James Cook (* October 27 jul. / 7. November 1728 greg. In Marton in Middlesbrough , † 14. February 1779 in Kealakekua Bay , Hawaii ) was an English navigator , cartographer and explorer . He became famous for three trips to the Pacific Ocean , which he mapped more precisely than anyone before him. He discovered numerous islands and proved that the Terra Australis did not exist and that the Northwest Passage could not be crossed by ships of his time. Its effective measures against scurvy were also of great importance for seafaring .
Cook's birth is on the parish registry of St. Cuthbert, Yorkshire with the entry “27. October 1728. James, son of the day laborer James Cook and his wife Grace ”. He was one of eight children. At the expense of his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, he was able to attend the village school in Great Ayton. Here he acquired skills in reading, arithmetic and writing. At the age of 17, at the request of his father, he became an apprentice in the general store of the Quaker John Walker, who became a kind of mentor for him. The Quaker contacts brought him into contact with the sea, but he himself did not become a Quaker.
His seafaring career began at the age of 18 on coal transport ships between Newcastle upon Tyne and London , which were based in Whitby . Cook's skills advanced him well. In mid-1754 he switched to the Royal Navy, with financial losses, where he was hired as a non-commissioned officer ( master's mate ) on the HMS Eagle . Only the service for the crown made the prospect of considerable social advancement possible.
James Cook got his first small command on April 5, 1756 and passed the master's examination in 1757 (independent skipper, corresponded to the helmsman ). Between 1755 and 1758 he had served as a captain on the HMS Eagle under Palliser. His outstanding talent as a cartographer became apparent from 1758 onwards when exploring and surveying the Saint Lawrence River (in the run-up to the siege of Québec ), waters of Newfoundland and other parts of the east coast of Canada during the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).
Cook's precise maps helped the British troops under General James Wolfe to a decisive victory over the French at Québec in September 1759 . From 1764 to the end of 1767 he had received the command of the small schooner Grenville through the mediation of Palliser, meanwhile appointed governor of Newfoundland, for his surveying work , which he sailed several times and quickly across the Atlantic, which proved his qualities as a seaman. During the winter, he worked on behalf of the Admiralty in England to work out nautical charts and sailing manuals based on his measurement data from the summer. His reputation as skipper and cartographer earned the seaman, who was appointed lieutenant on May 25, 1768, a vocation for the famous Pacific voyage, which many people envy, for example Alexander Dalrymple , who later became the first hydrograph of the Admiralty.
First South Sea voyage (1768–1771)
This expedition was undertaken on the recommendation of the Royal Society under the presidency of the astronomer Lord Morton to observe the passage of the planet Venus in front of the solar disk - the Venus transit of June 3, 1769 - on Tahiti as part of an international measurement campaign . The aim of this major astronomical project was to determine the distance between the earth and the sun and thus - on the basis of Kepler's third law - to calculate the distances between all other planets in the solar system .
Cook's task was primarily to bring several scientists (including the astronomer Charles Green ) and their instruments safely to Tahiti and back. He needed a spacious ship with a shallow draft. The Admiralty acquired the 340-ton Earl of Pembroke coal transporter , which was converted and named HMS Endeavor . The ship and its crew set sail on August 26, 1768.
In addition, James Cook received a secret order - which he was only allowed to open after the first part of his voyage (the observation of the passage of Venus ) had been completed - to explore the ocean south of the 40th parallel south and a gigantic postulated by cartographers To find the “southern continent” (or the “great southern land”, the Terra Australis incognita ), which was assumed to exist as a counterweight to the land masses of the northern hemisphere. In addition, the existence of the Torres Strait near New Guinea, which was kept secret by Spain, was known to the Admiralty, but had not yet been confirmed by any of its ships.
The 25-year-old natural scientist Joseph Banks also took part in this expedition at his own expense (in the same amount as the crown invested in the expedition, mainly to create botanical collections). He had organized a staff of ten for this, including the 39-year-old Swedish botanist Daniel Solander , like Banks a member of the Royal Society . After a three-week stopover in Rio de Janeiro , where the ship was thoroughly overhauled, Cook set out again in early December and arrived in the Bay of Good Success on Le Maire Strait ( Tierra del Fuego ) in early January 1769 .
