the Jüdenhof as a second market square, and was enlarged after the secularization of the Frauenkirchhof in the 18th century. The predominantly baroque buildings on Neumarkt were largely destroyed by the air raids on Dresden in February 1945. After the rubble had been cleared, its borders were lifted and it appeared as a spacious urban open space around the ruins of the Frauenkirche , bounded by the Johanneum , the Kulturpalast and the ruins of the Kurländer Palais . When the rubble was cleared, stable and rebuildable building ensembles were also demolished, such as on Rampische Strasse .

Due to the brisk construction activity after German reunification, triggered by the reconstruction of the Frauenkirche, today's square is changing its shape continuously. The new development aims to reconstruct many historical buildings and building floor plans in the Dresden Baroque style , which characterized Neumarkt in the past and which were destroyed by war and subsequent demolition. Originally, a largely modern development was planned by the city with almost no rebuilding (such as the “ New Gewandhaus ”). Citizens 'protests and the citizens' initiative Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt Dresden then pushed through significantly more reconstructions by private clients.

A number of parcels around Neumarkt and Frauenkirche or between the Kulturpalast, Schloss , secondary school , art academy , Albertinum and country house , which are partly built on, partly unfinished, are called Neumarktareal or Neumarktquartiere . They are referred to as "Quartier I" to "Quartier VIII". In spring 2019, the immediate development of the square and thus the spatial impression will be completed, with the exception of the edge of the square with the Hotel Stadt Rom .



Streets and quarters of the Neumarkt

The Neumarkt is centrally located in the inner old town between the Kurländer Palais and the Taschenbergpalais . It is surrounded by the development of the Brühlsche Terrasse in the north and the Wilsdruffer Straße in the south. The Coselpalais lies on him . Until its destruction, the market was considered to be a closed ensemble of bourgeois baroque of worldwide importance. Of all the buildings that stood on Neumarkt until 1945, only the Johanneum and (as a ruin until it was rebuilt) the Frauenkirche remained. All other buildings were destroyed and the ruins were completely removed after 1945.


Aerial view of the Neumarkt area at the start of construction of several quarters, in the center of the picture, 2005
Aerial photo of completed Neumarkt quarters at the Frauenkirche, 2008

The Neumarkt consists of three sub-squares: in the west the Jüdenhof in front of the Johanneum , the centrally located Neumarkt and the areas around the Frauenkirche. According to the plans, it should once again become one of the liveliest squares in downtown Dresden. The development on the square is divided into eight quarters.

Numerous streets and alleys begin at Neumarkt, some of which only become recognizable after the missing quarters have been built. Important streets are Landhausstrasse , which connects the market with Pirnaischer Platz , and Rampische Strasse , which runs towards Tzschirner- and Rathenauplatz . Galeriestraße meets Wilsdruffer Straße and Altmarkt at the Kulturpalast. The Augustusstraße where the Princes is appropriate to run toward Palace Square and Augustus Bridge . In the direction of Augustusstraße, Töpferstraße still runs, which is again built up on both sides due to the construction of the 1st quarter.

Of the streets, the Münzgasse (named after the local mint ; until 1849 Große Fischergasse ) should be mentioned, which runs north towards the Terrassenufer , and the Salzgasse , which runs parallel to Rampische Strasse. Other streets such as the Kanzleigäßchen (at the chancellery house ) or the Sporergasse have only been back in existence for a few years.


The Neumarkt is a pedestrian zone. Until it was redesigned in recent years, it was primarily used as a parking area. An underground car park extends under the Neumarkt. Only the Brühlsche Gasse to the Terrassenufer, the Landhausstrasse to the Pirnaischer Platz, via which the underground garages are connected, and the Salzgasse to the Rathenauplatz are open to traffic.

Until 1948, a tram line ran from Moritzstrasse to Augustusstrasse across Neumarkt, which was decommissioned and dismantled in the same year. The adjacent Pirnaische Platz and Postplatz have become the main nodes of the tram network as a result of the reconstruction . Both Altmarkt and Neumarkt lost their position as nodes in the strong urban growth of the early days in favor of these two places. Since the 1950s, the main axis of the tram network has been running along Wilsdruffer Straße, which runs south to Neumarkt. The narrow alley structure around both markets posed an increasing problem for the growing traffic. Thus several road rings were created around the inner old town (Marienstraße, Johannes- and Moritzallee) and with the 26er Ring later around the suburbs . Even before 1945, the narrow Wilsdruffer Gasse was widened to serve as a thoroughfare as an extension of the newly created König-Johann-Straße.


Late Middle Ages

View of the city of Dresden around 1634; The Neumarkt is the lower of the two squares

The Neumarkt lies on a slight elevation and is therefore probably one of the oldest settlements in the city center of Dresden. The same was not enclosed at the time as in the present, but was throughout the Dresden Basin branches and closed so well the fishing village in the area of Neumarkt a. On the other side of the main river was the settlement that was later called Altendresden and, since the rebuilding, Neustadt . There was a ferry connection between these settlements approximately at the level of Große Fischergasse (since 1849 Münzgasse ). The stone bridge over the Elbe later made it easier to cross the Elbe west of the Neumarkt area.

Another town center was built further to the southwest around the Kreuzkirche . With the granting of town charter at the beginning of the 13th century, a market place and later a town wall around the settlement were built there on the basis of stacking rights . Although the Dresdene settlement and the village around the church of Zu Unsrer Lieben Frauen were very close to each other, they were separated by the city wall. It is still not clear why the settlements were not included together. The thesis that predominantly Slavs lived in the Neumarkt area was refuted by archaeological findings .

