|area||1 042 km²|
179 inhabitants / km²
Tahiti , older names Otahaiti , Otaheiti , Otaheite, King George Island , Isla de Amat or Sagittaria , is an island in the South Pacific that politically belongs to the French overseas territory of French Polynesia . It has an area of 1042 km² and a population of 186,909 (as of 2012). The capital and largest city of the island is Papeete . Tahiti is in the UTC − 10 time zone .
Tahiti is geographically part of the archipelago of the Society Islands ( French : Îles de la Société ), more precisely to the islands over the wind ( French : Îles du Vent ). It is the largest and most populous island in the archipelago. Tahiti is a double island of Tahiti Nui (Greater Tahiti) and the smaller and more sparsely populated Tahiti Iti (Little Tahiti), which are connected by the isthmus of Taravao.
The landscape is characterized by steep peaks, the highest of which, Mont Orohena on Tahiti Nui, rises 2241 m. The highest point on Tahiti Iti is Mont Ronui with 1332 meters. Running waters have carved deep valleys, which are bordered by rugged rock ridges. The uninhabited interior of the island is densely overgrown with tropical vegetation and is only accessible in places by unpaved roads and footpaths. The settlements are located in the narrow coastal strip, the north and west of Tahiti are most densely populated.
Contrary to popular belief, Tahiti is by no means surrounded by white beaches. The island has relatively few natural beaches, which consist mainly of black, basaltic sand and are mainly distributed along the west coast. The well-tended, white hotel beaches are usually artificially created.
Tahiti consists of two extinct volcanoes that arose from a hot spot under the Pacific plate . The island moves with the Pacific plate at about 12.5 cm per year in a northwest direction. The two volcanoes formed the island parts Tahiti Nui and Tahiti Iti, they show the shape of an eight from the air. Tahiti is an atoll whose relatively stable central island is sinking at a rate of only 0.25 mm per year.
The two parts of the island were found to be between 0.5 and 2 million years old, with Tahiti Iti being significantly younger than Tahiti Nui. The reef formation of the geologically relatively young atoll has not yet progressed, the fringing reef around the island is not yet completely closed.
The climate is tropical and humid. The annual average temperature is 26 ° C, whereby the individual months differ only insignificantly. The annual mean rainfall is 1761 mm (for comparison: Cologne 797 mm). The rainiest months are December and January with more than 300mm of rain. As usual in the tropics, the rains are heavy and short-lived. The months of August and September are rather dry with an average of less than 50 mm of rain.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Tahiti
The vegetation of French Polynesia is characterized by two peculiarities: a high proportion of endemic plants and a relative poverty of species. The isolated location of the islands and the fact that they were never connected to a continental land mass explains the high number of endemic plants. In the South Pacific, the plants spread from west to east. This led to the islands' biodiversity decreasing towards the east. The islands of New Guinea and New Caledonia in the west have a much higher number of species than Tahiti. In contrast, the Pitcairn Islands and Easter Island in the far east of the Pacific are significantly poorer in species .
The mountainous parts of Tahiti are covered with a lush, mostly natural mountain rainforest. Ferns , including numerous endemic species, grow in the constantly humid and shady valleys . The ferns make up around 30% of the plants growing in Polynesia.
Traditionally, the Polynesians cultivated numerous flowering plants for the decoration of their festivals and religious ceremonies, including the hibiscus , the tiare ( Gardenia tahitensis ) , from which the Monoi oil or Monoi Tiare de Tahiti is made, the bougainvillea and the fragrant jasmine , which one also uses can still be found in every home garden today.
In the meantime, humans have decisively changed the flora on the densely populated Tahiti. Even the first Polynesian settlers originally imported non-native crops such as taro . In order to create the terraced fields for the wet field cultivation of the taro (similar to the rice field in Asia), the landscape was already extensively redesigned in protohistorical times.
The Europeans brought more plants to Tahiti, some of which have been released into the wild and have become a problem for the native flora. One example is the guava , which originally came from South America . The plant was introduced because of its tasty fruits and found the best growing conditions in Tahiti. In the meantime, guava bushes overgrow large areas of inaccessible island areas and threaten indigenous plant communities .
Tropical fruits are mainly grown for their own needs, while Tahitian vanilla , introduced by the French in the mid-19th century , is exported and is in great demand because of its excellent quality.
