Hawaii


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Hawaii
Flag of Hawaii.svg Seal of the State of Hawaii, svg
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Capital: Honolulu
State motto: Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono ( The life of the land is preserved by righteousness; see also Seal of Hawaii )
Official language : English and Hawaiian
Surface: 28,311 (of which 16,625 land area) km²
Residents: 1,427,538 (2017 estimated) (48 / km²)
Member since: August 21, 1959
Time zone: UTC − 10 ( HAST )
The highest point: 4205 m ( Mauna Kea )
Average Height: 925 m
Deepest point: 0 m ( Pacific Ocean )
Governor : David Ige ( D )
Post  / Office /  ISO : HI / HI / US-HI
Hawaii map
Hawaii map
Polynesian Triangle (1: Hawaii Islands)
Polynesian Triangle (1: Hawaii Islands)
Map of the entire Hawaiian island chain, including the northwestern islands
Map of the entire Hawaiian island chain, including the northwestern islands
Topographic map of the eight largest islands
Topographic map of the eight largest islands
Satellite image of the eight largest islands
Satellite image of the eight largest islands

Hawaii ([ haˈva͜ii ], English [ həˈwɑːiː ], Hawaiian Hawaiʻi or Mokupuni o Hawaiʻi ) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean and, since 1959, the 50th state in the United States . It is named after the largest island in the archipelago , which is unofficially called the Big Island . The archipelago belongs to the Polynesian cultural area , forms the northern tip of the so-called Polynesian triangle and is counted among the South Sea islands. They were also called the Sandwich Islands in the past. The nickname of the US state Hawaii is Aloha State (" Aloha State").

Hawaii's diverse landscapes, year-round warm climate, and many public beaches make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and geologists. Due to its location in the middle of the Pacific, Hawaii has both East Asian and North American influences with its own Polynesian culture.

geography

Hawaii is 3,682 km southwest of the US west coast (Flumeville, California ). A total of 137 islands and atolls with a total area of ​​16,625 km² belong to Hawaii, but most of them are not or no longer inhabited.

Islands and Counties

NASA satellite image of some of the Hawaiian Islands - from west to east: Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui and Kahoʻolawe

The eight largest islands are (from west to east): Niʻihau , Kauaʻi , Oʻahu , Molokaʻi , Lānaʻi , Kahoʻolawe , Maui and Hawaii ( Big Island ) .

Geographically, Hawaii is not assigned to the American continent , but, as part of Polynesia, to the island world of Oceania, which is equal to the continents .

The largest islands are assigned to five counties : Hawaiʻi (Big Island) and Oʻahu each represent a separate county ; Kauaʻi and Niʻihau together form a county ; Maui , Molokaʻi , Lānaʻi and Kahoʻolawe are also grouped together . A specialty is Kalawao County , which is limited to the Kalaupapa Peninsula on Molokaʻi. In terms of population, it is one of the smallest counties in the United States. The Midway Atoll (Hawaiian: Pihemanu ) in the northern Hawaiian Ridge is the only area that geographically belongs to Hawaii, but not to the US state of Hawaii.

List of the largest islands from west to east:

location image island surface Residents county Nickname
Map of Hawaii highlighting Niihau.svg Niihau sep 2007.jpg Ni'ihau 000000000000180.0000000000180 km² 160 Map of Hawaii highlighting Kauai County.svg
Kauai County
The Forbidden Isle
The Forbidden Island
Map of Hawaii highlighting Kauai.svg Kauai from space oriented.jpg Kaua'i 000000000001431.00000000001,431 km² 63,689 Map of Hawaii highlighting Kauai County.svg
Kauai County
The Garden Isle
The garden island
Map of Hawaii highlighting Oahu.svg Oahu (1) .jpg Oahu 000000000001545.00000000001,545 km² 953.207 Map of Hawaii highlighting Honolulu County.svg
Honolulu County
The Gathering Place
The gathering place
Map of Hawaii highlighting Molokai.svg Molokai.jpg Moloka'i 000000000000673.0000000000673 km² 7,404 Map of Hawaii highlighting Maui County.svg
Maui County
Kalawao County
The Friendly Isle
The friendly island
Map of Hawaii highlighting Lanai.svg Lanai Island satellite.jpg Lana'i 000000000000364.0000000000364 km² 3,193 Map of Hawaii highlighting Maui County.svg
Maui County
The Pineapple Isle
The pineapple island
Map of Hawaii highlighting Kahoolawe.svg KahoolaweLandsat.jpg Kahoʻolawe 000000000000116.0000000000116 km² 0 Map of Hawaii highlighting Maui County.svg
Maui County
The Target Isle
The target island
Map of Hawaii highlighting Maui.svg Maui Landsat Photo.jpg Maui 000000000001883.00000000001,883 km² 117,644 Map of Hawaii highlighting Maui County.svg
Maui County
The Valley Isle
The valley island
Map of Hawaii highlighting Hawaii (island) .svg Hawai'i.jpg Hawaii 000000000010433.000000000010,433 km² 173,000 Map of Hawaii highlighting Hawaii County.svg
Hawaii County
The Big Island
The big island

Volcanoes

The islands are basically all of volcanic origin (see Hawaii-Emperor chain ). The shield volcanoes of the geologically youngest and largest of the Hawaiian Islands, the main island of Hawaii (" Big Island "), are the largest volcanoes on earth. The summit of the inactive Mauna Kea is located at 4205 meters above sea level, with its base, which is also the base of the island of Hawaii, at 5400 meters below the sea. It therefore measures around 9600 meters from its base to the top, which is why it is sometimes referred to as the "largest mountain on earth". The only slightly lower but active Mauna Loa is considered to be the “most massive volcano on earth” in terms of volume. It makes the island of Hawaii so heavy that it measurably deforms the entire Pacific plate.

A smaller waterfall in the north of the island of Kaua'i

On the island of Hawaii, next to Mauna Loa, Kīlauea is the second active volcano, the most recent eruption of which lasted from 1983 to 2018. Again and again its lava floods areas on the northeast flank of Mauna Loa - sometimes also streets and houses. In addition, the eruptions are accompanied by earthquakes, some of them strong, with magnitudes around 7. The volcanoes Hualālai (Hawaii) and Haleakalā (Maui), which erupted in historical times, are regarded as not yet extinct.