Until the 16th century, the square around the Church of Our Dear Women did not belong to the walled city of Dresden. Rather, the weir system changed the settlement so that it was located in front of the Frauentor like a suburb . Later, the area of ​​the Neumarktquartiere was incorporated - at the same time as Dresden was being converted into an electoral residence around 1530 - primarily in order to be able to expand the city fortifications. From then on, Dresden had two marketplaces: the market at the Kreuzkirche was called the Altmarkt from that point on and the new square was called Neumarkt. The parish of the Frauenkirche continued to extend far into the eastern surrounding area, which was later incorporated into Dresden.

With the relocation of the city fortress, the layout of the buildings on Neumarkt changed. The now inner city wall could be razed and left space for new buildings. This is how the old Gewandhaus came into being ; the Jüdenhof (once a small square in the city by the city wall) became part of the Neumarkt. One of the main streets through the city that connected the Pirna Gate with the Elbe Bridge ran across the Neumarkt . The Johanneum was built as the castle's carriage shed as early as 1591 and, like the rest of the buildings with the exception of the church, was shaped by the Renaissance . The rest of the development was primarily bourgeois and consisted of gabled houses typical of the Renaissance .


Dresden around 1750: The Neumarkt is located between the eastern city gate and the Elbe bridge. (The map must be rotated 90 ° counterclockwise to align it north.)

In the age of August the Strong , the square changed under the influence of the Dresden Baroque . The development on Neumarkt was preceded by the complete redesign of Altendresden into the New Royal City on the other bank of the Elbe. A devastating city fire made it possible to build on this with symmetrical streets and stylish buildings. The Dresden Baroque emerged both in the electoral buildings and in the bourgeois houses. On the Neumarkt, individual houses were redesigned in the early baroque period, while others remained in the Renaissance style. The ground plan of the square remained in its original form: there was an extensive cemetery around the Gothic Frauenkirche . Friedrich August and the citizenry took the first steps to regulate the development, which mainly affected the height of the eaves .

Despite the subdivision of the community to new churches in the area around Dresden, the Gothic structure had become too small. From 1726 to 1743 the baroque Frauenkirche with its striking sandstone dome was built in place of the Gothic church. With the completion of the church, interventions in the development of the square were considered for the first time in order to strengthen the effect of the church. The demolition of the old town guard , which divided the square in the middle, was planned, but not yet carried out.

In the Seven Years' War , during a siege in July 1760, the dome of the Frauenkirche was the target of Prussian artillery fire . The church dome was badly damaged, but was preserved. The surrounding residential buildings as well as the Old Town Guard and the Gewandhaus fell victim to the fire. The buildings, which had previously been viewed as disturbing, were torn down and the surrounding buildings were completely restored in the rococo or late baroque style.

19th century

Later there were only a few changes to buildings. The Johanneum was continuously modified and only got its final form in 1872. With the dissolution of the city wall, the nearby Neumarkt area was joined by the Pirnaische Vorstadt . At the beginning of the 19th century, Dresden grew mainly through the layout of the Dresden suburbs . The inner city took on more and more the character of a historical city center .

The Neumarkt (in the background the Hotel Stadt Rom ) was the focus of the Dresden May uprising in 1849

One of the last clashes of the March Revolution came in 1849, the Dresden May Uprising , which aimed to overthrow the King of Saxony. During the rebellion of Neumarkt was its proximity to the armory of the Dresden garrison, which was taken by the revolutionaries, the center of the barricades .

Only Prussian troops made it possible for the Saxon King Friedrich August II to return to Dresden. During the reconquest of the city, there were battles between revolutionaries and the Prussian and Saxon armies on Neumarkt. The facades of the Neumarkt development were damaged in the process.

King Albert changed the building on Neumarkt again at the end of the 19th century with the neoclassical construction of the art academy and the redesign of the armory into the Albertinum . In contrast to the adjacent inner city area around the newly created König-Johann-Straße, the bourgeois architecture of the square was largely spared from the then prevailing eclecticism, apart from the demolition of the (now reconstructed) Hôtel de Saxe and its replacement by the pompous post office.

20th century

Destroyed Neumarkt area in 1945. In the center of the picture the ruins of the Frauenkirch, on the left the Neumarkt. The tower of the Dreikönigskirche on the other side of the Elbe can be seen in the background .
Color photo of the almost empty Neumarkt with Johanneum and ruins of the Frauenkirche (right), 1972 (view from the town hall tower)
The Neumarkt with the police headquarters, 1986

The air raids on Dresden on February 13 and 14, 1945 destroyed most of the buildings on Neumarkt. After the rubble had been removed, only parts of one of the four stair towers and the choir extension of the Frauenkirche as well as the surrounding walls of the Johanneum remained from the historical buildings. The rubble was cleared from the city center and the largely preserved cellars were filled. The reconstruction of the southern city center mainly changed the street layout. Ernst-Thälmann-Strasse (today: Wilsdruffer Strasse) was virtually rebuilt as a drastic widening of the connection (Wilsdruffer Strasse / Altmarkt / König-Johann-Strasse) between Pirnaischer Platz and Postplatz that had existed since the end of the 19th century . The rubble mountain of the Frauenkirche should be cleared, but this project was dropped after protests from the population and due to a lack of finances. A little later, the ruin was officially declared an anti-war memorial .

While the reconstruction of the buildings of the Saxon court, such as the Zwinger or the Catholic Court Church, was initiated shortly after the war, the Neumarkt remained free from development for many years. The Kulturpalast was only opened in 1969 as a partition between the old and new market. The reconstruction of the Johanneum was completed around the same time. A step-shaped prefabricated building was added to the historicist police headquarters in 1979. From the mid-1980s, a historicizing restoration of the area around Neumarkt with the long-term goal of the new building of the Frauenkirche was discussed, partly planned and implemented in the GDR era. At the end of the 1980s, construction of the postmodern Hotel Dresdner Hof ( Hilton Dresden ) began on Töpferstrasse , along with postmodern prefabricated buildings with apartments. The implementation of the ambitious goals was prevented by the economic crisis in the collapsing GDR.

The German reunification and the call from Dresden to rebuild the Frauenkirche made it possible to rebuild the Neumarkt.