The larger animals of Polynesia were all introduced by humans. The first settlers brought dogs, pigs, chickens and the Pacific rat with them as food animals; the Europeans brought in goats, cows, sheep and horses. Indigenous land animals are only insects, crabs, snails and lizards.
Endemic or indigenous terrestrial bird species such as the red -beaked rail , the Tahitian parakeet or the Tahitian dove were extinct a few years after the arrival of Europeans in Tahiti. Nowadays there are still the very rare Tahitian monarch ( Pomarea nigra ), the purple-capped fruit pigeon ( Ptilinopus purpuratus ), the endangered Tahitian fruit pigeon ( Ducula aurorae ) and the Tahitiliest ( Todiramphus veneratus ).
There are no dangerous animals on Tahiti, especially no snakes. Sand fleas on the beach, a poisonous species of centipede from the Scolopender family, and the mosquitoes that are present everywhere in the interior are unpleasant .
The marine fauna of the coral reef is very species-rich. In addition to hundreds of different types of coral fish can divers and snorkelers numerous mollusks , octopuses , echinoderms and crustaceans watching the tropical sea. Behind the reef there are sharks , rays , swordfish , sea turtles and, especially from August to November, the occasional whale .
Tahiti was - like the other Society Islands - around 200 BC. Populated from Tonga and Samoa . There are hardly any traces of the first settlers. Since natural caves and rock overhangs, unlike in the Marquesas , for example , are largely absent on Tahiti, the American anthropologist Kenneth P. Emory suspected that the first inhabitants lived in small settlements near the beach on the coastal plain. Favored by the geography of the island with its closed valleys opening towards the sea, independent tribal principalities soon developed as the population grew , which in turn split up into individual clans . The tribal society was strictly hierarchical and layered on several social levels.
There were essentially three sets:
- the nobility, in Polynesian ari'i or ariki , at the head of society. They made up the big landowners. At the top were the ariki rahi (German: the great ariki), the sovereigns who were recruited from the old noble families. In Tahiti there were eight of them, each headed a tribe. These families also provided the highest priests, usually later sons.
- the free, Polynesian raatira , that were essentially the small landowners, craftsmen, boat builders, tattooists and artists. During the war they were the closest followers of the Ariki. The boundaries between the Raatira and the lowest levels of the small nobility were fluid.
- the serfs , Polynesian manahune , who tilled the fields depending on the landlords. Most of the products had to be taken away.
A special role within the Polynesian society of Tahiti was taken by the secret society of the Arioi , which was of religious as well as power political importance, the latter through representation and splendor to the glory of the ruling houses.
At the time of the culture bloom, i.e. before the European discovery, Tahiti probably had 35,000 inhabitants. A sophisticated system of land use was created to feed the population, and the artfully irrigated and drained cultivation terraces for taro are still archaeologically verifiable in places today. Other important crops were the breadfruit , the coconut palm and the Tahitian chestnut ( Inocarpus fagifer from the Fabaceae family ).
In contrast to its current importance, Tahiti was not the political and religious center of the Society Islands before the European occupation . This role fell to Raiatea , the mythical birthplace of the god of war Oro , where the Marae Taputapuatea, the holiest of all cult platforms in Polynesia, also stood.
The balance of power on the islands of society was largely balanced until the Europeans intervened. In Tahiti, initially no tribe managed to achieve supremacy.
It has not been conclusively clarified which Europeans can be considered the “discoverers” of Tahiti. The Portuguese Pedro Fernández de Quirós sighted an inhabited island on February 10, 1606, which he called Sagittaria and which, according to some chroniclers, may have been Tahiti. However, there is no confirmation of this. Today the Englishman Samuel Wallis is considered to be the first European to set foot in Tahiti on June 21, 1767. He named the island King George Island . The following year, on April 6, 1768, the Frenchman Louis Antoine de Bougainville landed , stayed for nine days and euphorically referred to Tahiti as “La Nouvelle Cythère” (the new Kythira ; the island of love of Aphrodite ).
The visits of James Cook in particular have remained in the minds of Europeans . On April 13, 1769, he anchored his ship Endeavor in Matavai Bay , about 10 km north of today's Papeete. He was given the task of observing the transit of Venus , and for this purpose he set up an observatory . Today the Pointe Vénus lighthouse is located here. The botanist Joseph Banks traveled with Cook, who carried out extensive botanical studies during the three-month stay. The knowledge he gained led to the fateful voyage of the Bounty to Tahiti in 1787, with which the British Admiralty commissioned William Bligh .