At the end of January, the HMS Endeavor had circled Cape Horn with luck and was at the 60th parallel, the southernmost point of this trip. Tahiti was reached in mid-April , the HMS Endeavor was in Matavai Bay , and the construction of Fort Venus began . At the beginning of May the observatory was ready for use and the exploration of Tahiti was devoted to it.
After the successful observations (at the last moment Cook had to find a stolen instrument), he left Tahiti in mid-July with Tupaia , his local guide. He cruised between Tetiaroa , Moorea , Huahine , Bora Bora , Raiatea and left the Society Islands on a south course in mid-August . At the beginning of October he sighted New Zealand - looking for a country that the Dutchman Abel Tasman had drawn on a nautical chart with little more than a few strokes of the pen over a hundred years earlier. Cook mapped the country in six months and discovered the Cook Strait , which he used to identify New Zealand as a double island .
On April 28, 1770, the crew of the HMS Endeavor were the first Europeans to set foot on the east coast of New Holland , as Australia was then called after its discoverers. They named the place Botany Bay because of the large number of new plants found. Eight days later, they sailed 3,200 km north along the coastline and continued to collect cartographic information. On June 11, the HMS Endeavor ran aground at Cape Tribulation on the Endeavor Reef , which is in the Great Barrier Reef , and almost got lost. During the ship's carpentry repairs, which took six weeks in all, Banks observed "giant rabbits," known by the natives as kangaroos . Cook then continued the voyage, found the Cook Passage through the Great Barrier Reef in mid-August and was finally able to sail freely north.
A week later he landed again and named the country New South Wales before sailing westward through the Endeavor Strait (the southernmost part of the Torres Strait), discovering that New Holland and New Guinea were separated, whereupon he found the east coast of New Holland took possession for England. On October 10th he reached Batavia , then Dutch East Indies , where he had the ship thoroughly overhauled for three weeks. During this time, seven of his men fell victim to diarrhea, and many more, including the astronomer Green, died on the way before the HMS Endeavor was able to stay for a month at Cape Town from mid-March 1771 , where it was repaired again.
On July 13, 1771, Cook set foot on England's soil for the first time after a three-year expedition, and on the 16th, the HMS Endeavor moored in Woolwich . On August 14th, the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Earl of Sandwich, introduced him to King George III. before who personally appointed him Commander (this corresponds to the current rank of frigate captain ).
Second South Sea voyage (1772–1775)
For lack of "literary quality" after Cook's return, his notes were not published. This did not happen until 1863. Instead, the version of the novelist and librettist John Hawkesworth was published, who used Cooks and Banks' diaries, but introduced gross inaccuracies and simple-minded views. Dalrymple, who just believed to have logically proven the Terra Australis in a two-volume work , criticized Cook on the basis of Hawkesworth's publication and relocated the southern continent postulated by him to areas "which Cook had insufficiently explored".
Given the high-quality maps provided by Cook, the Admiralty's “scientific” request for another expedition was not inconvenient, and while Dalrymple continued to hold on to his criticism of Cook, two new ships were found, expanded and renamed Resolution and Adventure . These were again freighters from Whitby . The ship of his first voyage, the Endeavor , however, was no longer usable.
Joseph Banks wanted to take part again, but demanded such extensive modifications for his working group and the intended collections that he was ultimately rejected after the seaworthiness of the resolution, which had been reduced by the increased superstructure, came to light on a test voyage. In his place, the Prussian Johann Reinhold Forster and his son Georg accompanied the expedition to collect astronomical, natural and geographical knowledge. In addition, the classicist painter William Hodges was there and two astronomers (one on each ship) who had to take care of the control of the new time keeper . Since Cook's measures against scurvy had been successful, further experiments were carried out on this path: In addition to malt and sauerkraut , carrot jelly and beer condensate were now also included.
The voyage began on July 13, 1772 in Plymouth . Cook set course for Cape Circoncision at about 54 ° South via Cape Town , where he stayed for three weeks from the end of October . This had been discovered thirty years earlier by Charles Bouvet , who had mistakenly taken it to be a promontory of the Terra Australis .
At the 51st latitude they met for the first time on icebergs. On January 3, 1773, it was about five degrees south of the mainland discovered by Bouvet. Not seeing Bouvet Island, Cook assumed that Bouvet had mistaken an iceberg for land. On January 17th, the expedition was the first to cross the Arctic Circle (66 ° 30 'S), but then had to turn around at 67 ° 15' south latitude due to the impenetrable ice and headed towards the northeast again.