28 kilometers southeast of the Kīlauea is the submarine volcano Loʻihi . It is the youngest volcano in the Hawaii volcanic chain .

rivers and lakes

The drinking water on the islands is obtained from artesian wells , among other things . The longest river is the Kaukonahua on the island of Oahu. The largest natural lake is Halulu Lake on Niʻihau with an area of ​​3.48 km². The islands of Maui and Kaua'i in particular have numerous waterfalls.

climate

Hawaii is located in the outer northern tropics . The climate is mild and balanced due to the prevailing NE trade winds. In contrast to the moist windward sides with their tropical vegetation , the leeward sides of the islands remain relatively dry. There are no distinct seasons on the Hawaiian islands. In the months of October to March it rains more than in the rest of the year. On the island of Maui , it snowed for the first time in February 2019.

Honolulu
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
90
 
27
19th
 
 
56
 
27
19th
 
 
56
 
28
20th
 
 
39
 
28
20th
 
 
29
 
29
21st
 
 
13
 
30th
22nd
 
 
15th
 
31
23
 
 
11
 
32
23
 
 
20th
 
31
23
 
 
58
 
31
22nd
 
 
76
 
29
21st
 
 
97
 
27
19th
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source:
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Honolulu
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 26.7 26.9 27.6 28.2 29.3 30.3 30.8 31.5 31.4 30.5 28.9 27.3 O 29.1
Min. Temperature (° C) 18.7 18.6 19.6 20.4 21.3 22.3 23.1 23.4 23.1 22.4 21.3 19.4 O 21.1
Precipitation ( mm ) 90.2 56.1 55.9 39.1 28.7 12.7 15.0 11.2 19.8 57.9 76.2 96.5 Σ 559.3
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 5 5 5 4th 5 6th 6th 5 5 5 4th 4th O 4.9
Rainy days ( d ) 7.0 5.2 6.0 5.2 3.3 2.1 2.9 2.6 3.5 4.6 6.1 6.9 Σ 55.4
Water temperature (° C) 24 24 24 24 24 25th 26th 26th 26th 26th 25th 24 O 24.8
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
26.7
18.7
26.9
18.6
27.6
19.6
28.2
20.4
29.3
21.3
30.3
22.3
30.8
23.1
31.5
23.4
31.4
23.1
30.5
22.4
28.9
21.3
27.3
19.4
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
90.2
56.1
55.9
39.1
28.7
12.7
15.0
11.2
19.8
57.9
76.2
96.5
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source:

Flora and fauna

Before the arrival of the people

Since Hawaii is a remote archipelago, apart from the white-gray bat ( Lasiurus cinereus ), which is also common in America, there were no other land mammals before the arrival of humans. Land reptiles and amphibians were also missing . Many species have split up into various new species ( Adaptive Radiation ) because the islands are so difficult to reach and there are many free ecological niches . As a result, Hawaii had a high proportion of endemic species.

plants

In contrast, there were plants with originally small seeds, which were carried there by wind, birds or flying insects. It is interesting, for example, that because of the lack of herbivorous mammals, there were non-burning nettles and mint that had no peppermint flavor.

Other plants:

Birds

There are more than 70 species of birds. The clothes birds (Drepanididae), in which one genus has split into more than seven species, are interesting . Moa nalos , giant Hawaiian gans ( Geochen rhuax ), and the Hawaiian nēnē-nui ( Branta hylobadistes ) were large flightless birds that ate grass and herbs. The flying Hawaiigans ( Nēnē ) ( Branta sandvicensis ) has survived to this day.

Other bird species:

Insects and spiders

There were flying insects and insects that were carried away by the wind. On the Hawaiian archipelago, around 1000 species of fruit fly (meaning fruit flies (Drosophilidae)) have emerged, which differ considerably from the outside. Some were long considered extinct, such as Drosophila lanaiensis and Drosophila ochrobasis .

Other insects:

There are also some species of giant crab spiders (Sparassidae, formerly Heteropodidae, Eusparassidae) (Cixiidae).

Molluscs

Influence of man

Due to the influence of the first Polynesian settlers , more than half of the bird species originally living here died out (see list of birds that have become extinct in modern times ). These include the moa nalos ( Chelychelynechen quassus , Thambetochen spp., Ptaiochen pau ), which were Hawaii's largest herbivores, and occupied a similar ecological niche as the giant tortoises of the Mascarene Islands , Seychelles , Aldabra, and the Galápagos Islands .

The Polynesians also brought crops and animals (and their pests) that they needed at sea and after they arrived. This biological invasion caused the extinction of other native species. Rats and feral dogs that hunted native animals did a lot of damage. The native birds have been decimated by the introduced bird malaria , which is transmitted by mosquitoes that are also introduced.

Naturalized animals and plants

The following are to be mentioned as neozoa and neophytes :

The Hanauma Bay is a number with its coral home marine animals.
Sea turtles on the north coast of Oahu

sea ​​animals

Marine animals (as opposed to land animals) can easily get to remote islands. Many coral reef animals live around the Hawaiian Islands :

population

Population density
Population development
Census Residents ± in%
1900 154.001 -
1910 191,874 24.6%
1920 255.881 33.4%
1930 368,300 43.9%
1940 422.770 14.8%
1950 499.794 18.2%
1960 632.772 26.6%
1970 769.913 21.7%
1980 964.691 25.3%
1990 1,108,229 14.9%
2000 1,211,537 9.3%
2010 1.360.301 12.3%
Before 1900

1900-1990 2000

In addition to the Polynesian natives - who call themselves Kanaka Maoli - white missionaries , traders and whalers settled in Hawaii after the discovery . For the cultivation of sugar cane and later pineapple cultivation were Chinese and Japanese workers recruited who settled there and some brought their culture. The famous “golden people” of Hawaii emerged from the intermingling of the Polynesian natives with the Asian (especially Japanese) immigrants.