On November 12, 1772, the Spanish frigate El Águila anchored in the Baie de Tautira on Tahiti Iti. Your captain Domingo de Boenechea had the order of Manuel d'Amat i de Junyent (1704–1782, governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru) to annex Tahiti for Spain. He named the island Isla de Amat after his client . However, the annexation had no political aftermath.
On August 17, 1773, James Cook returned to Tahiti. He was accompanied by the two scientifically educated Germans Johann Reinhold Forster and Georg Forster . The reports of the early explorers determined the image of the Europeans of the South Seas for a long time (and partly still today) .
"An Arcadia whose kings we will be"
Bougainville's romantic travelogue Voyage autour du monde and Georg Forster's travelogue A Voyage Round The World , published in 1777, seemed to confirm Jean-Jacques Rousseau's image of the “noble savage” that the Europeans believed they had found in Tahiti. In the context of turning to the exotic, this also led to imitations of “Tahitian” culture in Europe.
Cook's third visit to Tahiti lasted from mid-August to September 1777. At the invitation of a chief, he took part in a religious ceremony at a marae, which ended in a human sacrifice.
The European ships usually headed for Matavai Bay. The bay - Wallis forwardly named it "Royal Bay" - belonged to the tribal principality of Pare , whose Ariki was Pomaré I. He was therefore regarded by the Europeans as the "king" of the entire island, although he was only one of eight independent tribal princes. Since it was also useful for the European visitors to have only one contact person, they supported the Pomaré dynasty in their tribal rivalries also militarily, so that around 1780 Pomaré I was able to subjugate the entire island to his rule. Pomaré's wars of conquest and the diseases brought in by the Europeans led to a dramatic decline in population. In 1804, missionaries estimated Tahiti's population to be only 6,000.
In 1796, the London Missionary Society (LMS) decided to equip the Duff ship under the command of Captain James Wilson to send missionaries to Tahiti, Tonga, the Marquesas, Hawaii and Palau . There were 30 missionaries on board, four of whom were ordained ministers. A report sent eight years later to the headquarters of the Society describes the successes of civilization and the mission of the "natives" of Tahiti as rather minor.
Around 1800 whalers began to discover Tahiti as a port of call during their often multi-year fishing trips in the Pacific Ocean. Founded by the missionary William Crook in 1818, Papeete became the main supply port for whaling ships in the Southeast Pacific. In 1801 the Royal Navy sent the brig Porpoise from Port Jackson to Tahiti to trade cured pork for the colony of New South Wales . That was the start of a lucrative trade in salt meat between Australia and Tahiti that had lasted around 30 years .
In the meantime, runaway sailors, whalers, traders and adventurers, so-called beachcombers, had settled on the island and sold alcohol and firearms to the residents. This gave the traditional tribal wars a new and particularly disastrous quality, which led to a further decline in population.
From 1803 Pomaré II continued the wars to consolidate his rule, but was defeated in 1808 and fled to Moorea. As a result, the mission station had to be abandoned. In 1811 Pomaré II returned to Tahiti - and with him the missionaries. He was baptized in 1812 and other leading Ariki converted to Christianity in the years that followed. However, there was still resistance to the introduction of Christianity. The opponents of Pomaré II, the adherents of the old religion, gathered around Opuhara, the Ariki of Papara . In November 1815 the battle of Feipi took place. The warriors of Pomaré had received firearms from the Europeans and were victorious. Opuhara fell on November 12, 1815. This made Pomaré II the undisputed ruler of the entire island. In 1819 he introduced a catalog of penalties written by the missionaries, which provided for drastic penalties for all practices that were contrary to Christian teaching. For example, “ blasphemy , idolatry, and a return to idolatry” were subject to the death penalty, and “fornication (ie sexual relations outside marriage) committed, concealed or hidden from missionaries” was subject to several years of forced labor. In fact, the LMS missionaries ruled the island. The missionary George Pritchard (1796-1883) served as British consul.
In 1821 Pomaré II died. His son Teriitaria, still in infancy, officiated as Pomaré III. only six years. In the absence of a male heir to the throne, the sister of Pomaré III ruled from 1827. as Queen Pomaré Vahine IV. She worked closely with the LMS missionaries.