From 1999, “ Tempo-Fritz ” († 2016) ran a snack in a red Tempo-Mobil on the Neumarkt area, which was being rebuilt, in front of the Transport Museum; through his way he advanced to the city original.

Excavations and archeology

In the course of the clearing of the construction site, it was now possible to examine the cellars in the subsoil of the Neumarkt. Other objects of interest were the old city fortress and the Frauentor as well as the cemetery of the old Frauenkirche .

Settlement of the area around the Frauenkirche can be traced back to 700 BC through traces of settlement. After a long break, an urban settlement emerged in the 12th century, which was then mentioned in a document dated to 1206 as "Dresdene". At first, the urban spaces around the Altmarkt and Frauenkirche probably formed a closed settlement area.

The oldest city wall ran right through the Neumarktviertel by the end of the 13th century at the latest; first as a simple wall, then as a kennel structure. There was a moat in front of it, over which a wooden bridge led at the Frauentor. Surprisingly, the excavations revealed remains of the city wall with the preserved woman's gate, the bridge in front and next to it a largely preserved barbican , a semicircular bastion. All of these structures were demolished after the exploration to make way for an underground car park.

The remains of a dammed lake were also found. Archaeologists conclude that the settlement in front of the city wall was mainly used for milling. Finds in the silt of the silted-up lake also indicate metal processing. When the area was incorporated into Dresden, the lake was silted up and the drainage ditches filled. In place of the lake, simple timber houses were built in half-timbered construction, which could be demolished in the event of the city's defense so as not to provide cover for the besiegers.

There was a cemetery around the Romanesque Frauenkirche , which was also examined. Differences were particularly evident in the burial effort between the late Middle Ages and the Baroque. Although a few coffins from the late Middle Ages were found, most of the dead were only buried in a shroud and with a wooden cross on top. From the location of the dead and the few grave goods, it is concluded that these are Slavic Christians. Baroque graves differ in their more elaborate grave goods such as gold rings or skulls . The cemetery was crowded until its closure in 1715.


Panorama with the Transport Museum (left), Frauenkirche (center) and New Town Hall (right in the background)

There are still open spaces on Neumarkt, caused by the destruction of the war and the subsequent large-scale clearings. An extension of the old police headquarters from GDR times in prefabricated construction was demolished from March to July 2005. Last but not least, long-term differences of opinion about the reconstruction delayed the development of the Neumarkt. The controversy surrounding the development not only addresses questions and demands on architecture, but also philosophical aspects of the reconstruction of destroyed buildings and the use of contemporary art. In the 1980s, the concept of so-called “Leitbauten” was developed: a reconstruction of those well-documented buildings that are of particular cultural and historical value (for example, the Dinglingerhaus or the head building at Rampische Strasse 33 ).

A non-legally binding design statute for the Neumarkt area in the current version dated March 1, 2002 provides for more than 60 lead buildings and facades to be reconstructed in the eight quarters on over 100 plots to be built on. Buildings that have neither the status of lead structures nor whose facade is intended to be designed according to historical models should blend in harmoniously and with a plastered facade should be designed in a cautiously contemporary (in the sense of postmodern ) style. In the summer of 2015, around 60% of the former parcels were already built up again, further projects were under construction ( Quartier IV "Frieseneck", Quartier VII.2 ) or in planning ( Quartier III / Palais Hoym, Quartier V.2 , Quartier VI ). According to the current status, it is expected that the new development on Neumarkt will be completed by 2020.

The reconstruction of the historic Neumarkt was awarded the National Prize for Integrated Urban Development and Building Culture by the Federal Ministry of Transport in 2009 .

Secular and sacred buildings

The central and most important building on Neumarkt is the Frauenkirche , on which the square is oriented towards the south. The church has been reconstructed in its old location and as far as possible with authentic building materials. The bourgeois baroque dome was built between 1726 and 1743. The height of the vertical walls of the church and the anchors of the dome define the eaves heights of the surrounding buildings on Neumarkt. Except on the south side, the church is closely enclosed.

In the west, the Jüdenhof is bounded by the Johanneum as part of the Neumarkt . The Johanneum belongs to the residential palace as a former carriage shed . It has been rebuilt several times in history and overbuilt with new architectural styles, with a classicistic main facade facing the Neumarkt. The English staircase, where the entrance to the Dresden Transport Museum is located, is striking . The east entrance to the stable yard of the castle borders the Neumarkt area .

To the northeast of Neumarkt is the art academy , which closes off the small square at the Frauenkirche . It has an effect on the square mainly through its glass dome.

District I

Quartier I between Johanneum and Frauenkirche: House Neumarkt 3 (left, facade reconstruction) next to modern facades, behind it the leading building Neumarkt 2 with a reconstructed atrium

The first quarter ("Quartier an der Frauenkirche"), built in 2005/2006 by the building owners' association Arturo Prisco, Kai von Döring and Kondor Wessels, is bordered by the square "An der Frauenkirche" in the east and by Töpferstrasse in the north . To the southwest, Augustusstrasse runs towards Töpferstrasse at an acute angle. The southern house front delimits the Neumarkt. The area actually consists of three parcels and indicates several houses across the facades. The only leading building in the quarter is the Neumarkt 2 house, which is surrounded by two houses with facades based on historical models on the left and one such house on the right. Noticeable of this is the Neumarkt 1 building on the left, at the transition to Augustusstrasse, with its arched facade (former “Hotel Stadt Berlin”). There are around 50 shops, restaurants and bars in the quarter, as well as lots of office space and 27 apartments.

After the completion of the first building, it can be determined that the aforementioned statutes were not followed, because several concrete buildings with stone cladding were built without the required plastered facade. Two buildings are particularly noticeable directly across from the Frauenkirche, which was rebuilt from sandstone, as the facade of one building consists of about a third of glass, the other of gray facing panels that protrude from the row of houses. The quarter and its glass-roofed inner courtyard raised criticism of the building quality (see criticism of the implementation ) .

