Earlier expeditions, such as the famous ones of Marco Polo and Christopher Columbus , were driven by trade . Governments turned discovered areas into colonies or protectorates . Up to the present day expeditions serve to explore raw material deposits. Since the 18th century with its established learned societies, expeditions have often been used for scientific research , for example
- to discover new plant and animal species,
- to cross areas of particular interest,
- to reach outstanding geographic destinations such as the North and South Poles.
Today, expeditions are mainly carried out by research institutes , international scientific organizations or Alpine associations. The expedition goals concern a wide variety of specialist areas such as
- Life sciences (e.g. botany , zoology and paleontology ),
- Earth sciences (e.g. geography , geology , geophysics and glaciology ),
- Atmospheric sciences (e.g. meteorology , aeronomy and climate science ).
Further study trips in the field of anthropology and ethnology are undertaken for museums of ethnology or to carry out archaeological excavations. Geoscientific expeditions are nowadays also undertaken by universities or research institutes as part of scientific projects or international measurement campaigns .
Scientific expeditions should be distinguished from journeys without research character, in particular trekking tours or mountaineering journeys , even if they are sometimes referred to as expeditions for marketing reasons .
In English, expedition is equated with research trip (English language: exploration ), while in German exploration is the search for mineral resources.
The preparations depend on the type and scope of the expedition and can take several months or even years. At the beginning there is the definition of goals as well as the procurement and evaluation of information, which specify the time, personnel and financial framework. Conversely, expedition planning must be based on the expected financial framework.
The sources for obtaining information are travel descriptions , scientific publications according to the content of the project, geographical treatises, aerial and satellite images as well as small-scale maps to provide an overview of the area. Until around 1950, the expedition's goal in some very remote areas also included the first creation of maps by means of cartographic surveying and terrestrial photogrammetry , for which only rough sketches, e.g. B. the valley courses, had to be sufficient.
The planning includes the determination of the timing of the expedition as well as the distribution of tasks to the expedition participants. The economic framework is defined by a cost and financial plan in which the expenditure side (e.g. flight and transport costs, equipment and food, permits and insurance) and the income side (e.g. subsidies, donations, loans, possible income) Book sales and lectures). These points may be recorded in a written contract, which usually also regulates the exploitation rights to the results of the expedition.
Sports and medical expedition fitness
The basic prerequisite for participating in an expedition is a medical examination, depending on the extent of the exposure, to rule out illnesses or previous damage that could lead to an unsuitability for an expedition. The Alfred Wegener Institute has developed a medical questionnaire for the participants in its polar expeditions. An essential part of preparing for an expedition, also for accident prevention, is improving performance (strength and endurance) through targeted sports training. According to the project, the athletic preparation begins, depending on the project, up to a year in advance according to the principles of training theory and previous sports medicine and, if necessary, altitude medical advice.
For larger expedition projects and those in extreme climates, it can make sense to undertake a pre-expedition to train and test the equipment. For the selection of expedition participants see the selection process of the ZDF Südpolteilexpedition 2010. However, this also shows the limits of these and the relationship between effective implementation in the expedition space and the results of selection processes.
In general, for expeditions wilderness skills as knowledge and skills as for trekking necessary to serve the assurance of progress and (over) living in each climate zone. Sufficient knowledge and skills are for your own safety - however, an expedition is not “survival in the bush”. In order to train scientific expedition participants in sufficient wilderness skills, some institutes hold courses exclusively for their students and academic participants. Basic knowledge and skills in fishing , skiing alpine and cross-country skiing and mountain walking and mountain climbing with knots are required depending on the purpose of the expedition. The latter can be acquired through the DAV climbing training to top rope and lead climbing.
General expedition skills are knowledge and skills in dealing with technical expedition equipment, some of which are accompanied by state-approved authorizations such as radio communication certificate and radio operating certificate for the participation in the respective radio communication with a handheld radio in radio traffic , with satellite radio such as Iridium (communication system) or emergency radio beacon as a rescue device radio station . In addition, when using watercraft with engines, the sport boat driving license for the sea and when handling and carrying handguns, the certificate of expertise in weapons for a WBK weapon possession card and European firearms pass . These are required for self-protection in areas with polar bears and grizzly bears such as Svalbard , Northeast Greenland , Northern Canada and Alaska . Ownership is partially required and checked by the respective national authorities.