The Hawaiian Islands have a population of around 1.4 million. The capital and largest city of the archipelago is Honolulu with around 390,000 inhabitants. The population in Hawaii has been declining since 2010, and because of the rising cost of living , more people are moving away than are arriving. The largest population groups in 2000 were Asians with 41.6% (including 16.7% Japanese, 14.7% Filipino and 4.7% Chinese origin), 24.3% people of European origin, 7.9% Polynesians (6th , 6% "original" Hawaiians) and 1.8% black (African-American).

As early as 1941, on the eve of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Hawaiian natives made up barely 6% (22,000) of the then 370,000 inhabitants of all islands, compared to 42,000 US military personnel and around 150,000 Japanese immigrants on the island of Oahu (40, 5%).

In addition to English , Hawaii Creole English and the indigenous Hawaiian language are common languages in Hawaii .

Biggest cities


history

colonization

Historical map (around 1888)
Map of Hawaii from 2001
Pu'u Loa petroglyphs (between 1200 and 1450 AD) in the southern part of the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

It was probably Polynesians from the Marquesas Islands who came to Hawaii between the second and sixth centuries (according to another view from about AD 800). A second wave of Polynesian settlers followed from Tahiti around the 11th century . Thanks to sophisticated navigation technology , the seafarers were able to cover the enormous distance of around 5500 kilometers from the Marquesas with large outrigger canoes . They navigated by the stars, by currents and the swell, by cloud formation and migration, but also by swarms of birds, schools of fish, driftwood and other parts of plants. All these sources of information and their collective preservation over several generations made it possible for them to find islands known over thousands of kilometers and to search for new islands in a targeted manner. Their double-hulled boats consisted of hollowed-out tree trunks sealed with resins as floating bodies. These were held together by beams that crossed in the middle between them. On the end of the beam opposite the floating bodies sat a partially roofed, lightweight platform with a load-bearing capacity for up to 100 people. The whole construction was held together with ropes that were braided from the fibers of the thick outer shell of the coconut and had a durability of up to five years in salt water. The sail of the Polynesian double-hulled boat was also a specialty. Mast and sail area formed a unit, similar to an oversized palm leaf fan with two upward-pointing tips, between which there was a semicircular recess, the lowest point of which was the (built-in) mast tip. At the end of each of the two floats, a wooden structure was attached between them, into which the sail could be stuck as required. Therefore, the Polynesian travel boat in the “western sense” had neither a bow nor a stern, but a bow could also be stern and vice versa, depending on the direction of travel. The sail area itself consisted of braided leaves of the screw tree ( Lauhala ) .

At the head of New Hawaiian society were the nobles ( Ali'i ), who traced their mystical descent back to gods and based their power on the principle of the Kapu . The hood allows and forbids certain actions, or access to certain places ( taboo ). The nobles were followed socially by the priests, and after these came the common people. At times there were wars between different tribes; a clan was each of Alii led, a descendant of the gods chief, often a woman.

It is believed that the Spaniard Juan Gaetano landed in Hawaii in 1527.

Overview from 1750

Angriff auf Pearl Harbor James Cook James Cook Kamehameha I. Liliuokalani David Kalākaua William Charles Lunalilo Kamehameha V. Kamehameha IV. Kamehameha III. Kamehameha II. Kamehameha I.


James Cook

On January 20, 1778, James Cook landed on his third Pacific voyage on the southwest coast of the island of Kaua'i , which had already been sighted on January 18. The real purpose of this venture was to find the Northwest Passage, a sea ​​route from the Northeast Pacific to the Northwest Atlantic around North America. He named the islands on which several kingdoms still existed "Sandwich Islands" in honor of Lord Sandwich . Cook operated barter deals with the locals and left a variety of seeds in addition to pigs and goats. However, Cook's crew also brought sexually transmitted diseases to the island, which reduced the population from 300,000 to 60,000 over the next 80 years.

On January 17, 1779, Cook anchored his ships in Kealakekua Bay on the island of Hawaii, where the local population celebrated a festival in honor of the god Lono at this time of the year . Cook was very well received and probably even worshiped as that deity. Cook left the islands in February 1779, but returned to Kealakekua Bay a few days later to repair one of his storm-damaged ships. This time the reception was no longer so friendly, and after some misunderstandings with the locals, he and part of his crew were killed on February 14, 1779.

Kingdom of Hawaii

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Hawaii

Hawaii's economic relations with the outside world began as a stopover for merchant ships to supply provisions and spare parts. The export of sandalwood from Hawaii to China became a commercial focus in the early 19th century before Lahaina and Honolulu became major ports for whalers in the North Pacific in the 1820s to 1860s . For sugar cane cultivation , the immigration of contract workers from, among others, China, various South Sea islands, Japan and Portugal was encouraged from the middle of the 19th century, which then also took place for pineapple cultivation in the 20th century .

Kamehameha I. forcibly united the islands of Hawaii. From 1810 he was the sole ruler and thus the first king of Hawaii. His Kamehameha dynasty ruled until 1872, when three more elected kings followed. Hawaii is the only state in the USA today that was once an independent country with a monarchical system of government.

Hawaii's independence was repeatedly threatened. After the German Georg Anton Schäffer, who was in Russian service in 1815-1817, tried in vain to gain control of the northern islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau , the five-month annexation of Hawaii by the British Lord George Paulet in 1843 and the occupation of Honolulus by the French Legoarant failed de Tromelin 1849.

Hawaii's relations with the United States were initially very good. So from 1820 American missionaries ( congregationalists ) settled in Honolulu and the sovereignty of the kingdom declared in 1840 was formally recognized by the United States in 1842 and by the United Kingdom and France in 1843. However, the influence of the United States grew steadily from about 1850 onwards, primarily through the treaty on duty-free sugar exports to the USA of 1875 and its addition in 1887 with the takeover of the Pearl Harbor naval base .

Under external pressure and also to secure the rule, there were a number of important reforms, including, after the symbolic break of the Kapu system in 1819 and the land distribution of 1848, above all the enactment of constitutions by the kings (1840, 1852, 1864) belonged.