District II

Quartier II in front of the Albertinum and Kurländer Palais : " Haus zum Schwan " (left, main building), Haus Rampische Straße 1 (right, main building), " Haus zur Glocke " (in between, facade reconstruction)

Quartier II is located east of the Frauenkirche between Salzgasse and Rampischer Straße. It is inclined towards Neumarkt or the square “An der Frauenkirche” over three buildings and extends down both alleys towards Tzschirnerplatz . The Coselpalais , north of Salzgasse, no longer belongs to the quarter and was reconstructed before it in 1998–2000.

Quartier II was rebuilt in several stages between 2004 and 2014 by five different builders.

From 2004 to 2006, the VVK Dresden built the roughly square western quarter area in its basic form to accommodate restaurants, retail, office space, apartments and a hotel. The facades of the three houses at the Frauenkirche and the first four houses in Rampische Strasse, including An der Frauenkirche 13 (" Haus zum Schwan ", northern corner house) and Rampische Strasse 1 (southern corner house) and 7th were reconstructed Above all, care has been taken to ensure that the facades are restored to their original appearance from the 18th century, which was documented by Bernardo Bellotto's famous cityscape (known as Canaletto). A highlight of the Dresden Baroque is the particularly lively facade of the house at Rampische Strasse 7. It was built in 1715 by master bricklayer Georg Haase and is characterized by lavish window roofs over profiled sandstone surrounds with a pronounced keystone. The internal structures were not restored. Two new buildings were built in Salzgasse based on the design by architect Dr. Walter Köckeritz, which were simply interpreted in a modern way. They were given a traditional plastered facade, tiled roof and high windows with cladding separated from the plaster.

To the east, a hotel was built between 2008 and 2010 by Fibona Investmentgesellschaft on originally seven parcels of Rampische Strasse and the corresponding length of Salzgasse, the facade of which was essentially modern with a simple plastered facade and a gray mansard roof . Only two of the historical facades, namely that of the house Rampische Straße 9 and that of the Leitbau Rampische Straße 19, which was built in 1727/28 according to a design by the Zwinger architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann , were restored, only two of the historical facades, namely that of the house Rampische Straße 9 , although originally The city's planning included the reconstruction of four historical facades. Instead of the facade of the house at Rampische Strasse 21, a simple, modern facade partially covered with stone was realized under a red mansard roof; the facade of the building at Rampische Strasse 17 merged with the modern hotel facade described first, so that after the construction it will encompass four earlier plots.

Before the destruction in 1945, there were simple, adapted 4-story new buildings from the urban redevelopment and modernization of the mid-1930s along the length of the Köckeritz new buildings and the hotel, which replaced the dilapidated low buildings from the 18th century at this point replace. The old buildings were partially extended or changed in the 19th century.

From 2009 to 2011, USD Dresden, together with Fibona GmbH, built a high-quality residential area ("Palais am Neumarkt") behind the faithfully reconstructed façades of Rampische Strasse 23 to 27 (originally built around 1715/1720 by George Haase), which extends backwards to the Salzgasse extends and received modern facades with recessed loggias.

The reconstruction of the building at Rampische Strasse 29 between 2006 and 2010 by the Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt Dresden represented a special case, including the preserved cellar masonry and the restored interior structures with courtyard and staircase as a reconstruction of the building built by Georg Haase from 1715/1720 as true to the original as possible. In addition, an original stucco ceiling from the beginning of the 18th century was installed on the ground floor, which was rescued from a demolished house in Weißenfels .

The redevelopment of the quarter was completed in the years 2012 to 2014 with the reconstruction of the house Rampische Strasse 31 and the famous head building Rampische Strasse 33, also by USD Dresden and Fibona GmbH as "Palais am Neumarkt II".

District III

Quarters III (front) and IV: Leitbau An der Frauenkirche 16 (Quartier III, left) as well as the Leitbau “ British Hotel ” Landhausstraße 6 (Quartier IV, under construction), each next to a mixed facade design ( Zittelsches Haus in the middle)

Quartier III forms the largest building area on the square and connects to the police headquarters on Pirnaischer Platz. In the south it is on Landhausstrasse, named after the Landhaus (city museum and former seat of the electoral state parliament) opposite the quarter. Quartier III is currently only partially built on.

The reconstruction of the buildings at Frauenkirche 16 and 17 ( Börnersches Haus ) by a private investor began in summer 2006 and was completed by 2008. Of particular importance here is the revival of the old floor plan structures around a single inner courtyard and the integration of original oriel fragments at house no.16. A rococo fountain from around 1760 was installed in the inner courtyard, which originally stood in the courtyard of the house at 4 Moritzstrasse.

Work on the part of the quarter to the south-west of it began on December 13, 2006. The quarter, announced by the investor Baywobau as a “jewel in the Frauenkirche”, became historic (facade reconstructions: An der Frauenkirche 20, Eckhaus Neumarkt 4, Neumarkt 6 and Neumarkt 7 ) and built in modern architectural language. The inadequate implementation of the reconstructions is criticized by the Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt Dresden, because the facades were mostly poured in concrete instead of a traditional brick construction. In addition, the facade of the house at Neumarkt 4 was doubled onto the neighboring house.

The remaining area to the police headquarters is the largest remaining building area on Neumarkt, the sale of which to a potential builder has been challenging for many years due to this neighborhood. In June 2015, the Free State of Saxony, as the main owner of the area, announced the sale to the CG Group . The Palais Hoym is anchored in the city's development plan as the main building of the quarter. The building site of Palais Riesch is being built with a new design based on plans by the architect Tobias Nöfer . Construction began in 2018 and the quarter is scheduled to be completed in 2022.