On the Gambier Islands , the French Catholic mission was established under the order of "Pères et religieuses des Sacrés-Cœurs de Picpus" (short: Picpusiens). They watched the Protestant mission in Tahiti with suspicion and concern. In 1836 the French missionaries Laval and Caret landed on Tahiti to preach the Catholic faith. Not unsuccessful, George Pritchard ordered their expulsion. The Belgian merchant Jacques-Antoine Moerenhout , French consul in Tahiti, intervened in the affair of the two missionaries. In 1838 a French frigate arrived in Papeete and demanded compensation and a salute for the French flag. The queen gave in.
On September 10, 1839, Charles Wilkes reached Tahiti as part of the United States Exploring Expedition . He set up his portable observatories at Pointe Vénus in memory of James Cook. The scientists accompanying him carried out anthropological, ethnological and botanical studies in particular. The diary of Chief Officer William Reynolds gives us an interesting indication of the population's relationship to Christianity:
- "The only evidence of religion that I could discover among the natives was the observance of outward forms and the fear of the missionaries".
In 1842 there was another French intervention, whose commander Abel Aubert Dupetit-Thouars announced the provisional French protectorate on September 9, 1842 . He made clever use of the temporary absence of the British consul Pritchard. The French consul Moerenhout had meanwhile been able to persuade four local chiefs to sign a petition demanding French protection for Tahiti. In November 1843, the protectorate was contractually confirmed by agreements between Du Petit-Touars and Queen Pomaré IV, and in 1844 it was also formally recognized by France.
Her son Pomaré V. abdicated on June 29, 1880. As a result, the entire archipelago fell to France and officially became a colony of France on December 30th of that year . The Society Islands became "Établissements français de l'Océanie" (EFO), a colony of the Republic of France. Pomaré V was the last king of Tahiti; he died in 1891 as a result of his drunkenness.
The writer Herman Melville was imprisoned in September 1842 in Papeete along with ten other crew members of the Australian whaler Lucy Ann for revolt and refusal of duty . But he managed to escape from prison to the neighboring island of Moorea. He later processed these experiences in the novel Omoo .
The painter Paul Gauguin lived in Tahiti from 1891 to 1893 . During this time, numerous paintings were created that further strengthened the image of the “South Seas Paradise” in Europe. In 1895 he returned to Tahiti. Disagreements arose with the colonial administration and the missionaries, and Gauguin had to move to Atuona on the island of Hiva Oa in 1901 , where he died in 1903.
Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War , the German armored cruisers SMS Scharnhorst and SMS Gneisenau appeared in front of Papeete on September 22, 1914 to pick up coal. When they were refused and the French commander opened fire with a coastal battery, the naval artillery shelled Papeete, destroyed some houses and sank the patrol boat Zelée and the German cargo ship SS Walküre , a French prize . During the war the legendary "sea devil" Felix Graf von Luckner visited Tahiti several times with his auxiliary cruiser Seeadler . One of the ship's cannons is now in a small park in front of the Papeete post office.
The course of the Second World War confronted the French colonies in the Pacific with the question of whether they should submit to the Vichy regime or support Free France under General Charles de Gaulle . The French and British residences of the New Hebrides voted very quickly for Free France, but the governors of the other French colonies tried to delay a decision with excuses. Princess Teri'inui-o-Tahiti (March 1879 - October 29, 1961) sympathized with de Gaulle. The residents of Tahiti solved the problem in September 1940 with a coup against the governor and set up a free French administration.
On October 23, 1987, triggered by a dock workers' strike, riots broke out in some suburbs of Papeete when unemployed young people rebelled against the French administration because of their lack of prospects and poor educational and professional opportunities.
When French President Jacques Chirac ordered the resumption of nuclear weapons tests in the Tuamotu Archipelago and on September 5, 1995 the first bomb in a new series of tests detonated under the Mururoa Atoll, unrest broke out in Papeete. Following an initially peaceful demonstration, demonstrators blocked Tahiti Faa'a International Airport and devastated the airport building. Subsequently, there was numerous property damage and arson in downtown Papeete. Specially flown in forces of the National Gendarmerie were able to end the unrest quickly. The French administration temporarily issued an exit ban.
Politics, administration and the population
Politically, Tahiti is now part of French Polynesia. The island is French overseas territory and is therefore part of the EU . It is administered by a subdivision (Subdivision administrative des Îles du Vent) of the High Commission of French Polynesia (Haut-commissariat de la République en Polynésie française) based in Papeete.