On February 9, near the Kerguelen , contact with HMS Adventure was lost in thick fog . With a meeting point in New Zealand for such a case, Cook continued his voyage after the Resolution had unsuccessfully fired cannon shots for an afternoon, and headed even further south. He reached 61 ° 52 'S on February 24th, then had to stop further north and hit the southern tip of New Zealand on March 27th after 117 days at sea, where he allowed his people two weeks in Duskysund and had the ship overtaken. He had zigzagged around the 60th parallel without encountering a continent. Dalrymple's view was thus refuted.
When Cook visited the meeting point in Queen Charlotte Sound on May 18, where HMS Adventure had been waiting for six weeks, Cook had one serious and three minor cases of scurvy, while HMS Adventure had twenty severe cases. Her commanding officer hadn't taken the diet instructions too seriously. Goats brought along were abandoned and potatoes and beets were planted.
As the southern winter approached, Cook then moved towards the tropics. On August 2, it was near Pitcairn's position as indicated by Carteret , but the island was certainly not there. Twenty cases of scurvy had reappeared on the HMS Adventure . Cook set course for Tahiti, where he arrived on August 17th.
At the beginning of September he sailed on and arrived at the Tonga Islands at the beginning of October , where he was given a very friendly welcome, which led him to use the name Friendship Islands . As we know today, it was only by chance that his group was not massacred the night after one of the friendly meals. The islanders did not carry out their plan because of disputes among themselves at the last moment.
He turned back to New Zealand, which he sighted on October 21st. On October 30th in bad weather he lost contact with HMS Adventure and drove on along the coast. On November 25th, he left a message in a bottle for HMS Adventure at the agreed location , stating his intended route. Then he turned south and crossed the 67th parallel before commanding north again on December 24, 1773 because of the ice.
On January 11, 1774, he headed south again, to the horror of the crew that had already suspected they were on their way home. On January 30, he reached the southernmost point of the voyage, 71 ° 10 'S, 106 ° 54' W, and ended the advance knowing that there could be no bigger country there either. Only James Weddell was to come further south in 1823: at 74 ° 15 'S.
Cook ran northwards, unsuccessfully looked for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, referred to as the “continent” in 1563, and fell ill with biliary colic himself . Forster agreed to have his favorite dog slaughtered and prepared to cure the captain - with success (February 23). Cook reached Easter Island on March 11th , noted there about the drinking water "so bad, hardly worth being brought on board", and sailed through the Tuamotus and Melanesia again to Tahiti (April 22nd), the New Hebrides and again New Zealand, where he still discovered New Caledonia . When asked about the HMS Adventure , the New Zealand Maori avoided it. It was later discovered that a landing craft carrying eleven men had been attacked, the men killed and possibly consumed. The HMS Adventure left New Zealand at the end of 1773 and arrived in England in July 1774 sailing around Cape Horn. She was the first to circumnavigate the earth on an easterly course.
The resolution set sail on November 10th, passed Cape Horn, searched the South Atlantic and discovered the barren islands of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands for England . From Cape Town, the resolution directed the course to St. Helena and Ascension , looked for the imaginary "Matthew Island" that was marked on Portuguese maps of the 15th century, and was so close to Brazil that Cook decided to still use the position determined by Fernando de Noronha . They returned to England via the Azores on July 30, 1775. Of the 112 crew members, only four died en route (two from accidents, one from alcohol poisoning, one suicide), none of them from scurvy.
Ethnological objects from the South Seas collected during the expedition were distributed to museums in Europe; a large part of it ended up in the Cook-Forster collection of the Völkerkundliches Museum Göttingen .
Third South Sea voyage (1776–1779 / 1780) and death
After the second voyage, Cook was famous, had a secure, well-paid post at Greenwich Hospital (home for destitute naval veterans), and was appointed to the Royal Society in recognition of his anti-scurvy measures. "The resolution is in excellent condition and will soon be on its next journey - without me," he wrote after Whitby. The planned reason for the trip was the Northwest Passage . With freight from the Far East increasing significantly, a shorter and, in wartime, safer route in the north was not just a topic of conversation. It was known that the Dane Bering had been looking there as early as 1728, albeit without any details.