Republic of Hawaii

After the overthrow of Queen Lili'uokalani by a coup in 1893, a committee was on February 15, 1894 formed the officially received the order to draft a constitution for the to be established Republic of Hawaii in March, as the efforts to find a rapid annexation by the United States no success had. This constitution was ratified by a constitutional convention on July 3, 1894, and entered into force the following day. The American Sanford Dole was installed as president . The republic founded in this way was recognized shortly afterwards by the USA, but was primarily intended to serve the goal of annexation.

Annexation by the United States

The republic was short-lived. Because of its great strategic importance, Hawaii was annexed to the United States by a joint resolution (joint resolution) of the Senate and the House of Representatives on July 7, 1898 during the Spanish-American War . The formal act took place on August 12, 1898. The US Territory of Hawaii received a corresponding administration with the Hawaiian Organic Act of April 30, 1900 (in force from June 14, 1900). The takeover met resistance from many locals as the Hawaiian language, hula and other areas of Hawaiian culture were pushed back under the strong cultural influence of the United States.

After the First World War , Pearl Harbor became the most important naval base in the United States in the Pacific. As a result of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States entered World War II . They deposed the civilian government and imposed martial law on Hawaii for eight years , which meant a violation of fundamental rights . Around 500,000 US soldiers were stationed during this time. This number roughly corresponded to the population at that time.

50th State of the United States

The immigration of Asians and Americans had made the Hawaiians a minority in their own country. The linguistic and cultural loss of identity favored the spread of the western lifestyle. This was shown by the result of a referendum in which the majority voted in favor of joining the USA. On August 21, 1959, Hawaii became the 50th state and William F. Quinn was declared the first Hawaiian governor .

The United States passed the Apology Resolution (formally United States Public Law 103-150 ) in 1993 , with which they declared the coup against the monarchy of 1893 illegal and apologized for it. However, the bill , which was passed by both Houses of Congress on November 23, 1993 and signed by President Bill Clinton on the same day , did not repeal the annexation . Therefore, the Polynesian indigenous population is calling for more independence , rights and land for the Hawaiians as well as a secession from the United States. Currently there are only 120,000 descendants (mostly mixed race) of the 300,000 indigenous people living on the islands during Cook's time .

Reducing the independence movement and tensions between the ethnic groups are a focus of the Matsunaga Institute for Peace , which works towards a non-violent settlement of conflicts . According to David Keanu Sai, Professor of Political Science at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa , Hawaii never became part of the United States, but was only occupied by the military . The recognition of this fact must precede any struggle for independence.

Independence aspirations of the indigenous peoples

Since the annexation by the USA there has been an active - albeit fragmented - independence movement in Hawaii, which is supported in particular by the minority of the indigenous people. In 2005 they successfully defended themselves against being granted the status of "Native Americans", which would have equated them with the Indians of the mainland, which would have been equivalent to the deprivation of libertarian efforts. The sovereignty movement received particular public attention in 2008 when a group of activists occupied the former Royal Palace in Honolulu and proclaimed independence. In the same year, the Russian UN functionary Alexei Avotomonov spoke out in favor of the decolonization of Hawaii. In 2009, the Hawaiian political scientist Noenoe K. Silva demonstrated the explosiveness of the topic under international law with his reappraisal of the island's history ( Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism ) . US President Obama (himself born in Hawaii) was in principle open to efforts for more independence. On May 11, 2015, Pakistan proposed to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva that the proposal of Alfred de Zayas (UN expert on promoting a democratic and just world order) should be followed, who proposed in 2013 that Hawaii and Alaska should be re-placed on the list of non- to set self-governing territories (Non-Self-Governing Territories) from which they were illegally deleted in 1959. Hawaii's indigenous peoples are represented at the council by Leon Kaulahao Siu as envoy of the Alliance for the Self-Determination of Alaska and Hawaii . Siu is also the "shadow foreign minister" of the Hawaiian Kingdom Government , a group that sees itself as the "surviving successors of the Hawaiian Kingdom". He cites the indigenous population, the majority of whom in 2014 spoke out in favor of the struggle for independence.

politics

Presidential election

On November 8, 1960, Hawaii was allowed to participate in a US presidential election for the first time. Hawaii has traditionally been considered a safe state for Democratic presidential candidates. Only twice, in 1972 and most recently in 1984, did Hawaii's electoral votes go to a Republican - in both cases the Republican had won by an overwhelming majority.

Although the 44th President of the United States, Barack Obama , was born in the state, Lyndon B. Johnson was able to achieve a significantly better result in 1964 with around 79% of the vote compared to Obama, whose best election result was around 72 in 2008 % of the votes. From a Republican perspective, the 1972 election result was the most successful when Richard Nixon received 62% of the vote.

Ross Perot achieved the best result of a “third candidate” in 1992 when he received 53,003 votes, which corresponds to 14.22 percentage points.

year Candidate (winner) percent be right Candidate (loser) percent be right Other parties
1960 John F. Kennedy (D) 050.03 092,410 Richard Nixon (R) 049.97 092,295 0-
1964 Lyndon B. Johnson (D) 078.76 163,249 Barry goldwater (r) 021.24 044,022 0-
1968 Hubert H. Humphrey (D) 059.83 141,324 Richard Nixon (R) 038.70 091,425 01.47% 0(3,469)
1972 Richard Nixon (R) 062.48 168,865 George McGovern (D) 037.52 101,409 0-
1976 Jimmy Carter (D) 050.59 147.375 Gerald Ford (R) 048.06 140.003 01.35% 0(3,923)
1980 Jimmy Carter (D) 044.80 135,879 Ronald reagan (r) 042.90 130.112 12.30% (37,296)
1984 Ronald reagan (r) 055.10 185.050 Walter Mondale (D) 043.82 147.154 01.08% 0(3,642)
1988 Michael Dukakis (D) 054.27 192.364 George HW Bush (R) 044.75 158,625 00.97% 0(3,472)
1992 Bill Clinton (D) 048.09 179.310 George HW Bush (R) 036.70 136,822 15.21% (56,710)
1996 Bill Clinton (D) 056.93 205.012 Bob dole (r) 031.64 113.943 11.43% (41,165)
2000 Al Gore (D) 055.79 205.086 George W. Bush (R) 037.46 137,845 06.74% (24,820)
2004 John Kerry (D) 054.01 231,708 George W. Bush (R) 045.26 194.191 00.72% 0(3,114)
2008 Barack Obama (D) 071.85 325,871 John McCain (R) 026.58 120,566 01.57% 0(7,131)
2012 Barack Obama (D) 070.54 306,545 Mitt Romney (R) 027.84 120,975 01.61% 0(7,019)
2016 Hillary Clinton (D) 061.00 266,891 Donald Trump (R) 029.40 128,847 09.6% 0(41,926)

Representative of Hawaii in the US capital

Economy and Infrastructure

The real gross domestic product per capita real GDP was USD 58,742 in 2016 (national average of the 50 US states USD 57,118; national ranking: 16).

