A trip is understood in the sense of the transport industry to mean the movement of people over a longer period of time on foot or by means of transport outside of commercial traffic in order to reach a single destination ( travel destination ) or to get to know several places ( round trip ). In the tourism industry sense, a trip includes both the change of location and the stay at the destination.
Travel solve the purpose of the journey to the holiday traffic ( Holiday ) or rush ( mission off). Holiday traffic is all trips to the destination for reasons of relaxation , with at least five days between the outward and return journeys . Whoever undertakes the journey is called a traveler .
The travel chain is a transport infrastructure adapted to the needs of tourism . Here, between the lead (the drive from the apartment to the train station , airport or port ), main course ( rail travel , bus travel , air travel , cruise ) and the follow-up (, airport of arrival from the train station or port of destination to the hotel) distinguished.
From a scientific point of view, trips are categorized according to the reason for the trip, purpose and duration and the motivations for traveling are examined. Travel is also a theme in literature and film.
The term Reise is documented as a legacy of the German language before the 9th century. The old high German word reisa meant 'departure, train, journey' and thus referred to getting started, getting on the way and the path to be taken at the same time. The corresponding verb was reisōn . What has been preserved is the meaning of getting up in the wake-up call " Reise, Reise !" That used to be common on sailing ships , which meant the signal to get up for the sailors and is still used in the Navy today. The Old High German noun goes back to the ancient Germanic verb rīsan with the meaning 'rise, stand up' (cf. for example English to rise ).
In Middle High German had reis (e) the importance component of upheaval already lost, but now also referred to a special type of travel: the military campaign, the army ride. Accordingly, the verb to travel, derived from reis , had the particular meaning of 'to go into the field, to undertake a campaign' and consequently also to 'to loot, plunder, rob'.
In today's German, travel is to be understood unspecifically, as a 'trip to a more distant place'. In the verb to travel , the meaning component of departure and departure is still in rudimentary form, for example in the phrase “We will be traveling tomorrow morning” .
The concept of travel can also be understood metaphorically . In addition to physical movement, a journey can describe the process of change in a person's life. Accordingly, the journey is not to be understood as bridging a distance, but as an image for the life of a person, which, for example, has the goal of personality formation.
For Daniel J. Boorstin , the difference between travelers and tourists is that the former expose themselves to risks and inconveniences and are actively looking for personal development. The latter are only looking for pleasure and are passive, because they expect interesting experiences to come. Modern tourism adapts to the needs of the latter: “real experiences” are replaced by pseudo-events.
The journey in literature and art
The journey has always represented a central motif in literature and art, and there they often have wholly or partly imaginary and fantastic features. Early examples are Homer's Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid , which describe the wanderings of the eponymous title characters after the fall of Troy . Sindbad, the navigator from the Arabian Nights collection, is known as a central figure from the Arab culture, and the pilgrims from Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales as a representative of the European Middle Ages . There are also travel fairy tales ( Up Reisen gohn ), and Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels , numerous novels by Jules Verne ( Journey around the earth in 80 days , 5 weeks in a balloon etc.) and Max Frisch's moving novel Homo faber are considered classics .
Travel reports , in which the authors describe their own travel experiences , are to be distinguished from fictional literature . Goethe's Italian Journey is considered one of the most important works of the genre . Other important contributions to the genre came from Heinrich Heine ( Harzreise ), Hermann von Pückler-Muskau , Gustave Flaubert (both with the Orient as their travel destination), and Hermann Hesse (India, Italy).
Historical development of travel
In 1988 Walter Freyer defined four epochs of tourism development:
- Preliminary phase : until approx. 1850. Means of transport: on foot, on horseback, carriage, sometimes by ship. Motivation: nomads, pilgrims, wars, trade, discovery, education;
- Initial phase : 1850-1914. Means of transport: rail (inland), steamship (abroad). Motivation: recovery;
- Development phase: 1915-1945. Means of transport: train, car, bus, plane (line). Motivation: cure, relaxation, trade;
- High phase : from 1945. Means of transport: car, flight (charter). Motivation: regeneration, recreation, leisure, education.