No one would have expected Cook to face another such burden: he offered himself and could expect not to be turned down. The flagship Polynesian Omai - who came with us from Huahine on the second voyage and became the beloved noble savage of London society - was to be brought back to his home country on this third voyage.
Important participants in the expedition were the painter John Webber and the future explorers George Vancouver and Heinrich Zimmermann . The latter published his travel memories - despite the British admiralty's ban - as "Heinrich Zimmermanns von Wissloch in the Palatinate, trip around the world, with Captain Cook". James Cook's Sailing Master of the Resolution was William Bligh , who later became the captain of the Bounty Expedition.
Cook's voyages of discovery had meanwhile also received international attention. In 1776 the naval officers of France, Spain, and the United States had been instructed by their respective governments to leave Captain Cook unscathed even when they were at war with England. In addition, he should be treated with the greatest possible respect, as if he were a civilian, since ultimately all countries benefited from Cook's discoveries in the form of sea maps.
On July 12th, Cook set sail in Plymouth, initially sailing to Cape Town via Tenerife. The second ship, the HMS Discovery under Captain Charles Clerke , joined the expedition there in November . At the end of December, Cook carried out the first survey work on the Kerguelen , which its discoverer in 1773 had also thought to be part of the southern continent and called France Australe , for about a week . Cook called them the Poverty Islands before turning to New Zealand.
He arrived in Tasmania's Adventure Bay in late January , where contact with the locals was compromised by Omai, who misinterpreted their advances and fired his weapon. After discovering some of the southern Cook Islands , the ships were in Queen Charlotte Sound in February , where they were repaired for almost two weeks. At the end of April he was in Nomuka ("Anamoka"), where Tasman had already stocked up. From there he sailed on to Tongatapu , where he was received and entertained and watched a solar eclipse on July 5th . The Tonga Islands thwarting he added after a visit to 'Eua course to the Society Islands , where he Tubuai , Tahiti visited in August and September systematically other islands.
On October 12th, Omai, in armor and on horseback, was brought with pomp to his home island of Huahine, where a house was then built for him. Grandmai's farewell to Cook was tearful, and Cook put bleak hunches about Grandma's future on paper: "Grandmai was the more respected the further he was from his homeland." had been given in large quantities and made "every man of some importance an enemy" during Cook's stay.
Cook discovered Kiritimati on December 24th and observed another solar eclipse on Eclipse Island on December 30th . On January 18, 1778, high islands appeared on the horizon, and on January 20, the landing on Kaua'i took place . During the ten-day stay that followed, the seafarers were astonished to discover the cultural and linguistic affinity with the distant Tahiti. Before he sailed to the northeast to explore Nova Albion (California), which was found by Francis Drake in 1579 , Cook named the group of islands after the First Lord of the Admiralty "Sandwich Islands" (now the Hawai'i Islands , not to be confused with the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic). It should have been Cook's last great discovery.
In early March he was off the coast of Oregon , and in late March he made a one-month layover in Resolution Cove , Hope Bay ( Nootka Sound ) to overtake the ships. He named it "King George Sound", named an island after Bligh and a peninsula after Clerke. Then the expedition moved northward along the coast, crossed the Aleutian Islands , pushed into the Bering Strait , until it failed on the pack ice at 70 ° 44 'N.
On a westerly course, Cook then reached Asia and reached Cape Deschnjow , the easternmost point of the Siberian coast, before returning to the Aleutian Islands. In Unalaska he met Russian fur traders, was able to copy maps of the Aleutian Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula , and received a letter of recommendation from a businessman named Izmailov to the governor of Kamchatka and Petropavlovsk . He sent mail to the Admiralty through Izmailov .
When the winter drove him from the high latitudes, Cook set course again on October 26, 1778 for the Sandwich Islands ( Hawai'i ), where he arrived in Kealakekua Bay on January 17, 1779, at the time of the Makahiki festival in honor of the god Lono . The kapu (inviolability, sacred place) otherwise imposed on the bay was suspended for the duration of the festival.