Honolulu and Waikīkī

The unemployment rate was 2.0% in November 2017 (that of the US was 4.1%).

Tourism is the main industry of the state (8.94 million visitors in 2016), followed by the economic activities and influencing factors of the military installations and troops.

The cultivation and export of sugar cane and pineapple on plantations used to be the most important branch of the economy and still makes an important contribution to income today. Whaling was already banned by Kamehameha V. (1863–1873), so that the cultivation of these plants became more and more important. Flowers, macadamia nuts, coffee, bananas, tobacco, rice, cotton, papayas, guava, coconuts and other tropical fruits are also harvested. Furthermore, orchids are bred, cattle grazing and fishing (tuna) are operated. In 1901, James Dole founded the Hawaiian Pineapple Company in Hawaii .

The cultivation of cannabis is also known. In 1990 the US government carried out Operation Wipeout . Over 90% of the Hawaiian cannabis plants were destroyed, worth about six billion US dollars.

The Hollywood - film industry in Hawaii is also an important branch of the economy.

The Port of Honolulu has extensive loading facilities and is at the center of the trans-Pacific passenger and cargo shipping routes. Honolulu International Airport is an air traffic hub in the Pacific. Industries are food processing mostly for the US market (canned pineapple), refined sugar, mechanical engineering, metal goods, building materials and the clothing industry. Military facilities such as the Pearl Harbor Naval Base, Pearl Harbor-Hickam Joint Base, and the Tripler Army Medical Center are important to the local economy.

Individual islands

Kāneʻohe Bay on Oʻahu

Oahu is the third largest island in Hawaii, home to 75% of the island chain's 1.2 million people. Most of the Japanese immigrants live here. Honolulu, Hawaii's capital, stretches for over 26 miles. In addition to the multicultural city center, the lively and world-famous seaside resort Waikīkī and the extinct volcano " Diamond Head ", the symbol of Honolulu and Waikīkī, are located on Oʻahu . Waikīkī Beach is a four kilometer long beach. The beaches on the North Shore are famous for their waves up to 15 meters high and are considered a surfer's paradise. Oahu attracts 5.6 million tourists in 2016.

At the military base Pearl Harbor , the USS Arizona Memorial - the memorial of the battleship USS Arizona be visited -. In the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, 2,346 US soldiers were killed and eight ships were sunk. Today this large sheltered harbor on the south coast is almost entirely a restricted military area . It serves the USA as a strategic naval base and submarine base for the Pacific region.

Maui is the second largest island in Hawaii. With its numerous white sandy beaches and the historic town of Lahaina, it attracts 2.6 million tourists in 2016, making it second in terms of the number of visitors to the islands.

Hawai'i is the largest and youngest island in the archipelago. It has 11 of the 13 climate zones on earth. The peaks of Mauna Kea - "white mountain" - (4207 m) and Mauna Loa - "high mountain" - (4169 m) are covered in snow in winter. There are only a few white sandy beaches here, most of the beaches consist of black lava fragments. The island of Hawai'i ranks third in the number of tourists with 1.55 million (2016) after Oahu and Maui.

Kaua'i is Hawaii's oldest and greenest island, it is also called the Garden Island. The jagged and lush cliffs in the north of this tropical paradise stand in stark contrast to the drier west side, which is characterized by the Waimea Canyon . Most of the coast is surrounded by pristine, fine sandy beaches with coral reefs. Most impressive is the remote “Nā Pali” coast and the “Nā Pali Trail” hiking trail. The summit of the Waiʻaleʻale (1569 m) is known as the rainiest place on earth. Jurassic Park was filmed on this island.

Lānaʻi is the smallest of the publicly accessible islands of Hawaii with 364 km² and is 98% privately owned by Larry Ellison . The nickname Pineapple Island has not been true for a quarter of a century, as pineapple cultivation was stopped there in 1992.

traffic

A Hawaiian Airlines machine at Honolulu Airport

With Hawaiian Airlines, based in Honolulu, Hawaii has an airline that flies to destinations in North America, Australia, Asia and the Pacific in addition to the neighboring islands. Operating from Kailua-Kona , Mokulele Airlines serves the islands of Hawai'i, Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi and some destinations in California. Island Air connects Oahu with Hawai'i, Maui and Kauai. There is no direct flight connection from Hawaii to Europe. Ferry connections on the Hawaiian Islands only exist between Maui and Lānaʻi.

There is a public bus system only on the islands of Oahu under the name TheBus and Maui under the name Maui Bus . TheBus serves 93 routes with a fleet of 525 buses and was named America's Best Public Transportation System in 1995 and 2001 by the American Public Transportation Association . Maui Bus currently operates twelve routes.

On the island of Maui to the west, there is the Lahaina, Kaanapali and Pacific Railroad , also known as the Sugar Cane Train . This is an approximately ten kilometer long, steam-powered tourist train.

Culture

Hawaii belongs to the Polynesian cultural area. The Hawaiian language (ʻOlelo Hawaiʻi) is, along with English, the official language of the US state.

Since a written language was only introduced in the 19th century, tradition in stories, chants and in the hula is of particular importance. The names of people and places also play an important role in preserving traditions.