For some research stations, participation in expeditions requires further knowledge of fire protection , as taught in courses at the NBC and Self-Protection School or the Ship Safety Training Center , as well as skills in vehicle repairs. The reason is that a fire brigade cannot be used to fight fires or a car repair shop cannot be used to repair snow-covered vehicles, off-road vehicles and rigid inflatable boats. Large research stations have their own technical staff available for these tasks, some of them from the respective national military such as the American and Argentinian research stations in Antarctica. In the dry and cold climate zone in particular, a fire is a considerable danger, including as an electrical fire, engine fire or careless handling of open fire in a tent or in an emergency hut. Extreme cold makes pipes and insulation made of plastic and metal brittle, so that fuel can escape from them or an electrical short circuit can occur and cause a fire. In the dry and cold climate zone, vehicles are permanently preheated where possible or, where this is not possible, kept in operation overnight. Specialist support is not available at smaller research stations. All tasks, including the kitchen service, are done by the expedition participants. A cooking course can therefore also be part of the preparation.
Since immediate first aid by rescue organizations is not available during an expedition, reliable first aid and extended first aid as well as knowledge of therapeutic procedures in emergency medicine and their limits on the part of the expedition members are necessary. The basis of first aid is “safe handling for targeted action” as a first aid worker in medical emergencies through repeated first aid courses during the preparation of the expedition. Basic skills from Tactical Combat Casualty Care are partially helpful. However, medical care (“practice of medicine” as an intervention in the competencies of doctors and alternative practitioners) is punishable under German criminal law for first aiders, and this is where its limits. The extended knowledge of first aid is supplemented by skills for use in the field. The extended first aid includes basic knowledge of emergency medicine with cardiopulmonary resuscitation , behavior in the event of hypothermia due to the wind chill factor and basic knowledge from training for paramedics with a focus on traumatology , bandages and medication as well as travel medicine and infectious diseases caused by tropical diseases as far as necessary for the expedition area. Prevention takes place through vaccinations against infectious diseases as far as necessary for the expedition area. General hygiene measures prevent most diseases.
Meteorology and local weather forecast
Climate zones and weather determine the eco-zones according to which the requirements for an expedition are based. Knowledge of clouds and general meteorological relationships are necessary for local weather forecasting. The local, daily weather conditions determine the possibilities during the expedition, especially when climbing. Weather reports are coded worldwide using the SYNOP code with the cloud key. Basic meteorological information and climate data can be determined via the Internet if required. An altimeter / barometer is used for the local weather forecast and an anemometer is used to determine the wind chill as a felt temperature .
Theoretical Foundations for leadership of groups of people in an organization unit are leadership and for the organization under management skills with planning , organization , leadership and control carried out.
Kurt Hahn at the Schloss Salem School already used experiential approaches from expeditions as a teaching aid . Leaders Robert Falcon Scott , Roald Amundsen , Ernest Shackleton , Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord and George S. Patton can serve as examples of leadership methods .
A reasonable expedition equipment taking into account the climate and the season is more important in addition to the catering part of the expedition preparation. Missing or inadequate expedition equipment can have serious consequences for the safe execution and make rescue measures necessary. The procurement of the expedition equipment marks the end of the expedition preparation. The basic equipment required for land expeditions is the same as for trekking . For the shipment and return of expedition equipment , the respective customs regulations of the importing and return country as well as the airline's regulations must be observed .
|climate zone||season||Vegetation zone||Air temperature||Protective effect|
|dry-cold||winter||Polar zone and tundra||<−20 ° C||Heat and wind protection|
|damp and cold||winter||
boreal forest zone
deciduous deciduous forest
|=||dry-cold||summer||<−5 ° C||Wind and moisture protection,
conditional heat protection
|dry-hot||winter||=||damp and cold||summer||<+15 ° C||conditional heat and moisture protection|
|dry-hot||summer||Desert and savanna||> +25 ° C *||Protection from solar radiation and heat
at night, however, down to −5 ° C
|moist and hot||all year round||Rainforest||> +30 ° C||Protection against permanent skin moisture|
The planned and prepared supply of the expedition can take place in advance through depots or as a follow-up supply by aircraft or accompanying with Akia , carts , porters or pack animals . Today less often by dog sledding , but like the Sirius patrol in Northeast Greenland National Park , the rangers of the US National Park Service or Parks Canada rangers are still in use. With alpine style for a limited time of up to 14 days by self-carrying.