Types of trips
Depending on the purpose of the stay at the destination, the following types of trips can be distinguished:
Vacation trips are mainly used for recreation and leisure . When travelers plan the trip themselves, it is individual trips ; the trips put together by tour operators , on the other hand, are considered package tours . The latter are often group trips at the same time .
There is a wide variety of vacation trips, depending on your preferences, interests and needs. Swimming, hiking and skiing holidays are primarily used for recreational purposes, but health, wellness and culinary trips are also used . Active activity is associated with sports and adventure trips, as well as study or educational trips for people with predominantly cultural needs . Language , city , concert or opera trips are common as special characteristics for the latter .
A special form of vacation travel is the world tour , in which several continents are visited with a travel duration of months or years. A sub-form of the world tour is the circumnavigation of the world , in which every longitude must be passed. A circumnavigation of the world is often the basis for a world record, e.g. B. with the sailboat, with the solar airplane etc.
Vacation trips are popular prizes, for example in competitions , but are also used by employers as rewards for particularly successful employees (so-called incentive trips ). An alternative form of travel is voluntourism , in which the traveler also aims to create sustainable benefits in the destination country .
The great competition within the tourism industry means that vacation trips of all kinds, such as ready-made goods, are offered and advertised accordingly. In return, for the “buyer” such a trip necessarily has the character of a consumer article.
A study by the Foundation for Future Issues also shows that vacation trips are increasingly becoming a copy of home with fewer obligations and better weather. Travel motifs such as “getting to know the country and its people” or “trying out new things” and “being surprised” are becoming increasingly rare. More than every second German travels to other European countries. In particular, the Mediterranean countries of Spain, Italy, Greece and Turkey are far ahead in favor of German citizens.
Journey of discovery
With so-called voyages of discovery , Marco Polo , Christopher Columbus , Vasco da Gama , Ferdinand Magellan and James Cook advanced into parts of the world previously unknown to Europeans. Today, this type of travel is largely only of historical importance, as the earth is now largely considered to be explored and measured. As an exception, trips to inaccessible areas such as the Amazon or the Himalayas can be seen. In a somewhat wider sense, a deep-sea dive can also be considered a voyage of discovery.
The research trips pursue scientific goals (in remote areas they are also called expeditions ). Science tourism partly serves the purpose of simply visiting libraries and archives located in foreign cities, but excavations, monuments, rock formations, foreign animal and plant species and the like are also often examined. The archetype of the explorer is Alexander von Humboldt , who explored Central and South America at the beginning of the 19th century . Other examples of great explorers are the polar traveler Giuseppe Acerbi and the Tibet researcher Heinrich Harrer .
The business trip and the official trip serve economic purposes . In addition to visiting customers , suppliers and business partners for the purpose of meetings , advice and negotiations , trips to trade fairs and training events should be mentioned in particular. These are mostly done by individuals or small groups.
Since not every region or country owns all raw materials or goods, barter deals with other countries and regions arose early on . The trade trip developed out of this need for exchange . Trade trips to China were made as early as the Middle Ages. Not only goods, but also knowledge is exchanged across continents.
Pilgrimage and missionary journey
Pilgrimages , so-called pilgrimages, are undertaken for religious reasons . As a rule, they are used to visit holy places such as (for Christianity) in Rome , Jerusalem and Lourdes or (for Islam) in Mecca . Other religiously motivated trips are to events such as the church convention. Sometimes pilgrimages are prescribed as a religious duty (like the Hajj in Islam), but at least they promise the believer salvation, spiritual growth, forgiveness of sins (as in the case of the medieval crusades ), healing of ailments and the like.
In contrast to this, the mission trip does not focus on the salvation of the traveler himself, but that of the "visited". This serves to spread the faith. The Christian churches and Islam were and are particularly active in this area .