Whether he was mistaken for God himself has been a long-standing argument. What is certain is that his team soon taught the locals otherwise through their behavior. At the latest when a deceased sailor was buried in a place that only chiefs were entitled to, the attitude of the Hawaiians must have turned against their guests. Since Cook left two days later, on February 4, 1779, there was no more assault. However, when he returned on February 11 to replace a storm-damaged Resolution mast , relations were ruined. There were several thefts and attempts to take King (aliʻi nui) Kalaniʻōpuʻu hostage for it.
Cook had to pay with his life for it on February 14, 1779. He was stopped on the beach and harassed by a large crowd. After a first shot, fired from his double-barreled rifle, had no effect because it got stuck in an attacker's shield, he fired a bullet as a second shot, killing another. As he turned to give orders, he was stabbed from behind, fell face in the water, was dragged out and butchered. Four Marines and some Hawaiians also died in the event.
After the incident, Captain Charles Clerke took command of the expedition and resolution , and he handed Discovery over to Lieutenant John Gore . Smart enough to refrain from reprisals, Clerke received at least some body parts from Cook and the marines through the mediation of the priest and a son of the king, which lasted until February 20, when the bodies had been dismembered and distributed to several families . Some of them were also burned. This was considered a tradition by the Hawaiians to honor and bury a chief after his death. Cook was identified from a burn wound to his right hand that had occurred years earlier in New Zealand. A burial at sea was held for him in the bay on February 21 . The next day the ships left.
They sailed north to Petropavlovsk, where they were warmly received by the Russians. News of Cook's death reached England by land six months before the ships returned. His successor tried to continue the job, but failed at 70 ° 33 'N on the pack ice, which seemed even stronger than the previous year. On the way back to Petropavlovsk, Captain Clerke died at the age of 38. The Virginia-born Lieutenant Gore, who had already taken part in Cook's first Pacific voyage, led the expedition back to England, where it arrived on October 6, 1780.
Cook is described as a calm and very conscientious man. As an expedition leader he felt very committed to his respective mission, but his constant endeavors to avoid the outbreak of the scurvy that was common on sea voyages at the time also suggests that the well-being of all those involved was just as important to him as success.
When a large part of his crew and himself fell ill on his first expedition, he took care of those who were suffering and comforted them. After the 38 deaths on the first trip, he gave a lot of thought to how to reduce the number of people who died. There were only four dead on the second voyage, a remarkably small number for such a long journey at the time.
Cook married Elisabeth Batts in 1762 and had six children with her. The newborn son Joseph died in 1768, the four-year-old daughter in 1771, the newborn George in 1772 (during the second Pacific voyage), and none of the others grew old. Son Nathaniel died in a hurricane in 1781, Hugh died a student at Cambridge in 1793, and eldest son James (* 1763) drowned in 1794. Mrs. Cook received a handsome pension of £ 200 annually from the Admiralty and died in 1835 at the age of 94 years.
The importance of Cook lies primarily in his cartographic achievements and geographical discoveries - in the words of the historian John Beaglehole (1901–1971): “The greatest eulogy for Cook is the sea map of the Pacific.” On the other hand, Cook has pioneered prevention made a name for itself by scurvy (and as a source of ideas in the prevention of beriberi ). Cook insisted on foods such as carrot jelly or sugared lemons, which he wanted to use against the vitamin C deficiency disease scurvy, but which the government found too expensive and, for the most part, rejected by the seafarers. But finally he was able to prevail. Despite much resistance within the Royal Navy, Cook's experiences later led to the fact that the crews of the English war and merchant navy were obliged to follow a corresponding vitamin C-containing diet. James Cook's expeditions marked the beginning of colonization in the 19th century.
James Cook's estate is exhibited in the Weltmuseum Wien .
Portrait on coins and medals
Numerous modern coins and even more medals were issued in honor of Cook. A relatively early piece is the US commemorative half dollar, minted in 1928 on the 150th anniversary of James Cook's arrival in Hawaii. Cook medals are particularly collected in Australia.