Transport and shipment
- in the expedition style with porters also wrongly sherpa after a Tibetan ethnic group led by a sirdar ,
in the alpine style by self-carrying or self-pulling a trekking cart ;
- in permanent snow areas with tub sleds such as Akja or Pulka as well as dog sleds with sled dogs ;
- with draft animals or pack animals such as mules or dromedaries ;
- by mountain bike (MTB);
rarely with mounts on land
motorized on land with
- Off-road vehicles like Mercedes G and Land Rover Defender or
- Expedition truck with a fixed body or cabin like the Unimog , the MAN gl SX45 8 × 8, in Russia Ural ,
- All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Kraka or Quad
- Snowmobile Bandvagn 206 for jungle areas in Russia and former CIS countries MT-LB , DT-30 or snowmobile and snowmobile Light Over Snow Vehicles (LOSV);
- EC 135 or Mil Mi-8 helicopter
- twin-engine aircraft with STOL characteristics such as the Dornier Do 228 or the Twin Otter de Havilland Canada DHC-6 ;
- in coastal waters, wetlands or river navigation
for river crossings with Packraft .
History of the expeditions
The voyages of discovery at the beginning of the history of the expedition were marked by a wave of new discoveries due to an imperfect image of the earth. The phase of the subsequent research trips had the goal of gaining knowledge in the field of earth sciences and at the same time securing underdeveloped states and their raw materials in the context of the emerging industrialization for their own nation. Through agreements between the colonial powers, colonial borders were often drawn in this period of the 19th century, which are still valid today as state borders, dividing population groups, dividing states and, as a result, wars of independence from the middle of the 20th century and in the 21st century led to further internal but also interstate conflicts. This potential for conflict has a corresponding influence on the feasibility of today's expeditions according to the security situation in these areas. Information can be obtained from the travel warnings from the Foreign Ministries.
The history of the North Pole expeditions and the golden age of Antarctic exploration were marked by national competition to "conquer" the last unreached destinations on earth. The expeditions were partly planned in a very short time and carried out with untried means. These led to a fatal outcome on some expeditions. The technical equipment and clothing partly did not correspond to today's standards and safety in use. Woolen clothing and zydarski bags are still valid equipment today. At the same time, only partial or insufficient use was made of the knowledge and skills of people living in these climates. The English did not use sled dogs, while the Norwegians used them with success and adapted their clothing to the Eskimos .
Reasons for the failure of an expedition even today can be found in particular with the Franklin expedition .
Orientation equipment from early expeditions
GPS was only available for location determination from the late 1980s. Until then, the position was determined by astronomical navigation using a sextant and chronometer . With so-called lunch cutlery , the highest level of the sun and thus the true local time is determined around noon . The latitude is calculated from the height of the sun . The geographical longitude results from the difference between local time and Greenwich Mean Time , which is read by the chronometer. Bearing and triangulation were used for orientation in the field and for land surveying, one of the most urgent tasks of early expeditions.
Bivouac equipment from early expeditions
Until the advent of synthetic fibers, clothing made of cotton was sometimes also made of light loden in dry and hot and humid areas, while wool and loden were worn for dry and cold and humid areas. The early clothing of the English Everest climbers consisted of tweed . Women's hair footlets were also used. Sleeping bags were made of reindeer fur or, as on the Schröder-Stranz expedition, were filled with kapok as an insulating material. Down sleeping bags did not appear until the 20th century. Tents were made of cotton. The Zdarskysack served to protect the sleeping bag from moisture and dirt .
Catering for early expeditions
Since the journey was often made by ship, “normal” ship and fresh food was brought along, which had to be prepared. This consisted of cereal grains - these have a longer shelf life than flour -, rusks , cured meat , jerky meat , stockfish , pea sausage or olive oil and had a long shelf life, or consisted of fresh food such as live animals that were slaughtered when necessary. Tin cans were first used in the 19th century . As with the Franklin expedition, early forms probably led to lead poisoning . To avoid scurvy , sauerkraut and lemon juice containing vitamin C were part of the diet - see also James Cook . Hoosh from Pemmican was part of expedition catering for Antarctic expeditions . For land transport, as in Africa and India, porters were used on a large scale, in other parts of the world also pack animals. Otherwise, the expedition's catering was obtained from the country through purchase on site or hunting with corresponding uncertainties for availability and hygiene.