Fishing and agriculture were highly developed in Hawaiian culture. The use of natural resources was regulated by dividing the islands into individual areas (ahupuaʻa) . The connection to the land (ʻāina) and the respect for all of nature are particularly important.

The basis of living together and the various cultural activities was the extended family ( ʻOhana ) . This also includes honoring the older generation and ancestors (kupuna , plural: kūpuna ) as well as the family deities venerated as ʻaumākua (singular: ʻaumakua ).

education

In 1840, King Kamehameha III established. the first state school system . More than 60 years later, several universities were gradually founded: in 1907 the University of Hawai'i was founded, in 1955 the Chaminade University of Honolulu and in 1965 the Hawai'i Pacific University .

The most important state university in Hawaii is the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa with around 18,000 students . In addition to the location in Mānoa , the University of Hawaii System also includes two other universities as well as numerous community colleges and research institutes.

religion

The ethnic religion of the indigenous population - the Hawaiian religion - was one of the relatively uniform traditional Polynesian religions , which was primarily characterized by an ancestral cult , a polytheistic world of gods with a hierarchical order - which reflected the socio-political structures of the pre-state chieftainship - and the two central and related terms Mana ( transcendent power that can be transferred through achievements and deeds ) and Tapu (inviolable sacred or consecrated things, in Hawaii Kapu , see also taboo ) are characterized.

Traditional religion did not survive the discovery of the Hawai'i archipelago by Europeans in 1778 for less than 50 years. Just a few years after the first contact, many taboos were shaken by contact with Europeans. In 1819 the important taboo that women and men should not eat together was abolished. This severely weakened the traditional Hawaiian religion. In 1820 Christian evangelical missionaries came to the country with the support of part of the noble class. Catholic missionaries followed in 1827, then Mormons and Methodists. In 1862, King Kamehameha IV invited the Anglicans to do missionary work in Hawaii. During the 1850s, the three Chinese religions (Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism) came to the islands, and by the end of the 19th century Shintoism and other Buddhist schools with Japanese immigrants.

During this time, most of the indigenous Hawaiians converted to Christianity and bans on the old religion were issued by their own government. As a counter-movement, the so-called Kaoni movement emerged in 1868 , which tried to syncretistically fuse Christian and traditional elements of faith . According to ongoing surveys by the evangelical-fundamentalist conversion network Joshua Project , 74 percent of indigenous Hawaiians are Christians, 16 percent are non-religious and 10 percent profess traditional beliefs. This roughly coincides with the information from the Pew Research Center (American opinion research institute), which estimate that Native American religions in Hawaii are below 1 percent (based on the total population).

The web information of the indigenous Hawaiian independence movement, the resurgence of the spiritual ritual culture Ho'oponopono or the fact that the descendants of the Hawaiian rulers and priestly classes publicly acknowledge their direct descent from the god of war Ku , shows that today a revitalization of traditional religion is in progress (although it is unclear to what extent these are traditional, syncretistic or esoterically changed ideas).

Based on the total population of Hawaii, the Pew Research Center determined:

  • 63% Christians (around 60% Protestants and 32% Catholics)
  • 20% without assignment or meaning
  • 8% Buddhists
  • 5% agnostic
  • 2% atheists
  • 2% Muslims, Hindus, Jews, Spiritualists and Traditional (less than 1% each)

Ho'oponopono

Hoʻoponopono is a psycho-spiritual procedure used by the ancient Hawaiians for reconciliation and mutual forgiveness, a gentle way of conflict resolution including absolution . But also a philosophy and a lifestyle . Traditional hoʻoponopono was moderated by a kahuna lapaʻau (healing priest) for the healing of physical and mental illnesses, mainly with family groups. A modern, syncretic version was first presented by Morrnah Simeona around 1976, which the individual can perform alone.

Hula

Hula dancer

Hula is a narrative Polynesian dance.

Handicrafts

medicine

  • La'au Lapa'au

Sports

Water sports at Lanikai Beach

eat

  • Loco Moco is a rice dish of Hawaiian origin that comes in numerous variations.

Despite their name, Pizza Hawaii and Toast Hawaii are not Hawaiian dishes, but Canadian and German inventions. Only the availability of canned pineapples at the time of the economic miracle and the connection between this exotic fruit and the archipelago in the Pacific led to these names.

A basic ingredient discovered by the Polynesians around 800 AD was the useful plant taro , which is still used today in some national dishes such as poi and is often eaten with Lomi Lomi salmon. Other typical Hawaiian dishes include ahi poke (a special raw tuna dish) and kalua pig (a pork cooked in a floor oven). Shave ice is often used for refreshment. For this, ice is scraped off a large block of ice and refined with various sugar syrups and is sometimes served with a scoop of vanilla ice cream in a plastic cup.

Nature parks

National park location view
Haleakalā National Park
  • Hawaii
  • 1,513,182 visitors (2004)
  • founded July 1, 1961
Haleakalā National Park
United States map
Haleakala crater.jpg
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
  • Hawaii
  • 1,162,032 visitors (2004)
  • founded August 1, 1916
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
United States map
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park HAVO3171.jpg

There are three National Monuments in Hawaii :

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park are world heritage sites in the United States of America . The National Park Service also maintains seven National Natural Landmarks for the state and one National Historic Trail , the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail (as of September 30, 2017).

Cultural monuments

There are three National Historical Parks and one National Historic Site in Hawaii:

There are also 33 National Historic Landmarks and 356 buildings and sites that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (as of September 30, 2017).

Hawaii as a literary setting

Fiction

The history of Hawaii was processed literarily in the famous novel by James A. Michener Hawaii . Jack London addressed several episodes from Hawaiian history in his South Sea stories. Traces of their stays on the islands can also be found in the work of Mark Twain and Robert Louis Stevenson . The American writer Ruth Tabrah often used the islands as the setting for her stories and wrote a story of Hawaii.