Portrait of James Cook on the obverse of James Berry's silver medal for the 200th anniversary of the rediscovery of New Zealand in 1969
Among others are named after James Cook:
- Cook Town ( Queensland )
- James Cook University ( Cairns and Townsville )
- Cook Island, tiny island in the Cook Island Aquatic Reserve , New South Wales
- Cook County, New South Wales
- Electoral District of Cook, Queensland
- Australian Electoral Division of Cook, New South Wales
- Cooks River, Sydney
- Captain James Cook Memorial , Canberra
- Cook Street
- Cook Islands ( Polynesia )
- Aoraki / Mount Cook
- James Cook Observatory
- Cook River, South Island
- Cook Island , Island of the South Sandwich Islands ;
- James Cook University Hospital in Middlesbrough
- Royal Research Ship RRS James Cook
- Cook Glacier, South Georgia
- Cook Bay (Tahiti)
- Cook Glacier , Kerguelen
- Cook Inlet , Alaska Strait
- Mount Cook , Alaska and Canada
- The two space shuttles Endeavor and Discovery , named after Cook's first ( HMS Endeavor ) and last ship ( HMS Discovery )
- Cook Landing Site (Waimea, Hawai'i), National Memorial
- Captain Cook, Hawaii County
- Cook Mountains , Antarctica
- (3061) Cook , a Main Belt asteroid
- Cook , a moon crater
- James Cook Real Overseas Rum (LIDL)
- James-Cook-Strasse in Berlin-Spandau
- Westfalia James Cook, a motorhome built on a Mercedes-Benz
- The plant genera Captaincookia N.Hallé from the family of the redness plants (Rubiaceae) and Cookia Sonn. from the diamond family (Rutaceae) are named after him.
- Gundolf Krüger: Earliest cultural documents from Polynesia: The Göttingen Cook / Forster Collection. In: Gundolf Krüger, Ulrich Menter, Jutta Steffen-Schrade (eds.): TABU ?! Hidden Powers - Secret Knowledge. Imhof Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-86568-864-4 , pp. 128-131.
- Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany (ed.): James Cook and the discovery of the South Seas , Hirmer Verlag (book trade edition) 2009, ISBN 978-3-7774-2121-6 , Thames & Hudson (English edition) 2009, ISBN 978- 0-500-51516-7 .
- James Cook, Georg Forster: The search for the south country. The Diaries of Cook's Second Voyage . traveldiary history, SDS Verlag, Hamburg / Norderstedt 2008, ISBN 978-3-935959-04-9 .
- Tony Horwitz : Cook - The Discovery of an Explorer. Marebuchverlag, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-936384-89-4 .
- Christian Graf von Krockow : The great dream of education - In the footsteps of the great explorers James Cook and Georg Forster. List Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-471-79467-0 .
- Peter Aughton: At the mercy of the wind - James Cook and the adventurous search for Australia. Diana Verlag, Munich / Zurich 2001, ISBN 3-8284-5037-7 ; also published under Reader's Digest, Zurich a. a. 2003.
- Otto Emersleben : James Cook. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-499-50569-X .
- Brigitta Hauser-Schäublin, Gundolf Krüger (Hrsg.): James Cook, Gifts and Treasures from the South Seas - The Göttingen Cook / Forster Collection. Prestel Verlag, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-7913-1868-3 . (German-English edition)
- Marshall Sahlins: The Death of Captain Cook. History as Metaphor and Myth as Reality in the Early History of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Verlag Klaus Wagenbach, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-8031-3532-X .
- Andrew Kippis: The Life of Captain James Cook. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, ISBN 978-1-108-04401-1 .
- Frank McLynn: Captain Cook. Master of the Seas. Yale Univ. Press, New Haven et al. a. 2011, ISBN 978-0-300-11421-8 .
- Richard Alexander Hough: Captain James Cook: A Biography. WW Norton, New York 1997, ISBN 978-0-393-31519-6 .
- Gananath Obeyesekere : The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1992
- A. Grenfell Price (Ed.), Captain James Cook: Discovery Voyages in the Pacific. The log books of the journeys from 1768 to 1779. Edition Erdmann, Stuttgart / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-86503-024-6 .
- Georg Forster: Journey around the world with Captain Cook. Lamuv Verlag, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-88977-619-1 .
- Heinrich Zimmermann : Heinrich Zimmermann's trip around the world with Capitain Cook. Patmos publishing house, Düsseldorf 2001, ISBN 3-491-96017-7 .
- Georg Forster, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg : Cook the discoverer - writings about James Cook. Verlag Philipp Reclam jun., Leipzig 1983.