List of well-known explorers and explorers
|Vasco da Gama||1497-1499||Sea route to India|
|Ferdinand de Magellan||1519-1522||Circumnavigation|
|Gonzalo Pizarro||Gonzalo Pizarro expedition||1540-1542||Exploring South America|
|Francis Drake||Circumnavigation||1577-1580||Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean|
|Samuel de Champlain||1603-1632||Canada|
Vitus Bering with
Georg Wilhelm Steller
First Kamchatka expedition Second Kamchatka expedition
|Bering Strait , Siberia and Aleutian Islands|
|Carsten Niebuhr||Arab trip (Carsten Niebuhr)||1761-1767||Exploration of Arabia|
|First South Sea voyage
Second South Sea voyage
Third South Sea voyage with the North Pacific and Northwest Passage
|Northern Canada Great Slave Lake , Mackenzie River ,
Arctic Ocean , Fraser River
Research trips by research travelers have the purpose of gaining data and knowledge about mostly newly discovered areas of the earth. Their preparation can include acquiring existing knowledge, learning the regional languages, selecting, procuring and packing the necessary materials and equipment, putting together a harmonizing team in which all essential skills are represented that are required at the destination, the appropriate time to start the journey as well as the planning of the travel route as far as possible. In contrast to this, adventurers are seen without a goal.
|Surname||expedition||Expedition year||Background / goal of the expedition|
|Squidward Haenke||Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo expedition||1789-1794
South America with Peru , Ecuador , Bolivia , Chile Atacama Desert
first European on the Chimborazo
|Alexander von Humboldt||1799-1804
trip to Russia
|Lewis and Clark Expedition||1804-1806||Exploration of Ohio North America|
|Jean Louis Burckhardt||1812||Rediscoveries of the Nabatean city of Petra in southern Jordan and the Nubian temple of Abu Simbel in Egypt|
|Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied||Journey to inner North America||1815-1817
|Otto von Kotzebue||Rurik expedition||1815-1818||Russian circumnavigation / discovery and exploration of the Northwest Passage|
|John Ross||1818||Expedition Northwest Passage and Arctic Sea|
|William Edward Parry||1818
|2nd Officer Northwest Passage
1st Arctic Expedition Queen Elizabeth Islands
2nd Arctic Expedition
|James Clark Ross||1818
|Participant Northwest Passage
several polar expeditions under Parry
Participant North Pole Expedition and North Magnetic
Pole South Pole and Southern Ocean
|1. Polar expedition under John Ross
2. Polar expedition to the Northwest Territories
3. Franklin expedition to the polar region
|Hume and Hovell's expedition||1824-1825||first expedition, a path from New South Wales in the hinterland of Victoria found|
|Charles Darwin||The Zoology of the Voyage||1831-1836||South America|
|Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer||1831-1834
|Greece and the Middle East|
|Charles Wilkes command||United States Exploring Expedition||1838-1842||Exploration and mapping trip of the United States Navy into the Pacific, especially the US west coast|
Australia 4800 km Jimbour (Brisbane) -Northern Territory-Port Essington (Darwin)
planned crossing of Australia from east to west
Another attempt, since lost
West Africa and the Sahara
|Eduard Vogel||1853-1856||Africa highlands from Adamaua relief for Barth|
|Richard Francis Burton||1853
with John Hanning Speke Sudan
East Africa with the great lakes and the sources of the Nile
|Upper course of the Nile - northwestern Congo
Tripoli - Murzuk
|Henry Morton Stanley||1870-1871||Africa|
Bernhard von Wüllerstorf-Urbair
Ferdinand von Hochstetter
Georg von Frauenfeld
|Novara expedition||1857-1859||Expedition leader
Head of Geology
Head of Zoology
|Charles Francis Hall||1860-1862
North Pole Expedition
Robert O'Hara Burke
William John Wills
|Victorian exploration expedition||1860-1861||Australia south-north crossing west of 143rd longitude|
Oasis Kufra Egypt
First German North Polar Expedition and
Second German North Polar Expedition
|Polar expeditions to Greenland's east coast|
David E. Folsom
Charles W. Cook
|Folsom expedition||1869||Yellowstone National Park|