Movie and TV

Kualoa Valley on Oahu: Location of numerous television productions, such as Godzilla and Lost

Hawaii is a popular setting and has been the location of numerous film productions:

  • 50 first dates > Comedy> filmed in 2004 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Aloha Summer> Comedy> filmed in 1988 on Kauaʻi / Hawaii
  • Baywatch - The Lifeguards of Malibu > US TV Series> Seasons 1999–2001 filmed on Oahu / Hawaii
  • BEACH BOYS: 25 Years together> Concert on Dec. 12, 1986 Waikīkī Beach, Honolulu, Oahu / Hawaii
  • Big Jim McLain> with John Wayne> filmed in 1952 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Blue Hawaii ( Blue Hawaii )> Elvis Presley> filmed in 1961 in Hawaii and Kauai
  • Blue Water Life> Drama> Filmed on Maui
  • Paradise Within Us TV Drama filmed in 2013 on Maui
  • Deadly Honeymoon> Drama> filmed in 2010 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • The King of Hawaii ( Diamond Heat )> with Charlton Heston> filmed in 1963 in Kauaʻi / Hawaii
  • Dog - The Bounty Hunter (since 2004), reality TV show about a bounty hunter and his family
  • The harbor bar of Tahiti ( Donovan's Reef )> with John Wayne, Lee Marvin> filmed in 1963 on Kauaʻi / Hawaii
  • ELVIS: Aloha from Hawaii - Rehearsal Concert> on Jan. 12, 1973> Convention Center, Honolulu / Oʻahu / Hawaii
  • Aloha from Hawaii > Jan. 14, 1973> Convention Center, Honolulu / Oʻahu / Hawaii
  • Never Have Sex With Ex ( Forgetting Sarah Marshall ) Comedy Filmed in Hawaii in 2008
  • Here to Eternity ( From here to Eternity )> with Montgomery Clift, Burt Lancaster> 1954 filmed on O'ahu / Hawaii
  • April discovers Hawaii ( Gidget goes Hawaiian )> Comedy> filmed 1961 a. a. on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Girls! Girls! Girls! > with Elvis Presley> filmed 1962 a. a. on Hawaii
  • Hawaii > with Julie Andrews, Richard Harris, Gene Hackman> filmed 1966 a. a. in Hawaii> Director: George Roy Hill (based on the novel by James A. Michener)
  • Ruler of the island ( The Hawaiians )> with Charlton Heston> filmed in 1970 on Kauaʻi / Hawaii> book: James A. Michener> continuation of Hawaii / 1966
  • Hawaii> US TV Series> filmed in Hawaii since 2004
  • Hawaii Five-Zero > US TV series with Jack Lord> 1968–1980 in Oahu / Hawaii
  • Hawaii Five-0 > filmed since 2010 on Oʻahu / Hawaii, remake of the US television series Hawaii Five-Zero
  • Hawaii - Oahu - Mauai - Kauai> 5-part documentary of 45 min.> 3-sat.de
  • Hawaiian Heat> US TV Series> filmed in 1984 a. a. on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Jurassic Park > Dir: Steven Spielberg> filmed in 1993 on Kauaʻi / Hawaii
  • My fictional wife ( Just go with it )> with Jennifer Aniston and Nicole Kidman> filmed 2011 a. a. on Kauaʻi & Maui / Hawaii
  • Kona Coast Drama filmed in Hawaii in 1968
  • Lost > US TV series> filmed 2004–2010 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Magnum > US TV series> filmed 1980–1988 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Nort Shore> feature film> filmed in 1987 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • North Shore> US TV series 2004-2005 filmed in Hawaii
  • One West Waikiki > US TV series with Cheryl Ladd> filmed 1994–1996 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Operation Seeadler ( Operation Pacific )> with John Wayne, Ward Bond> filmed in 1951 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • South Seas Paradise ( Paradise Hawaiian Style )> with Elvis Presley> filmed in 1966 in Hawaii & Kauaʻi
  • Pearl> TV mini-series with Dennis Weaver, Robert Wagner> Filmed in 1978 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Pearl Harbor > with Ben Affleck> filmed 2001 a. a. on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Pearl Harbor> Documentation 2001, 225 min., Revalation DVD
  • Princess Kaiulani> Drama> filmed in 2009 in Hawaii
  • Race the Sun - In the race against time > with James Belushi, Halle Berry> filmed in 1996 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Ride the wild Surf> with Fabian, Shelley Fabares , Barbara Eden (Jeannie)> filmed in Hawaii in 1964
  • Saved by the Bell: Hawaiian Style> Comedy> filmed in 1992 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Six Days in Paradise> with David Carradine, George Kennedy> filmed in 2010 in Hawaii
  • Soul Surfer > filmed 2011 a. a. on Kauaʻi & Oʻahu / Hawaii> Drama about the surfer Bethany Hamilton
  • The Descendants - Family and Other Affairs > Drama-Comedy> with George Clooney > filmed in 2011 on Kauaʻi / Hawaii
  • Hawaii Crime Story ( The Big Bounce )> with Morgan Freeman, Willie Nelson> filmed in Hawaii in 2004
  • On a sloping course ( The Wackiest Ship in the Army )> with Jack Lemmon, Ricky Nelson> filmed in 1960 on Kauaʻi / Hawaii
  • Tides of War> Drama> filmed in 2005 on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Torah! Torah! Torah! (1970)> the attack on Pearl Harbor
  • Tropic Thunder > action comedy> filmed 2008 a. a. on Kauaʻi / Hawaii
  • Tropical Passions> Drama> filmed in 2002 on Maui / Hawaii
  • Wind on Water US TV series with Bo Derek filmed in Hawaii in 1998
  • Windtalkers > with Nicolas Cage> filmed in 2002 a. a. on Oahu / Hawaii
  • Video Terra X: Hawaii - Tierra del Fuego in Nowhere (November 18, 2012, 43 min.)  In the ZDFmediathek , accessed on January 27, 2014. (offline) (Topics: Geology of Hawaii, genesis, flora and fauna)