Tahiti is politically divided into twelve independent municipalities (Communes des Îles du Vent) :
|Residents||Sub-municipalities (Communes associées)|
|Arue||16||9,537||also manages the island of Tetiaroa|
|Hitia'a O Te Ra||218.2||9,585||Hitiaa, Mahaena, Papenoo and Tiarei|
|Taiarapu-Est||216||12,253||Afaahiti, Faaone, Pueu, Tautira with the island of Mehetia|
|Taiarapu-Ouest||104||7,639||Teahupoo, Toahotu and Vairao|
|Teva I Uta||120||9,398||Mataiea and Papeari|
The largest city is Papeete in the northwest of Tahiti Nui, also the administrative seat of French Polynesia, with 25,769 inhabitants. There are also two other municipalities on Tahiti with over 20,000 inhabitants: Faa'a and Punaauia.
The island is home to about 70% of the total population of French Polynesia. This has to do with their central role in politics and business. The standard of living is the highest in the region. The population is made up of 83% Polynesians, 11% Europeans, 4% Asians and 2% mixed race.
See main article → Tahitian Language
Tahitian, also Tahitian (own names Reo Mā'ohi and Reo Tahiti), is a Polynesian language that is still spoken by around 150,000 people in French Polynesia. The majority of them live in the Society Islands, especially Tahiti.
The city of Papeete offers no special attractions. The market hall is interesting, however, on the ground floor of which the locals buy their daily food needs. The tourist will find a wide range of souvenirs on the first floor . On Boulevard Pomaré, in the business center, is Robert Wan's Pearl Museum, which is more of a sales show, but gives a good overview of the origins and cultivation of Tahitian pearls , from the inception of the nucleus to years of cultivation and harvest.
Matavai Bay, about 10 km from Papeete and the preferred landing stage for early European visitors, is overlooked by a lighthouse built in 1867. There are memorial stones for James Cook and the missionaries of the London Missionary Society as well as a public beach nearby.
The botanical garden of Papeari with a rich population of tropical flowering plants and old trees was founded by the American Harrison Smith. Smith was actually a professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an avowed pacifist and nature lover who had settled in Tahiti after the First World War. Beginning in 1919, he acquired more and more land to protect Tahiti's plants there. The Botanical Garden also includes the Gauguin Museum, which shows the life of Gauguin in the South Pacific using historical photos and display boards. However, the museum only contains reproductions of his paintings.
The Fa'arumai waterfall is surrounded by thick tropical vegetation. From here two more waterfalls can be reached on a footpath.
The Marae Mahaiatea was once the largest cult platform in Tahiti, measuring around 90 × 30 meters. It was laid out in the manner of a step pyramid in eleven terraces and about 15 meters high. Today only remnants of the complex can be seen. The marae in the Arahurahu valley, however, has been restored in an exemplary manner. The large stone statues are still there. Every year the Heiva Festival is held here, where traditional sports competitions, dances and music are performed.
The Musée de Tahiti et des Îles , which opened in 1974 in the town of Punaauia, is a natural, ethnological and historical museum. In addition to information on the geology and geography of Tahiti, monumental stone statues of Tahiti, the Marquesas and Raivavae are on display, as well as weapons, ritual objects and handicrafts.
Near Arue, about 3 miles east of Papeete, is the home of the writer James Norman Hall , who spent several years in Tahiti and died there in 1951. His novel Mutiny on the Bounty ( Mutiny on the Bounty ) , co-author was Charles Bernard Nordhoff , has become world famous and was the basis for several films. The house, a detailed reconstruction, is now a public museum. Most of the furnishings belonging to Norman Hall are originals. The writer's grave lies in the hills above his house.
Economy and Infrastructure
The most important economic factor is now tourism. Tahiti is, next to Bora Bora , the most touristically developed island of Polynesia. There are hotels in all price ranges, but the price level is extremely high.
The second economic mainstay is the pearl trade . There are no pearl farms off the island itself, but Tahiti has become the center of the black pearl trade in recent years. This goes so far that black pearls are now offered as " Tahitian pearls ", although they actually come from the Austral , Society and Marquesas Islands as well as the Tuamotu Archipelago .
With the increasing popularity of alternative cosmetics and healing arts, two other products from Tahiti are gaining in importance: Monoi oil , a traditional care product made from natural ingredients, and the juice of the Noni fruit, which is said to have health-promoting properties.
