Local transport

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As transport , in terms of settlements also, as well as in Switzerland always local traffic transport services are referred to, which are delivered over short distances. This includes goods or passenger transport in local public transport  (ÖPNV, Germany) or regional passenger transport (RPV, Switzerland), but also in individual transport .

Scope and evolution of the term

In a hierarchy of the levels of traffic flows according to radius of action, local traffic is seen today alongside regional traffic and long-distance traffic , where it functions for fine development in the settlement area.

Local traffic is characterized by many short journeys between communities or districts . This also includes trips to and in the immediate vicinity . "

In public passenger transport, local transport is characterized by:

  • high stops - and cycle density
  • Local, city and district buses - for detailed development
  • Tram and city ​​bus (and other) systems for bundled traffic flows over distances of more than 5 km

In addition, systems that are not tied to a route but are demand-controlled (such as on- call buses , shared taxis ) have been used for the area service of less busy routes.

In road traffic , local traffic is characterized by a mostly dense network of low-level streets ( inner-city streets , local roads and similar low-level streets), some of which also have the function of channeling traffic through settlement areas (towns, districts) and feeding it to the regional road connections (local thoroughfares ).

In some regions, shipping also plays an important role in local transport, in public and sometimes also in private transport, this affects cities on rivers or lakes as well as island regions.

The limit of the immediate area is not precisely defined and is determined by the size of the central area . In urban areas , the term local transport is increasingly mixed with regional transport , particularly through the establishment of transport associations .

Local traffic in the urban area can be described as urban local traffic ; for large cities there are already greater distances of 30–50 km, sometimes even more in the metropolitan area . Urban agglomerations can be viewed as close-up areas - in such areas a. the local passenger transport system is organized as a common network area.

In rural areas , local traffic is almost exclusively characterized by individual traffic, to this day - in the narrower sense of local traffic - it moves within a radius of 5–10 km and is relatively sharply demarcated from regional traffic. Here there is usually only a dedicated public transport, such as school buses , often only at the municipal level (to the municipal capital as a school location), while the traffic to larger neighboring towns and regional centers (supra- local traffic) is integrated into regional and sometimes also long-distance transport concepts ( trunk roads , Regional buses and trains ).

In the course of the decades or since the industrial revolution , this area has been steadily expanded due to motorization , everyday mobility , and also the increasingly easy travel over longer distances. In the 1950s, a distance of up to 50 km could be assumed for the local area; local transport tariffs are now valid in the transport association up to around 100 km and beyond. The road haulage goes out for freight transport on the achievable on a working distance (with charging activity and back).
At the same time, the term regional is also expanding: From the mid-1990s , local trains became "regional trains", and they can travel distances of 300 km. In Germany, for example, there is a sharp distinction between local public transport and high-speed long-distance transport with intercity and high-speed transport .

Overall, local or local traffic is no longer geographically in a specific scope, but - due to the diverse traffic engineering systems - seen purely functionally, in the ratio of the density of the connection to these traffic systems to the local size of the settlement structure and its fragmentation, i.e. functional settlement geographical units .

On the other hand, due to the “inflationary” use of the term, a new (or re) occupation is increasingly taking place, so an Austrian legal definition under the term (passenger) local transport focuses on urban and suburban traffic .

Local transport in Austria

In Austria, local public transport is a matter for the federal states , cities and municipalities and  is regulated nationwide in the Public Local and Regional Transport Act 1999 (ÖPNRV-G). According to the law, local traffic is focused on urban-suburban traffic , while rural areas are subsumed under regional traffic . The transport associations have been set up for each federal state since 2007 at the latest (making Austria the first country in the world to have nationwide clock and tariff systems that cover all public transport systems).

The Motor Vehicle Act is the legal basis for local road transport. In road traffic, there is a clear demarcation of local / regional traffic and long-distance traffic with the municipal roads and the former federal roads that have been transferred to state administration (B-numbering retained) , with the motorways / expressways still under federal administration and the designated European roads , although in the few large cities Austria, the motorways or expressways each also play an important role as an urban motorway . Local / regional transport is basically free in Austria, while tolls apply for motorways ( vignette , GO-Box ).

As a result, local and regional transport are considered together, traffic planning today takes place consistently in the context of a central location and within the framework of municipal associations .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: local transport  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Monique Dorsch: Public Transport - Basics and 25 case studies with solutions. UVK Verlag, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-8252-5236-6 , p. 19.
  2. a b c Heiner Monheim: Principles for the preparation of local transport plans and the promotion of attractive public transport , Trier 1997, p. 28. Quoted from Michael Hölzinger: The strategic importance of lobbying as reflected in the historical development of the transport policy framework in Germany . GRIN-Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-363806303-6 , p. 293 ( limited preview in Google book search).
  3. This limit has been preserved in Germany for taxation (reduced VAT rate, source: Section 12 (2) No. 10 of the VAT Act) and the granting of compensation for disadvantages for the disabled.
  4. for example the DB : Product class C of the DB price system has no kilometer limit , it applies to all trips made exclusively with regional trains.
  5. Local freight transport (Germany) : "Today, local freight transport is used as a term in the freight transport industry when it comes to day trips." In Germany, local freight transport had different legal bases for decades compared to long-distance freight transport.
  6. a b " Local public transport within the meaning of this federal act is understood to mean transport services that satisfy the transport needs within an urban area (urban traffic) or between an urban area and its surrounding area (suburban traffic)." Section 2, line 1 of the Public Local Passenger and Regional Transport Act 1999, StF : BGBl. I No. 204/1999 (as amended by ris.bka )
  7. on the reform at the time see Wilhelmine Goldmann: The public local and regional transport in Austria . ( Memento of the original from May 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Österreichische Gemeinde-Zeitung (ÖGZ) 71 (2005), 8, pp. 18-22 (ÖGZ articles, annual archive) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.staedtebund.gv.at
  8. In Austria there is no city that is not surrounded by a green belt, even Vienna still breaks off quite abruptly within the city limits into agricultural zones and forests. In the few urban conurbations, such as along the thermal line south of Vienna, in the Upper Austrian central area , Salzburg Basin , Tyrolean Inntal , Vorarlberg Rhine Valley , Klagenfurt Basin , the urban catchment areas only overlap in linear fashion along the rivers or traffic axes.
  9. Local transport. In: bmvit.gv.at , Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, accessed January 18, 2012
  10. right . Federal Ministry for Climate Protection, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation and Technology, bmk.gv.at, accessed March 14, 2020.