District IV

Steigenberger Hôtel de Saxe, Neumarkt 9. On the left the former Salomonis pharmacy , today Freiberg tavern

Quartier IV, which occupies the south side of Neumarkt, is the first to be restored Neumarktquartier (construction period 2004/2005, Baywobau Dresden GmbH). With the exception of the few retailers and the " Freiberger Schank House" on the ground floor of the complex is completely by the Hôtel de Saxe the hotel chain Steigenberger used. The facades facing the square and Landhausstraße are reconstructions of the state (Hôtel de Saxe), some of which no longer existed since 1885, or the pre-war state (corner building, former Salomonis pharmacy at Neumarkt 8; Landhausstraße 4 with Rocailles decor ).

From 2008 to 2010, the main building “ British Hotel ”, Landhausstrasse 6, was reconstructed (using numerous original fragments ) as a Hapimag holiday resort . From 2014 to 2016, the “Frieseneck” project was finally implemented by MMZ Real Estate GmbH (Frankfurt / Main) on the corner of Friesengasse.

District V

Quartier V: Leading buildings “ Köhlersches Haus ” (right) and “ Heinrich-Schütz-Haus ” with extension

The comparatively small Quartier V is located in the very south of the Neumarkt area. It is bounded to the north by Frauenstrasse and to the east by Galeriestrasse. In the south, the buildings border Wilsdruffer Straße. It is broken through by the small Schuhmachergasse. The first construction work on the already completed eastern sub-quarter V.2 with the lead buildings " Köhlersches Haus " (Frauenstrasse 14) and " Heinrich-Schütz-Haus " (Neumarkt 12) as well as a modern southern extension began at the end of 2007 and was completed in 2009.

The redevelopment of the adjoining sub-quarter V.1 to the west stalled for some time after the first known designs by the investor KIB Projekt GmbH triggered controversial discussions.

District VI

Quartier VI will spatially separate Neumarkt from the Kulturpalast. In the background the old market
Archaeological excavations in Quartier VI in December 2013, the Johanneum can be seen in the background.

Quartier VI (approx. 1,950 m 2 ) is located southwest of the large Neumarkt area and opposite the Johanneum . So it borders the Jüdenhof to the south. The development of the quarter will dissolve the visual relationship between the Frauenkirche and the Kulturpalast.

As the quarter of the former Gewandhaus , the area was subject to particular controversy. The Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt saw the effect of the square endangered by the square and modernist Gewandhaus, which was once planned and protruded into the Neumarkt, and argued vehemently against the building. Among other things, she referred to a letter from the Oberland master builder Schwarze from 1762: “Since the location of the Gewandhaus is such that it causes great nuisance in Neumarkt Platz because of its location, it would be desirable for this clothing and meat store to be torn away and elsewhere would be placed [...]. This relocation would allow the space of the current Gewandhaus to be used to enlarge the Neumarktplatz. ”The Gewandhaus, which remained undamaged during the Seven Years' War , was torn down in 1791 and the front of the square was straightened afterwards. The elimination of the building led to a standardization of the Neumarkt, which is composed of three sub-spaces. In 2007 a design competition for the new construction of the Gewandhaus took place, which was won by a contemporary architecture design emphasizing glass and plaster. Due to the strong negative reactions, the city council decided on June 3, 2010 to keep the area of ​​the Gewandhaus free from development and to replicate the building volume by planting trees instead. The main investor in the quarter, USD GmbH, restored the facade facing Neumarkt to approximate its design between 1803 and 1945 with the shop front designed by Gottfried Semper . Furthermore, the USD has reconstructed two lead buildings ( Dinglingerhaus Frauenstrasse 9b, Regimentshaus am Jüdenhof ). Two smaller properties (including the main facade of the “Chiapponisches Haus” Frauenstrasse 11) are privately owned.

District VII

The west side of the Jüdenhof (Quartier VII.2) after the reconstruction (visualization)

The district VII is for the education of the western boundary of the Neumarkt square, but especially the Jüdenhofs , of eminent importance. It extends to Schloßstraße and is divided into two parts by Schössergasse.

The reconstruction of Quartier VII.2 on Jüdenhof by the Kimmerle company began at the end of 2014 (laying of the foundation stone: February 26, 2015) and was completed in 2016/17. Particular attention was paid to the reconstruction of the Dinglingerhaus (Neumarkt 18, previously Jüdenhof 5), the most famous baroque house in the city. The facades of the Trier house (Sporergasse 2) and the Neumarkt 16 and 17 buildings were also restored .

Baywobau Dresden GmbH will develop sub-district VII.1 until 2021. In addition to Caesar's house (Schössergasse 25), several facades on Schloßstraße are planned for restoration.

District VIII

The 5700 square meter area between Schloßstraße and Johanneum was sold in December 2007 to Baywobau, which had already been active in other quarters on Neumarkt. Between 2008 and 2012, it built a luxury 5-star hotel in the western part of the district, which opened at the end of March 2012. On the other hand, apartments were built east of Schössergasse (Löwenhof). The main buildings in this area are the Bosesche Haus (Schössergasse 16), the Löwenhaus (Schössergasse 18), the Zechsche Haus (Schössergasse 27) and the Gräfl. Hoffmannseggsche Haus (former home of Pöppelmann , Schloßstraße 34). In addition, several historicizing facades were built in connection with modern facades.

Sculptures and monuments

Luther Monument 1983
Statue of Friedrich August II.

In front of the Frauenkirche there is a large Martin Luther statue, a bronze sculpture by Adolf von Donndorf , which was cast in the Dresden art foundry C. Albert Bierling in 1885 and placed here. The head is based on a clay model by Ernst Rietschel for the Luther Monument in Worms, which Rietschel rejected for this purpose. The bronze fell over during the air raids on Dresden in 1945 , was put up again in the same place and since then has only been taken to other locations for renovation.

In front of the Hôtel de Saxe there is another statue in memory of King Friedrich August II. This was created around 1867 based on a design by Ernst Hähnel .