Volunteer trips are trips in connection with meaningful, sustainable or social activities at the place of residence and are often assigned to the term "meaningful travel". Volunteer trips, in which travelers sometimes become voluntary social helpers, are aimed at particularly committed, adventure-oriented and cosmopolitan people. They have the opportunity to discover parts of a foreign country that are barely accessible to conventional tourists. Volunteer work is linked, for example, to involvement in environmental or community projects. The most important international travel purpose is the au pair travel.
A time travel is a movement in time that deviates from the usual passage of time. Although certain time travel is physically possible in principle, its practical implementation far exceeds what is humanly possible. The term time travel is only used as a technical term in the natural sciences and in travel and tourism research. In film and literature, on the other hand, time travel is possible and a motif that occurs repeatedly in the science fiction film genre .
While there is a clear motivation for most of the types of travel mentioned , it is particularly broad in the case of vacation travel, but is discussed controversially in the literature. Some authors only name two, others twenty, the most common classification goes back to Claude Kaspar, he distinguishes five main motivations:
- Physical motivation : expectation of physical rest and relaxation;
- Psychological motivation : Hoping for psychological relief or self-discovery or the satisfaction of the desire for adventure ;
- Interpersonal motivation : desire for experiences in the group or for collecting group experiences;
- Cultural motivation : Interest in education and getting to know foreign cultures;
- Status or prestige motivation : desire for recognition and appreciation (prestige trips).
As early as 1873, Theodor Fontane exaggerated : “One of the peculiarities of our time is mass travel. Otherwise preferred individuals traveled, now everyone is traveling. "
- The high - class environment , which is characterized by the high culture scheme, consists predominantly of people from the higher educated classes who, after establishing themselves in professional life and / or after bringing up children (“the children are out of the house”), now primarily strive for education and personal development, rather than amusement. Accordingly, they primarily opt for educational and study trips and visit churches and museums, but also “picturesque” landscapes and cities. For example, crowds of tourists, noise and entertainment are rejected.
- The younger generation is more inclined to the self-realization milieu, which also participates in the high culture scheme . Above all, "untourist" and "unspoilt" places "off the beaten track" are valued. Today, remote villages in Burgundy or Tuscany , but also strange areas such as the Himalayas, are classic travel destinations for this group .
- By connecting Hochkultur- and Trivial scheme predominantly by members of the medium forming layer and formed in prone particularly to adjustment is integration environment characterized. Tried and tested and well-known places, such as the coasts and beaches around the Mediterranean , but also the Austrian mountains and lakes, are valued . At the same time, components of the classic educational canons such as a study trip to Paris are also used to a lesser extent .
- Younger people of all social classes finally gather in the action milieu , which is characterized by the tension. In their travel behavior, they strive above all for dynamism, variety and physical movement. Places where “something is going” are valued, such as the discos in the seaside resorts, “action-packed” metropolises like Berlin or London , but also adventure and sports trips . In the hunt for new stimuli, people like to cover long distances, preferably also by hitchhiking or Interrail .
- Finally, in the harmony environment based on the trivial scheme , it is predominantly older people from the lower educational levels. If you travel at all, you are mainly looking for peace, relaxation and security, especially in familiar and familiar places in your own country or language area such as the Black Forest or South Tyrol . The leisure program consists, for example, of walks and hikes or of swimming and home evenings .
Originally, the individual parts of a trip such as the journey, accommodation and meals were booked by the traveler directly with the respective service providers (transport companies, accommodation providers). Since the end of the 19th century, however, bookings have increasingly been made, especially for package tours , through the intermediary of a travel agency or are put together directly by a tour operator . Since the advent of the Internet, a certain reversal of the trend has been observed, as customers are now increasingly choosing services themselves on the providers' websites and booking them online. With the help of numerous travel search engines, offers can be queried and price comparisons made.