Nathaniel P. Langford,
|Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition||1870||Yellowstone National Park|
|Ferdinand Hayden||Hayden expedition||1871||Yellowstone National Park|
Karl Count von Waldburg-Zeil
Theodor von Heuglin
Julius by Payer
|Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition||1872-1874||Franz Josef Land|
|Eduard Schnitzer||1871-1892||Central Africa|
|Wyville Thomson||Challenger expedition||1872-1876||Deep sea expedition|
|Adolphus Greely||1881-1884||Polar region|
|Karl of the Stones||1st German Int Polar Year Expedition
1st Xingú Area
Expedition 2nd Xingú Area Expedition
South Georgia under Dr. K. Schrader
Xingú Area Brazil
Xingú Area Brazil
South Sea Islands Marquesas
|Gertrude Bell||1888-1920||Arabia British explorer, historian, writer, archaeologist, mountaineer, political advisor and member of the Secret Intelligence Service|
|Mary Kingsley||1894-1895||British explorer and ethnologist Congo - Congo - Cameroon|
|Crossing the inland ice of South Greenland,
North Pole Expedition
|Nikolai Mikhailovich Prschewalsky||1870–1873
|Central Asia expeditions|
|Victor Hensen||Plankton expedition||1889||Atlantic|
|Franz Steindachner||Pola expeditions||1890-1898||Deep sea, Mediterranean, Red Sea|
|Erich von Drygalski||West Greenland Expeditions Berliner Ges f geography
1st German South Polar Expedition
Participation in Graf Zeppelin Expedition Spitzbergen
|Greenland and Arctic
87 ° 6'N
April 6, 1909 possibly North Pole
|Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery||Belgica expedition||1897-1899||West Antarctica|
|under Robert Peary Arctic expedition
under Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery Belgica expedition
Arctic expedition north of Axel-Heiberg-Insel towards the North Pole, alternative route Devon Island via Nares Strait to Anoatok Greenland
|Franz Boas||Jesup North Pacific Expedition||1897-1902||anthropological research expedition in the North Pacific to Siberia , Alaska and the north-west coast of Canada|
|Carl Chun||Valdivia expedition||1898-1899||Deep sea, Atlantic and Indian oceans|
|Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink||Southern Cross Expedition||1898-1900||Viktorialand , Ross Ice Shelf (78 ° 50'S)|
China Taklamakan Pamir Mountains
Fritz Mühlenweg as participant
|Max von Oppenheim||1895-1923
|Diplomat, orientalist and archaeologist in the Middle East.
Discovery of Tell Halaf.
News center for the Orient
Geographic South Pole
Flight over the geographic North Pole in an airship
|Luigi Amadeo of Savoy||Stella Polare||1899
|Exploration of the north polar region
Rwenzori Mountains Uganda
|Edward Harriman||Harriman Alaska Expedition||1899|
|Rudolf Schlechter||West African rubber expedition||1899-1900||Exploration of rubber-producing plant species in West Africa|
|Robert Falcon Scott||
Terra Nova Expedition
Ross Sea , Ross Ice Shelf (82 ° 17'S) and Viktorialand
geographic South Pole
|Otto Nordenskjöld and Carl Anton Larsen||Swedish Antarctic Expedition||1901-1904|
|Ernest Shackleton||Discovery Expedition
|Participants under Scott
Ross Ice Shelf , Polar Plateau (88 ° 23'S), Viktorialand
Weddell Sea , planned crossing of the Antarctic
Weddell Sea , Elephant Island , South Georgia
British Mount Everest expeditions
1921, 1922, 1924
|Tibet Mount Everest|
|Percy Fawcett||i. A. Royal Geographical Society||1906-1925||Expeditions in South America|
|Douglas Mawson||1911-1914||1st Australian Antarctic Expedition|
Carl Ernst Arthur Wichmann
Hendrikus Albertus Lorentz
|North New Guinea Expedition||1903|
|Mina Benson Hubbard||1905||Crossing Labrador|
Research station Eismitte
|Greenland north-east coast under Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen
crossing and wintering under Johan Peter Koch
3rd Greenland expedition inland ice
|Enno Littmann||Aksum expedition||1906||Ethiopia Eritrea|
|TE Lawrence||1909-1918||Palestine - Sinai Peninsula|
|Herbert Schröder-Stranz||German Arctic Expedition||1912-1913||Spitsbergen|
release expedition DAE
|Oskar von Niedermayer||1912||first crossing of the Lut desert|
|Alfred Leber||Dt New Guinea Expedition||1913-1914||Medical-demographic|