Tahiti is the economic hub for French Polynesia. The port and airport act as distributors for the other islands in the region. In the north of Tahiti Nui, not far from the city of Papeete, there is the very large Aéroport international Tahiti Faa'a . The large harbor basin can also accommodate larger cargo and passenger ships. The pier for cruise ships is located directly on Boulevard Pomaré near the center of Papeete.
Tahiti Nui is surrounded by a trunk road, in the greater Papeete area and around the airport even with several lanes . Tahiti Iti can be reached via paved roads as far as Teahupoo in the south and Tautira in the north.
- Institut Statistique de Polynésie Française (ISPF): Recensement de la population 2012
- National Geographic Map: The earth's fractured surface , Washington, DC, supplement to the April 1995 issue.
- Valérie Clouard & Alain Bonneville: Ages of seamounts, islands and plateaus on the Pacific plate. In: Foulger, GR, Natland, JH, Presnall, DC, and Anderson, DL, (Eds.): Plates, plumes, and paradigms, Geological Society of America Special Paper No. 388 ( PDF )
- Climate in Tahiti. In: Climate diagrams worldwide. Retrieved October 8, 2012 .
- Endemic Bird Areas in French Polynesia. Société d'Ornithologie de Polynésie, archived from the original on October 20, 2012 ; accessed on December 23, 2015 .
- Patrick Vinton Kirch: On the Road of the Winds - An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands Before European Contact. University of California Press, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London 2002, ISBN 0-520-23461-8 , pp. 230-231.
- Kenneth P. Emory: Report on Bishop Museum Archaeological Expedition to the Society Islands in 1960 and 1961. In: The Journal of the Polynesian Society , Vol. 71, No. 1, Wellington, 1962, p. 119.
- Wilhelm Emil Mühlmann: Arioi and Mamaia. An ethnological, religious-sociological and historical study of Polynesian cult alliances (= studies on cultural studies . 14th vol.). F. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1955.
- Douglas L. Oliver: Ancient Tahitian Society. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1974.
- James Burney: A Chronological History of the Voyages or Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean , Vol. 5, G. & W. Nicol, London 1817, p. 222.
- J. Hawkesworth: History of sea voyages and discoveries in the southern seas, German translation by JF Schiller, Haude & Spener, Berlin 1774.
- Bolton Glanville Corney: The Quest and Occupation of Tahiti by Emissaries of Spain during the years 1772–1776. Hakluyt Society, London 1913
- Georg Forster: Reise um die Welt , published in 2007 as an illustrated reprint by Eichborn Verlag, ISBN 978-3-8218-6203-3 .
- Brigitta Werner: Otahitische Hütten und Kabinette - A contribution to exoticism in the visual arts of the 18th century . In: Die Gartenkunst 4 (2/1992), pp. 289–306.
- Kenneth Scott Latourette: A History of the Expansion of Christianity. Vol. 5, Eyre & Spottiswoode, New York 1943, p. 202.
- Steven Roger Fischer: A History of the Pacific Islands. Palgrave, New York 2002, ISBN 0-333-94976-5
- Wilhelm Emil Mühlmann: Arioi and Mamaia. An ethnological, sociological and historical study of Polynesian cult associations. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden 1955, p. 237.
- Karl R. Wernhart, Effects of civilization activities and missionary work in the cultures of the autochthons using the example of the Society Islands. In: Viennese contributions to the history of the modern age, Volume 7, Europeanization of the Earth ?, Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-486-50531-9 , pp. 145-146.
- Contemporary sources: Augsburgische Ordinari Postzeitung. April 8, 1824 ; Charles Williams: The Missionary Gazetteer. London 1828, pp. 451-457 ; ; Charles Wilkes: Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition. Volume 1, 1852, p. 138
- Quotation from: Nathaniel Philbrick : Demons of the Sea - The dramatic expedition to open up the Pacific and the Antarctic (1838–1842). Karl Blessing Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-89667-182-0 , p. 165.
- Franz W. Jerusalem: Principles of French colonial law . J. Guttentag Verlagsbuchhandlung GmbH, Berlin 1909, p. 84 .
- Hershel Parker: Herman Melville - A Biography, Volume 1, 1819-1851, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1996, ISBN 978-0-8018-8185-5 , p. 225
- Katherine Routledge : The Mystery of Easter Island. Sifton, Praed and Co., London 1919
- The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge-New York-Melbourne 1997, p. 292.
- GEO-Special Südsee, Hamburg 1990, p. 144.