Means of transport
Classic means of travel are motor vehicles (also in the form of hitchhiking ), buses , trains (including motorail trains ), ships (including ferries ) and aircraft . To transport, which can also be used to beyond pure transport also to convey its own experience value over a longer period, including bicycles , motorcycles, but also railways and ships, for example in the form of cruises , river cruises , freighter cruises , sailing trips or Raft trips. Animals, such as horses, donkeys, camels or elephants, are also used less often. Caravans , houseboats and roof tent buses are a combination of means of transport and accommodation .
The stay at the destination is traditionally in hotels , guesthouses or private rooms, for younger travelers also in hostels or youth hostels . In addition, special forms such as camping , accommodation in holiday flats (often abbreviated as “Fewo” in Germany) or holiday homes and traveling by mobile home have become established.
Accommodation in private rooms usually includes breakfast , while holiday apartments and houses are self-catering. In hotels and pensions, breakfast is often included in the price of an overnight stay in a room. Depending on the offer, the price can also include an evening meal ( half board ) or an additional lunch ( full board ).
A rather new form of travel are the hospitality networks, which have only become popular and known in wider circles through the Internet , where free accommodation is possible on an exchange basis or for a share of the cost of using the kitchen, etc.
According to the duration of the journey, the following types of travel are scientifically distinguished:
- Day trips (short trips of no more than 24 hours, without overnight stay);
- Short trips (trips lasting two to four days);
- Vacation trips (trips lasting more than four days);
- Long-term trips (trips lasting more than three months).
In travel law , the legal term travel occurs ( Paragraph 2 BGB ), but is not defined there, but assumed to be known. The travel law applicable in all EU member states is primarily concerned with package tours, which are defined as a set of at least two different types of travel services or combined travel services for the purpose of the same trip. Pursuant to Section 651a (3) of the German Civil Code (BGB ), passenger transport , accommodation (except if it is used for residential purposes), the rental of four-wheeled vehicles or motorcycles of license class A and any other tourist service are considered travel services. Central components of the travel law are the travel contract , the travel price and the lack of travel . The tour price plays mainly due to standard payments and advances the Inclusive Travel Travel price hedging a major role.
Tourism is one of the most important industries worldwide. In 2013, global travel revenues were around 900 billion euros with 1.09 billion arrivals. Europe accounts for around 100 billion euros of this. In terms of the number of overnight stays in Europe, Germany is one of the most popular travel destinations. In 2014, 424 million overnight stays were registered in Germany. In Austria the number of overnight stays in the same year was 131.9 million and in Switzerland 16 million. The most popular European travel destinations are Spain, followed by Italy and France.
Sociological travel research investigates the social conditions that underlie the phenomenon of travel. Tourist travel represents a special window into a society and thus offers the possibility of finding out more about certain social mechanisms and driving forces.
Environmental protection and travel
According to estimates by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), tourism causes more than five percent of all greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. The worst are long-distance flights, which are responsible for 17 percent of the climate-damaging emissions caused by tourism. CO 2 emissions are far more damaging to the climate at high altitudes than emissions on the ground. Many online portals now offer emissions calculators that you can use to find out how badly you are polluting the global climate with a trip. A number of organizations advocate soft tourism and ecological travel. There are numerous tips for travelers, from environmentally friendly travel to rules of conduct on vacation (do not change towels daily, prefer regional dishes, choose environmentally conscious hotels) to various quality seals on the subject of sustainable travel.
- Car pool agency ,
- Travel photography , travelogue , tour guide , travel game , travel toilet articles , travel authorization
- Seniors trip , hippie trail
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- Alain de Botton : Art of Travel. Translated from the English by Silvia Moravetz. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-596-15804-4 .
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- Christoph Hennig: Wanderlust - tourists, tourism and holiday culture. Suhrkamp Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-518-39501-7 .
- Eric J. Leed: The Experience From Afar - Traveling From Gilgamesh To The Tourism Of Our Days. From the English by Hans-H. Harbort. Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1993, ISBN 3-593-34823-3 .