|Hermann Detzner||1914-1918||Kaiser-Wilhelms-Land Island of New Guinea first Europeans crossing the valleys of the central highlands in the Hagen Mountains|
|Rupert crab apple||Greenland under Wegener
Anjumanpass Hindu Kush Afghanistan
Arctic Ocean Greenland
|Head of West Station “Scheideck”,
meteorological observations of air traffic at Lufthansa
Wehrmacht weather stations in the Arctic
Sahara North Africa
Brandenburg (special unit) Africa campaign
Middle East / Lebanon- China
|Alfons Gabriel||1927-1928, 1933, 1937||Deserts of Afghanistan and Iran|
Clärenore Stinnes with
|Circumnavigation of the world by car||1927||Balkans -Moscow-Siberia-Gobi Desert-Beijing-Japan-Hawaii-North America-Central America-South America to Buenos Aires-Vancouver|
|Günter Dyhrenfurth||Himalaya Expedition
International Himalaya Expedition
|Orde Wingate||Camel expedition||1932||with the support of RGS Libyan Desert|
|Richard Evelyn Byrd||
Byrd Antarctic Expedition
|Svalbard North Pole
Antarctica, Flyover of the South Pole
|Otto Schulz combat handle||German Amazon Jary Expedition||1935-1937||Amazon||Expedition leader|
|John Riddoch Rymill||British Graham Land||1936||Antarctic expedition leader|
|Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin||presumably on May 21, 1937||North Pole|
Third German Antarctic Expedition
|Skipper "German Arctic Expedition" Schröder-Stranz
Expedition leader Neuschwabenland
|under Alfred Lothar Wegener
P. G. Mott
|Oxford University Greenland Expedition||1938|
|Hans Ertl||International Himalaya Expedition
German Bolivia Expedition
Willy Merkl Memorial Expedition
|First ascent of Sia Kangri 7422 m|
Willy Merkl ,
Hermann Buhl ,
German American Himalayan Expedition
Dt Nanga Parbat Expedition
|Heinrich Harrer||German Nanga Parbat Expedition
|Climbing the Rupal flank
South America, Alaska, Africa and Southeast Asia
Wehrmacht weather stations in the Arctic
Ethiopia and Sahara Long Range Desert Group
Oman , Saudi Arabia , Yemen Empty Quarter , Iraq
|Thor Heyerdahl||Kon-Tiki -Expedition u. a.||1947||Pacific Ocean - Polynesia|
|May 29, 1953||First ascent of Mount Everest|
|Hannes Lindemann||1955 and 1956||Atlantic|
|Vivian Fuchs||Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition||1955-1958||with Hillary|
|Stefan Kröpelin||Research expedition||October 2005||5,000 km by off-road vehicle in the Chad Basin with the Erdi-Ma northeast triangle of Libya, Chad and Sudan|
|Surname||expedition||Expedition year||Expedition land|
|Wally Herbert||Transarctic expedition with dog sled||April 6, 1969||Arctic and North Pole on foot|
indones. New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
crossing Atlantic crossing pedal boat
u. a. Sigi Löw Memorial Expedition to Nanga Parbat
14 eight-thousander and Seven Summits
crossing of the Antarctic
|Günther Bock, Michel Dacher, Peter Lechhart, Franz Martin||German Greenland Expedition 1970||Nuuk - Tasiilaq ice sheet crossing|
|Arved Fuchs||since 1977
1993 and 2003–2004
West Coast Greenland
North Pole on foot (failed)
Retro Alfred Wegener Expedition 1930
Circumnavigation of Cape Horn in a folding boat in the southern summer
Int. Expedition "Icewalk" North Pole
crossing Greenland with dog sled
"Arctic Passages" West coast Greenland
hist. Expedition Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton Antarctica with crossing South Georgia's
Taklamakan on foot
Alashan , Tibet , Tibesti Mountains
Taklamakan Retro-Expedition Sven Hedin
Discovery of the "sunken kingdom of Shangshung" Yarlung dynasty
Peru expedition with Nevado Pisco, Nevado Alpamayo , Nevado Artesonraju , Torre del Paron
|Frederik to Denmark||Sirius Dog Sled Expedition||February 11 to May 31, 2000||2795 km crossing of North Greenland Northeast Greenland National Park|
|Liv Arnesen and Ann Bancroft||2001||Antarctica on skis|
|Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner||High mountain expeditions||since 2003||u. a. Nanga Parbat|
|Cecilie Skog||first woman on the Seven Summits, North Pole, South Pole, crossing the Antarctic|
|Jakub Postrzygacz||Canning Stock Route||2005||First conqueror by bike|
|Oh Eun-sun||first woman on the 14 eight-thousanders|