A large segment of the old Frauenkirch dome was erected at the Frauenkirche in the direction of Münzgasse. An inscription shows which part of the masonry it comes from. Since only new building material could be used in the dome area, the approximately three by three meter large stone block is used as a memorial and memorial.

In front of the Johanneum is the Friedensbrunnen (also Turkish fountain ), which is dedicated to the participation of Elector Johann Georg III. remembered the victorious battle of the Kahlenberg . Next to the fountain is the Krellstein embedded in the pavement , which reminds of the executed Saxon Chancellor Nikolaus Krell .

From February to April 2017, the installation “Monument”, a sculpture by the Syrian-German artist Manaf Halbouni, stood in front of the Frauenkirche. As part of the commemoration of February 13, 1945, three busses installed upright were intended as a memorial to set a “symbol for peace, freedom and humanity”.

Controversy over the development

The execution of the contemporary as well as the historical development of the Neumarkt district is controversial. In the picture: corner house at Frauenkirche 3 in Quartier I.

The development of the Neumarkt is not without controversy. Agreement exists only in the consideration of the historical parcels and relations. The subject matter and argumentation, especially the complete reconstruction of lost buildings, led to controversies in other cities too, for example the reconstruction of the old town of Frankfurt am Main or the Berlin City Palace .

Society of Historical Neumarkt Dresden e. V.

The Society Historischer Neumarkt Dresden (GHND) deals with the square that shapes the cityscape. The aim of the association is that the new buildings are largely based on historical models. The Neumarkt with its former development and visual connections should be experienced again.

In terms of urban planning and monument preservation and art historical aspects, the society advocates the pre-war version of the Neumarkt, which depicts the square around 1800 with a few changes from the Wilhelminian era. What is required is a closed development with careful consideration of the historical street and square walls, visual relationships, an orientation to the typical Dresden courtyard house as well as an extensive resumption of the historical plot sizes, the eaves heights and the roof landscape .

In order to achieve its goals, the company promotes Dresden's population, the city administration, suitable investors and the city's guests by means of publications, lectures, symposia, and guided tours, and presents its knowledge of the Neumarkt area using photographs, plans, fragments, scientific edits and practical construction Information ready. The association operates an information pavilion across from the police headquarters, in which a model of the historic Neumarkt and numerous display boards can be viewed. There are no other possibilities, especially for tourists who are unfamiliar with the area, to find out about the development of the Neumarkt on site.

A particular concern of the company is the timely information and consultation of the citizens by the Dresden city planning office about upcoming construction projects and decisions in the Neumarkt area. Even clubs in the USA, such as Vision of Europe or the Friends of Dresden , are dealing with Neumarkt .


The Society Historischer Neumarkt Dresden e. V. wanted to bring about a referendum on the manner of the Neumarkt development with a referendum in 2002 . You could submit 68,000 signatures after just seven months, surpassing the then applicable in Dresden signature quorum (57,000 signatures = 15% of voters). However, in 2003 the city administration found the referendum to be inadmissible due to a violation of the legal guidelines. A referendum may only express itself in a positive or negative way to a building plan. A vote on the manner of implementing existing building plans, as implied by the question of the citizens' initiative (voting question: "Do you want the historic Neumarkt back?") In combination with an attached historical draft in the opinion of the city administration, would go far beyond the definition of Development plans or the design statutes continue to violate the building code and are therefore inadmissible. The GHND has brought an action against this decision.


Positions for design

Historical view around 1750, with the main guard

The design of the Neumarkt aroused a controversy, which was a central detail in the discussions on Dresden's urban development. The meaningfulness of reconstructions or the importance of contemporary architecture on Neumarkt are discussed using abstract terms such as identity , authenticity and individuality .


The Society Historischer Neumarkt Dresden justifies its concern of a facade reconstruction of art and cultural-historical buildings on the square with the fact that the reconstruction would be the “last chance” to give the city back its “old identity”, which was the “faceless” and “functional” new buildings of the post-war period could not have afforded. The area and surroundings of the Dresden Neumarkt with the Frauenkirche is defined in the preamble of the Society Historischer Neumarkt zu Dresden as an architectural and urban highlight of Dresden. The reconstruction of the scale-setting Frauenkirche resulted in the obligation to restore the surrounding Neumarkt in its historical image as an urban unit with its art and cultural-historical buildings. The art and cultural-historical as well as urban planning important houses that once shaped the area are to be reconstructed. For parcels for which house floor plans or other documents have not survived, contemporary solutions should be pursued that correspond to the character of the historical buildings. The artistic design of new buildings should come as close as possible to the historical scale of the plaza and street spaces.

On the other hand, there are positions that justify Dresden's identity differently. The modern Kulturpalast , which is located directly on Neumarkt, is described by the “Architecture Class of the Saxon Academy of the Arts” as an “identity-creating place” and “building history testimony”. The architecture critic Andreas Ruby sees the interweaving of city and landscape, also outside the city center, as what distinguishes Dresden from other cities. The Frauenkirche, as a central element of the reconstruction, sees Ruby as a "built guarantee of an identity", which he compares with buildings that were recently built in other cities. Nevertheless, he criticizes the fact that this identity is not sought in the future, but in the past.

Objects such as the "corner house Rampische Straße 1" to the right of the Frauenkirche are not being reconstructed in their pre-war condition, but in a condition that was changed in the 19th century; View around 1910

Ruby asks whether the motive of restoring an identity through the “simulation of the baroque Neumarkt” is not a “need for the past”. He sees architectural value in the new buildings of the post-war period and thinks that perhaps their “historical complicity with the political system of the GDR makes [them] an architectura non grata ”.

