As public transport ( PT ) that part is called the traffic of persons , goods or messages , is accessible to every user in an economy or in the community, in particular the performance of public goods transport , public passenger transport ( public transportation ) and services publicly available postal and telecommunications services.
The characteristics of public transport are:
- general accessibility for every user (in the case of vehicle traffic, mandatory transport or transport obligation ),
- Execution by special licensed transport companies (for example in the case of railways, aviation, cable cars , shipping , lift systems ) or on licensed lines or routes or by licensed service providers
- as well as in the case of vehicle traffic, the fixing of transport conditions or regulations and prices in published legal standards (timetable and tariff obligation).
A distinction is made between public transport
- as part of basic services or services of general interest with subsidized or reasonable tariffs
- Means of transport in road , rail and ferry traffic, whereby the former are actually referred to as “public transport” in common usage , in Austria also colloquially as “public transport” . It turns out that the use of language and definition differ in meaning .
- Communication with line carriers (e.g. water supply , sewerage , telephone )
- wireless messaging (e.g. public broadcasting )
- outside the basic service, without subsidized tariffs, but also with tariff and transport obligations in accordance with the concessions and mostly in regular services (e.g. winter sports cable cars, inland shipping, aviation)
The access and the object of transport are two different dimensions. In terms of access, public and non-public transport (military installations and transport, private transport or individual transport (“IV”), private-sector transport and occasional transport ) face each other. Both modes of transport can be used to transport people and / or goods .
In many countries, a distinction is made between long-distance and local traffic (including regional traffic ), and there are also the terms domestic and international traffic. With the latter there is a further division, which calls traffic from one neighboring country by another as transit traffic . Smaller states, for example, do not have any division into long-distance and local transport services in rail transport; there are then only domestic trains and international trains. In Germany today, there is a very sharp organizational distinction between local public transport (ÖPNV) and long-distance passenger transport. The GDR , on the other hand, only knew local, domestic, transit and international traffic.
There are the names of public long-distance and local goods traffic as well as public international and transit goods traffic and equivalent names for the corresponding passenger traffic.
Public transport providers can be public or (partially) private transport companies. They can be particularly specialized in relation to different modes of transport for their transport tasks, u. a. also as a special provider for long-distance, local or international services.
- Traffic engineering
- Traffic ecology
- Modes of transport
- Transportation Science
- Deutsche Bahn , Austrian Federal Railways , Swiss Federal Railways
- http://www.wienerlinien.at/eportal2/ep/channelView.do/channelId/-47239 With the transferable weekly ticket of Wiener Linien, everyone can use public transport.