|Evelyne Binsack||Expedition Antarctica||2006/2007||28,000 km from Switzerland to the South Pole|
|Tim Cope||Summer 2004 to summer 2007||Ride from the steppe of Mongolia, starting in Kharkhorin near Karakorum, to Hungary|
|Jeremy Clarkson and James May||Top Gear: Polar Special Polar Challenge||2007||magnetic north pole from 1996 at Toyota Hilux and Toyota Land Cruiserwith heavily modified|
|David de Rothschild||Plastiki expedition||2010||Pacific Ocean||Pollution of the oceans with plastic waste|
|Harry of Wales||in favor of the aid organization "Walking With The Wounded"||November / December 2013||South Pole||March with wounded soldiers 335 km to the South Pole|
|Freya Hoffmeister||Kayak expeditions||2009
|Circumnavigation of Australia
Circumnavigation of Australia
|13,714 km in 332 days
22,000 km in 929 days
Authorities and organizations that conduct expeditions
Expeditions are mainly carried out by research institutions. These can be universities or non-university institutes. Clubs and associations as well as state authorities promote expeditions.
Expedition animal filmmaker
Well-known animal filmmakers who have undertaken expeditions to produce nature and animal films include Michael and Bernhard Grzimek , Heinz Sielmann , David Attenborough , Martin Schliessler , Ernst Arendt and Hans Schweiger, Benny Rebel , Andreas Kieling , Matto Barfuss , Dieter Glogowski, Norbert Rosing , David Bittner and Dirk Steffens . Michael Martin is known in German-speaking countries for his desert photographs.
Expedition destinations and expedition rooms
The fact that terra incognita still exists is shown by the participation of an NDR television team in the Ultima Thule 2008 expedition to explore the northernmost land point in the world in Greenland. Frequently commercial expedition destinations are the Seven Summits as the highest peaks in the world and the Seven Second Summits . As another expedition goals are long-distance hiking trails that run through corresponding natural and wilderness areas and regions of the world natural heritage as a UNESCO World Heritage are.
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- Johannes W. Grüntzig , Heinz Mehlhorn : Expeditions into the realm of epidemics. Medical ascension orders of the German imperial and colonial times. Elsevier-Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-8274-1622-1 .
- Fergus Fleming, Annabel Merullo: Legendary Expeditions: 50 Original Reports . 2nd Edition. National Geographic Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-937606-94-7 .
- Ariane Audouin-Dubreuil: Expedition Silk Road: With the first off-road vehicle from Beirut to Beijing. National Geographic Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-89405-854-8 .
- Owen Beattie, John Geiger: The Icy Sleep: The Fate of the Franklin Expedition. Piper Verlag, 1998, ISBN 3-492-22113-0 .
- Cornelia Klauß, Frank Böttcher (ed.): Unrecognized by Freundesland - Illegal journeys through the Soviet empire Lukas Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-86732-076-4 .
- Jörg Kuhbandner, Jan Oelker (eds.): TRANSIT. Illegally through the vastness of the Soviet Union. Notschriften-Verlag, Radebeul 2010, ISBN 978-3-940200-48-8 .
- Matthias Hake: Expedition Manual. Planning, equipment, crisis management. 1st edition. Pietsch Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-613-50490-1 .
- Nigel Gifford: Expeditions. Handbook for planning and practice: conception, financing, travel, food, equipment, logistics and guidance. Pietsch, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-613-50005-1 .
- Heinz Kohnen: Safety and Survival in Polar Expeditions. In: Reports on Polar Research. Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, special issue 3, 1983.
- Stefan Simmerer: Do-it-yourself expeditions. In: Outdoor. 09/2003. (on-line)
- Inge Röger-Lakenbrink: Alpine trekking with horses and mules. Cadmos Verlag, Lüneburg 1999, ISBN 3-86127-339-X .
- Royal Geographical Society (Ed.): Expedition Handbook. Self-published, London 2004.
- Royal Geographical Society (Ed.), Rachel Duncan: Polar Expeditions. 4th edition. Self-published, London 2003.