For Ivan Reimann, Professor of Public Buildings at the Faculty of Architecture at the Technical University of Dresden, “[t] he longing for the old” is not just an “expression of nostalgia”, but “an expression of a search for identity, for shared values ​​and content , according to a generally understandable architectural language. ”He explains that“ [t] he rejection of history and formal languages ​​that have developed and legitimized over centuries ”led to a“ state of speechlessness ”. From this he concludes that "[if there is nothing in common to convey, or if the common has dissolved into an insignificant minimal consensus", the built "past manifesting itself in public space" remains the only one with all meaning would be able to attach. He describes the “copy of the past” as an attempt to establish a consensus on a common ascription of meaning as “an illusion that is inconsistent at first sight”, which is intended to replace “contradicting reality”.

Peter Kulka believes that historicizing building communicates the “identity of the ancestors”, not one's own. In this he sees the great danger "that this will at least result in falsification of history, however,". He sees deeper causes for the will for reconstruction in the fact that what has happened should be undone, as well as in guilt and repression. Other causes for him are myth, lost identity and attempted healing.

The Dresden-born writer Ingo Schulze , in his essay Night Thoughts of a Falling Out of Place , published in 2006 for the 800th anniversary of Dresden , also adopted the concept of a backdrop-like urban space and asked critically: “What kind of spirit is that from Dresden wants to make a fairy tale, and thereby abandon it to facelessness and lack of history? "


Andreas Ruby accuses the striving for historical reconstruction of choosing a state from the “living sequence of its history” and declaring it to be the “real essence” of Dresden. According to Ruby , the fact that the Baroque era is seen as deserving of restoration has to do with the fact that it is "extensively" illustrated using Bernardo Bellotto's vedutas and thus "has decisively shaped today's image of Dresden [...]". The Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt Dresden counters this stance by stating that the layout of the late baroque Neumarkt after corrections caused by the Seven Years War , especially the siege in 1760, had a “sound of harmony and clarity” compared to the “confusing” early baroque Neumarkt can unfold.

Ruby compares the situation at Dresden's Neumarkt with a simulation of Venice in the hotel complex Venetian Resort Hotel in Las Vegas and questions whether this could be authentic. Jürgen Paul, a member of the architecture class, criticizes the comparison with Disneyland , which is often drawn analogously to Las Vegas . He rejects the comparison and says that "the difference between Disneyland (or a historical theme park) and Dresden Neumarkt" is "that Disneyland is a placeless, clichéd invention", while an attempt is being made on Neumarkt to find an "authentic historical place as a built one Image "to be able to win back.

Peter Kulka also sees a break between the external appearance and the internal function of the architecture at Neumarkt: “Where the center of Dresden's Neumarkt once consisted of parcels of town houses, today a completely different world of passages is emerging behind mock-ups of town house facades - some of which have been declared as leading buildings , Hotels and - again, hotels. "He says that these buildings" projected onto screens "have little in common with the historical structures and look like a backdrop in" mask-like frozen trains ".

Thomas Will, Professor of Monument Preservation and Design at the Technical University of Dresden , denies that the reconstruction of the façades is a matter of monument protection. Although he sees " environmental protection " around the monumental building of the Frauenkirche as a task of the preservation of monuments, he does not see how the (currently in parts) as yet non-existent environment should be rebuilt in the protection provisions of the preservation of monuments. He criticizes the positivist view of “being able to reproduce lost cultural monuments by means of modern science and technology to a large extent on an equal footing”, since, in his view, it would deny these cultural monuments their historicity and deny the “authority of the historical original” and allow it to be imitated. Furthermore, Thomas Will complains that "[only] the building laws of the 18th century and the forms of expression of the builders of the time [...] are longed for, as if they had nothing to do with the rest of the world." that one degrades "the historical architecture to pure picture decoration and today's architecture with it".

The architectural historian Wolfgang Schächen , on the other hand, sees no rational arguments that can exclude the reconstruction of historical buildings. He relativized the concept of authenticity by stating that cultural assets must be preserved through “subjective attention”. From this he concludes that what is “constructed in this way” does not have to be congruent with “the past that can no longer really be understood”. He criticizes the understanding of irreversible authenticity as a parable with biological life. He sees the denial of the rebirth of a house justified by the rejection of an “unimaginable questioning of the divine order”. In this way, according to Wolfgang Schächen, “any reconstruction of a building once extinguished on a question of faith and any rational argumentation is withdrawn”.

Rampische Strasse

With regard to the controversy surrounding the New Gewandhaus, Thomas Will criticizes the argument against contemporary building: “When in a city [...] some guardians of good taste believe they have to cultivate the image by setting up a 'parlor' on Neumarkt want, which means for contemporary architecture, for open-minded builders, for their own specialist committees and for external architects: 'We have to stay outside', then that shows that they are not about building culture or about aesthetics in the sense of an experience more beautiful, interesting urban spaces. For Dresden to be a pleasant home or place to stay, it needs the 'right amount of both familiarity and newness'. He sees the contrast between village and city in the fact that the city 'should be able to offer both'. "

Peter Kulka recognizes a fear of the new in the implementations at Neumarkt. This fear is not a climate “in which good, sophisticated and future-oriented architecture can flourish. Because of this fear and arduous discussions, '[modern] buildings' often emerged as 'powerless buildings'. But he also thinks that there, [w] o new good pictures are missing, they look back into the past. With regard to contemporary architecture , Kulka believes that postmodern architecture has given way to 'irrelevant arbitrariness and interchangeability'. "

Criticism of the implementation

The Saxon Academy of the Arts summed up the fact that some development processes would go wrong on Neumarkt in the colloquium "City, Space, River", which dealt with urban development in Dresden in general. At this colloquium, almost all of the experts came to the conclusion that Dresden's urban development is making many mistakes that are difficult to eliminate.

With regard to the newly built Quartier I next to the Frauenkirche, Dresden's former building mayor Gunter Just considers the passage in Quartier F to be a “scandal”, as it has promised Italian flair and now it lacks “any nobility”. The trained architect Just says that “the worst shopping arcade” in the city was built in Quartier I. He attaches this to the quality of the buildings that one could have expected next to the Frauenkirche. Specifically, he refers to the materials, what he believes is a roughly processed glass roof that shows no trace of elegance and also offers a view of the rear facades, which for the most part would be dreary.