- Harald Pechlaner, Michael Volgger (Hrsg.): Society on trips - A journey into society. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2017, ISBN 978-3-658-14114-1 .
- Willy Puchner : Illustrated wanderlust - from traveling and coming home. Frederking and Thaler, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-89405-389-5 .
- Michael Rieger: >> You don't travel to arrive ... << - writers on trips from Goethe to Chatwin. Lambert Schneider, Darmstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-650-23975-4 .
- Gerhard Schulze: The adventure society - cultural sociology of the present. 2nd Edition. Campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2005, ISBN 978-3-593-37888-6 .
- Desanka Schwara : On the way - travel experience between home and foreign in modern times. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-36375-1 .
- Hasso Spode et al. (Ed.): Voyage. Travel & Tourism Research Yearbook . Metropol-Verlag et al., Berlin et al. Since 1997, .
- Udo Tworuschka : Holy Paths - The Journey to God in Religions. Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 978-3-87476-389-9 .
- Christoph Haehling von Lanzenauer / Kristiane Klemm (eds.), Demographic Change and Tourism , 2007, p. 121
- On the history of words cf. Etymological dictionary of German , developed under the direction of Wolfgang Pfeifer, 7th edition, dtv, Munich 2004; Kluge: Etymological Dictionary of the German Language , 24th edition de Gruyter, Berlin 2002 (CD-ROM); Duden: The dictionary of origin , 4th edition, Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim 2007.
- On the current level of importance cf. Duden: The large dictionary of the German language in 8 volumes , 2nd edition, Mannheim 1994.
- Daniel J. Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America , 1964, p. 85
- Rudolf Forster, Research and Application Areas in Sociology . Facultas Verlag and Buchhandels AG. Vienna 2008.
- Walter Freyer, Tourism. Introduction to tourism economics . 10th edition (1988 1 ). Munich, Vienna: R. Oldenbourg 2011, pp. 10-16, ISBN 978-3-486-59673-1
- On the idea of the consumption of travel cf. For example a forum entry on usa-reise.net , accessed on November 19, 2012.
- Foundation for Future Issues - An initiative by British American Tobacco (ed.) What Germans really miss on vacation, in: Forschungs aktuell, 261, 36th year, March 4, 2015.
- Foundation for Future Issues - An initiative by British American Tobacco (Ed.), From the office chair to the deck chair? More than two thirds of all travelers work almost to the last minute , in: Forschungs aktuell, 263, 36th year, July 1, 2015.
- Claude Kaspar, Health Tourism in Trend , in: Claude Kaspar (ed.), Yearbook of the Swiss Tourism Industry , Institute for Tourism and Transport Economics / St. Gallen, 1996, p. 55
- Hlavin-Schulze, Karin: You don't travel to arrive. Travel as a cultural practice. Campus publishing house. Frankfurt / Main, New York 1998. p. 25
- Claude Kaspar, The structure of the tourism demand with special consideration of the Federal Republic of Germany , in: Dietrich Storbeck (Hrsg.), Moderner Tourismus. Trends and prospects , in: Materials on tourism geography, Issue 17, Trier: Geographische Gesellschaft Trier, 2nd edition, 1990, p. 281 f.
- Heinz Hell, Fontane und die Massenreisen , in: DIE ZEIT Archiv, issue 41, 1960
- Cf. Gerhard Schulze: Die Erlebnisgesellschaft. Contemporary cultural sociology. Hamburg 2005.
- Welttourismus 2013 ( Memento of the original from July 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF).
- Travel receipts and expenditure in balance of payments, 2005
- Overnight stays in German accommodation providers from 1992 to 2014 (in millions)
- Accommodation statistics in December and in the course of 2014 ( memento of the original from May 12, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Top 10 tourism destinations - nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments, 2013 (million nights spent in the country by non-residents)
- Harald Pechlaner / Michael Volgger (eds.): Society on trips - A journey into society . Wiesbaden: Springer VS 2017, ISBN 978-3-658-14113-4
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