- Tom Sheppard: Vehicle-dependent Expedition Guide. Desert Winds, Hertfordshire, England 1998, ISBN 0-9532324-0-9 .
- Stephen Arrington: The Expedition & Diving Operations Handbook. Diversification Series Verlag Best Pub., 1995, ISBN 0-941332-40-3 .
- Steven James Foreman: How to Plan and Survive Safaris, Camping Trips, and Expeditions in Africa. Lulu Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4303-0842-3 .
- Franz Berghold , Wolfgang Schaffert: Handbook of trekking and expedition medicine: Practice of altitude adjustment - therapy of altitude sickness. DAV Summit Club , Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-00-025756-8 .
- W. Treibel: First aid and health on the mountain and when traveling. Bergverlag Rother , 2006, ISBN 3-7633-6027-1 .
- Royal Geographical Society (Ed.), Sarah Anderson: Expedition Medicine. 2nd Edition. Profile Books, 2002, ISBN 1-86197-434-5 .
- Chris Johnson, Sarah Anderson, Jon Dallimore, Shane Winser, David A. Warrell: Oxford Handbook of Expedition and Wilderness Medicine. 1st edition. Oxford Handbooks Series, published by OUP Oxford, 2008, ISBN 978-0-19-929661-3 .
- Gregory H. Bledsoe, Michael J. Manyak, David A. Townes: Expedition and Wilderness Medicine: Wilderness, Remote, and Extreme Environments. 1st edition. Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-86873-0 .
- Andrew Selters: Glacier Travel and Crevasse Rescue: Reading Glaciers, Team Travel, Crevasse Rescue Techniques, Routfinding, Expedition Skills. 2nd Edition. The Mountaineers Books, 2006, ISBN 0-89886-658-8 .
- expeditio . Pons publishing house . Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- expedio . Pons publishing house. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
- AWI medical questionnaire (PDF; 77 kB)
- Mountain sports training ( Memento of the original dated February 7, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on the website of the German Society for Mountain and Expedition Medicine e. V.
- Martina Schneibergová: Expedition Spitzbergen: After two days the first tent tore. on: radio.cz
- Selection process ZDF Südpolexpedition 2010 ( Memento of the original from April 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Arctic Survival and Safety Course. ( Memento of the original from September 9, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Course Wilderness Skills UNIS
- Information for expedition participants. ( Memento of the original from February 23, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. AWI advanced training for expedition participants
- knots - knots Primer for outdoor activities. on Wikibooks
- Climbing training at the German Alpine Club
- First aid in the field on Wikibooks
- Explanation of the SYNOP key.
- Archive link ( Memento of the original from October 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Clearance procedure for Germany when re-importing also INF3 customs form for higher value assets
- dangerous air freight lithium-ion battery # Dangers when handling lithium-ion batteries In the past 20 years, lithium-ion batteries were responsible for 140 incidents in aircraft. The ICAO classifies them as dangerous, highly flammable cargo. 
- US National Park Rangers in the English language Wikipedia
- http://www.outdoorseiten.net/forum/showthread.php?46604-USA-Sommer-2010-9-Wochen-Trekking-in-Alaska-mit-Packraft-Wrangell-St.-Elias-amp-Denali&highlight= Packraft application Packraft on a trekking tour Wrangell-St.-Elias-Denali Alaska-
- Comelia Lüdecke: 100 years ago: Greenland expedition of the Society for Geography in Berlin (1891, 1892–1893) under the direction of Erich von Drygalski. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Polar Research. 60 (3) 1990, pp. 219-229.
- Steffen Wenig (Ed.): In Imperial Order - The German Aksum Expedition 1906 under Enno Littmann . Volume 1: The actors and the scientific undertakings of the DAE in Eritrea. Linden-Soft, Aichwald 2006, ISBN 3-929290-33-2 .
- German Antarctic Expedition 1938/39. ( Memento of the original from May 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: DMZ. No. 42, December 2004.
- Expedition Report Greenland Inland Ice Crossing 1970 ( Memento of the original from December 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Thomas Borchert: Record in 70 days: Norwegian is the first to cross the Antarctic on skis. In: Spiegel Online , January 22, 2010.
- Dieter Glogowski
- David Bittner ( Memento of the original dated December 8, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Sven Glagow: NDR team discovers an island in the arctic ice. Ultima Thule Expedition