The Hôtel de Saxe was also criticized in the academy meeting. In particular, the points of criticism are directed towards the character of the development, which criticizes the internal use of the hotel over the entire block as a sham, contrary to the external small parts concealed on the facade. The interior courtyard design was also criticized in this quarter: “Actually, the courtyards should be kept open,” said architect Dieter Schölzel, formulating the previously unmet claim.

The critics demand that the demands be increased in order to counteract the undesirable development that they see in the building. The architectural historian Falk Jaeger suggests that the building management can influence the choice of architects by investors. Furthermore, it is required not to release entire blocks for use. Engelbert Lütke Daldrup , former State Secretary in the Federal Ministry of Construction, said that, in order to achieve small-scale details, one should look for builders who only want to build a smaller house. To do this, however, the city must change its marketing strategies. As art historian Jürgen Paul stated in the colloquium, there was an investor who only planned to rebuild the Dinglinger house - but true to the original. This would have been impossible due to the city's endeavors to have the individual quarters built as a whole.

Another option would be to take your time and not sell to the first investor, but rather wait for the best.

Web links

Commons : Neumarkt (Dresden)  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files


  • Fritz Löffler : The old Dresden. History of his buildings. Seemann, Leipzig 1981, 1994. ISBN 3-363-00007-3
  • Stefan Hertzig : The Dresden community center in the time of August the Strong. On the origin and essence of the Dresden Baroque. Dresden 2001. ISBN 3-9807739-0-6
  • Stefan Hertzig (ed.): The historic Neumarkt in Dresden. Its history and its buildings. Sandstein, Dresden 2005. ISBN 3-937602-46-1
  • Matthias Donath : The Dresden Neumarkt. A place returns . Edition Sächsische Zeitung, Dresden 2006. ISBN 3-938325-26-7
  • Atelier Neumarkt Dresden 2000. Organized by the Department of Urban Development and Construction of the State Capital Dresden under the patronage of the Saxon Academy of the Arts . Published by the state capital Dresden. City Planning Office, Dresden 2001.
  • Historically versus modern? Invention or reconstruction of the historic city using the example of Dresden's Neumarkt. Edited by the Saxon Academy of the Arts and the City Planning Office of the State Capital Dresden, Dresden 2008. ISBN 978-3-934367-16-6 .

Individual evidence

  1. a b State Office for Archeology : Excavations at Neumarkt (PDF; 736 kB)
  2. ^ Neumarkt-Verein receives federal award for its work . In: Sächsische Zeitung , June 27, 2009.
  3. ^ Homepage of the Rampische Straße 29 project. Accessed December 11, 2011.
  4. ^ Stefan Hertzig (ed.): The historic Neumarkt in Dresden. Its history and its buildings. Sandstein, Dresden 2005, p. 87. ISBN 3-937602-46-1
  5. Kay Haufe: Over the roof to the police headquarters , in: Sächsische Zeitung , February 9, 2018
  6. Sebastian Kositz: The last vacant lot on Neumarkt in Dresden is disappearing. In: DNN online . June 27, 2019, accessed September 30, 2019 .
  7. Quartier III-2. Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt Dresden , accessed on September 30, 2019 .
  8. Ingolf Pleil: Neumarkt guards continue to fight against the “Moritzhaus” of the Nuremberg KIB in Dresden. In: Dresdner Latest News . March 27, 2017, accessed July 13, 2019 .
  9. Kay Haufe: Moving into the next Neumarkt house. In: Saxon newspaper. July 15, 2018, accessed July 13, 2019 .
  10. Construction competition for the new Gewandhaus building in Dresden Neumarkt ( memento from April 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), City of Dresden
  11. Thomas Baumann-Hartwig: Start of construction on Neumarkt: The excavators are rolling in Quartier VII / 1. In: Dresdner Latest News. April 2, 2019, accessed July 13, 2019 .
  12. ^ Dresden: exhibitions. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017 ; accessed on February 9, 2017 .
  13. ^ Society Historischer Neumarkt Dresden e. V .: Citizens' petition
  14. ^ Society Historischer Neumarkt Dresden e. V .: concern
  15. Saxon Academy of the Arts : Open letter from the architecture class of the Saxon Academy of the Arts to the Lord Mayor of the City of Dresden on the renovation plans for the Kulturpalast Dresden ( Memento from September 10, 2012 in the web archive )
  16. a b c d Andreas Ruby: Las Vegas on the Elbe . In: The time . Hamburg, 2000
  17. Ivan Reimann: "An unsolvable dilemma", lecture at the conference of the Academy of Arts on April 21, 2007 (PDF; 105 kB)
  18. a b c Lecture by Peter Kulka in the series Dresdner Speeches on February 28, 2010
  19. Night thoughts of someone who fell out of town , published as an extract in the Süddeutsche Zeitung
  20. ^ Society Historischer Neumarkt Dresden e. V .: history
  21. "The new, resurgent Neumarkt in Dresden" Jürgen Paul Lecture given on March 17, 2007 (PDF; 104 kB)
  22. Thomas Will: Reconstruction of the European City? For the discussion about the Dresden Neumarkt in: deutsche bauzeitung (db) . 3/2001
  23. a b TU Dresden, Faculty of Architecture, Thomas Will: Building Culture and Democracy - A Critical Commentary on the Debate on the New Gewandhaus Dresden (PDF; 97 kB)
  24. Wolfgang Schächen: For a right to reconstruction , in a discussion series "Future Schlossplatz" in Berlin
  25. "This shopping arcade is a scandal" . In: Dresdner Latest News , October 24, 2006.
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on January 7, 2007 in this version .

Coordinates: 51 ° 3 ′ 5.6 ″  N , 13 ° 44 ′ 25.2 ″  E