- James Cook, Georg Forster: Captain Jacob Cook's third voyage of discovery to the South Seas and to the North Pole. 5 volumes, Berlin 1789. ( Digital copies in the digital library Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
- History of voyages to the South Seas , made by Commodore Byron, Capitain Carteret, Capitain Wallis and Capit. Cook in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavor have been run after each other. described by Hawkesworth, 3 parts in one volume, Johann Georg Fleischer, Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1775, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 6: 1-11944
Movies / television
In 1971, diving pioneer Hans Hass shot the film Our Journey with Captain Cook for Süddeutsche Fernsehen in Stuttgart. Exactly 200 years after James Cook, he followed his journey to Cape York at the original locations, including under water.
In 1987 James Cook's travels were filmed in a German-Australian co-production under the title Wind und Sterne .
The two-part documentary Captain Cook: Seafarers and Explorers (Australia / Canada 2007) was broadcast by Arte on March 22nd and 23rd, 2008.
- Literature by and about James Cook in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about James Cook in the German Digital Library
- Newspaper article about James Cook in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- James Cook: Celebrated North Country Explorer (English)
- Captain Cook Society Homepage (English)
- Map of Cook's Endeavor Voyage (27 July 1768 to 13 July 1771) Interactive map of his first Pacific voyage
- Dirk Schäfer: Discovery of an Explorer. The first European set foot on Australian soil 400 years ago - his name was not James Cook. Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 2, 2010, accessed on November 13, 2017 .
- James Cook and the discovery of the South Seas. Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany, August 28, 2009 to February 28, 2010
- World Museum Vienna
- Captain Cook's Family Tree. (No longer available online.) (The Captain Cook Society) August 1997, archived from the original July 2, 2011 ; accessed on August 15, 2012 .
- Zora del Buono : Good bye, Whitby. In: mare No. 55, Apr 2006. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012 ; Retrieved August 15, 2012 .
- Roland Borgards, Almuth Hammer, Christiane Holm (eds.): Calendar of small innovations. Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 2006, ISBN 3-8260-3364-7 , p. 13; Retrieved August 25, 2011.
- James Cook: Captain Cook's Journal: First Voyage Round the World. ISBN 978-1-60620-953-0 , p. 378 (English), accessed June 11, 2011.
- Cook's notes; Recalculated by JC Beaglehole 122 ( Memento of the original from October 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Paul Capper: The Third Voyage (1776-1780). first published as Paul Capper: Cook Chronology - Part 22 (was 21) Third Voyage 1777 4Apr -1778 1May. In: Cook's Log. 1995, vol. 18, No. 3, p. 1187. See Cook's Log. To index. Volume 1 Number 1 to Volume 23 Number 4, 1976 to 2000 (PDF; 170 kB); see also 225 Years Ago: January - March 1778
- The Third Voyage (1776-1780)
- Makahiki in Hawaiian Dictionaries
- Gananath Obeyesekere: The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific , Princeton University Press 1997, p 51
- The Return of the Royal Cloak & Helmet of Kalaniʻōpuʻu
- Kalani'ōpu'u in Hawaiian Dictionaries
- William De Witt Alexander: A brief history of the Hawaiian people . American Book Co., 1891, pp. 113 ( archive.org ).
- Cf. February 14, 1779 in Paul Capper: The Third Voyage (1776–1780)
- G. Obeyesekere: The Apotheosis of Captain Cook . 1997, p. 89.
- Taryn Smee : "Limeys" - The Story Behind the slang term Given to the British . In: The Vintage News . Timera Inc , August 24, 2018, accessed February 14, 2019 .
- Urs Hafner : Whether you live in Tahiti or in Europe: There are no innate differences between people . In: NZZ . Aktiengesellschaft for the Neue Zürcher Zeitung , June 9, 2020, accessed on June 14, 2020 .
- Design: Juliette May Fraser, Honolulu. Obverse: Half-length portrait of James Cook facing left. Back: Kamehameha I. Edition: 10,008 pieces.
- Christopher Eimer: The Pingo Family & Medal Making in 18th-Century Britain . British Art Medal Trust, London 1998, pp. 65 .
- Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - Extended Edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
- Catalog of the exhibition from August 28, 2009 to February 28, 2010, Bonn; awarded the International Tribal Art Book Prize 2010
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||English navigator and explorer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 7, 1728|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Marton (Middlesbrough) , Middlesbrough|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 14, 1779|
|Place of death||Hawaii (island) , USA|