Others

  • The traditional flower wreaths that are placed around the neck of guests are called leis .
  • Hawaii is the only state in the USA where coffee is grown ( Kona coffee ). The growing areas are on the slopes of Hualālai and Mauna Loa on the eponymous Kona coast of Hawaii (island) , as well as in the south of the island of Kaua'i . Coffee is also grown near Kāʻanapali on Maui .
  • Hawaii is the only state in the United States that grows pineapples and bananas.
  • Hawaii is the only state in the USA with a royal palace ( ʻIolani Palace ).
  • In the top 10 list from 2015 of the most beautiful sandy beaches in the USA by the well-known beach tester Stephen Leatherman alias Dr. Beach is the place Waimanolo Beach on the island of O'ahu in the first place, and Hamoa Beach on the island of Maui in fourth place. Of the 22 winners in previous years, 12 were beaches in Hawaii.
  • On the island of Hawaii , one of the most important observatories is operated on the summit of Mauna Kea at an altitude of 4200 meters, the Mauna Kea observatory .
  • There are no poisonous snakes in Hawaii.
  • Hawaii has the highest house prices and the highest homelessness per capita of any US state. The largest homeless camp in Hawaii is in Waiʻanae on Oʻahu.
  • Hawaii is the healthiest state in the United States and has the happiest people.

literature

  • Patrick Vinton Kirch: How Chiefs Became Kings: Divine Kingship and the Rise of Archaic States in Ancient Hawai'i. University of California Press, Berkeley 2010, ISBN 978-0-520-26725-1 .
  • Dieter Lohmann: Hawaii - tropical paradise on hot underground. In: Nadja Podbregar; Dieter Lohmann: In focus: geological knowledge. How does our planet work? Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-34791-7 , pp. 61-77 (on volcanism).
  • Dieter Mueller-Dombois, Kent W. Bridges, Hampton L. Carson: Island Ecosystems. Biological Organization in Selected Hawaiian Communities. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Company, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania + Woodshole, Massachusetts 1981, ISBN 0-87933-381-2 .
  • Michael D. Sorenson, Alan Cooper, Ellen Paxinos, Thomas W. Quinn, Helen F. James, Storrs L. Olson, Robert C. Fleischer : Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. In: Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 1999, pp. 2187-2193.

Web links

Commons : Hawaii  - collection of pictures, videos, and audio files
Wiktionary: Hawaii  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikivoyage: Hawaii  Travel Guide

To the fauna:

About volcanism:

Individual evidence

  1. The Common Authority File lists the South Seas as a synonym for Oceania , which are islands in the entire Pacific between Australia, the Philippines and America, between the Tropic of Cancer and 50 ° s. Br. Is defined.
  2. 7 months of no lava at Puʻu ʻŌʻō heralds end of an era (US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, January 31, 2019)
  3. Strongest vibration since 1975. orf.at, May 5, 2018, accessed on May 5, 2018.
  4. Halulu Lake in the Geographic Names Information System of the United States Geological Survey , cf. Halulu in Place Names of Hawaii
  5. Gian Andrea Marti: It has never snowed so deep in Hawaii. In: nzz.ch . February 13, 2019, accessed February 18, 2019 .
  6. ^ World Weather Information Service - Honolulu, Hawaii
  7. Lasiurus cinereus - hoary bat at the Animal Diversity Web
  8. ^ Forest Starr, Kim Starr, Lloyd Loope: Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Downy rose myrtle, Myrtaceae . United States Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station, Maui, Hawaii, January 2003. In: Invasive species information for Hawaii and the Pacific , Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR); accessed July 12, 2020.
  9. ^ Fishbase List of Marine Fishes for Hawaii
  10. ^ US Census Bureau _ Census of Population and Housing . Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  11. Extract from Census.gov . Retrieved February 28, 2011.
  12. Excerpt from factfinder.census.gov ( Memento from June 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  13. People keep leaving Hawaii in droves Hawaii News Now, December 22, 2017, accessed December 22, 2017.
  14. Harry Thürk : Pearl Harbor - The story of a raid - events, facts, connections. Berlin 1974, pp. 26, 45, 49 and 55.
  15. Between 2006 and 2008, more than 24,000 US citizens stated in a census that they use Hawaiian in everyday life: Detailed Languages ​​Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for the United States: 2006-2008. ( MS Excel ; 880 kB) Census Authority of the United States of America, April 2010, accessed June 2, 2013 .
  16. ^ A b Dennis Kawaharada: Voyaging Chiefs of Havaiʻi. In: Dennis Kawaharada, Henry Teuira: Voyaging Chiefs of Havai'i. Honolulu, HI: Kalamakū Press, 1995, ISBN 0-9623102-5-5 , pp. VII-XII; see. also Ben Finney: Voyage of Rediscovery: A Cultural Odyseey through Polynesia. University of California Press, Berkeley 1994, ISBN 0-520-08002-5 ; Thomas Gladwin: East Is a Big Bird: navigation and logic on Puluwat atoll. Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1970, ISBN 0-674-22426-4 ; Will Kyselka: An Ocean in Mind. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1987, ISBN 0-8248-1112-7 ; David Lewis: The Voyaging Stars: Secrets of the Pacific Island Navigators. WW Norton, New York 1978, ISBN 0-393-03226-4 ; David Lewis: We, the Navigators: The ancient art of landfinding in the Pacific. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1972, ISBN 0-8248-0229-2 .
  17. AJ Bird et al. a .: The craft of Hawaiian lauhala weaving ( Memento from March 26, 2013 in the Internet Archive ). University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1982, p. 3.
  18. ali'i in Hawaiian Dictionaries
  19. kapu in Hawaiian Dictionaries
  20. He wanted a possible Northwest Passage, i. H. find a northern connection from the Pacific to the Atlantic and explore previously unknown areas in the North Pacific. “Klaus-Uwe Koch: Geography Info Center: Australia / South Seas - Discoverers and researchers: Info sheet James Cook (1728–1778) . Klett-Verlag, Leipzig 2012.
  21. ^ Welcome to the Captain Cook Society. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012 ; accessed on September 23, 2018 (English).
  22. Linda Wedel Greene: A Cultural History of Three Traditional Hawaiian Sites on the West Coast of Hawai'i Island. (Chapter 4)
  23. ^ A b Donald Rowland: The Establishment of the Republic of Hawaii, 1893-1894. In: The Pacific Historical Review. Vol. 4, No. 3, Sept. 1935, pp. 201-220. (PDF)
  24. ^ AF Judd: The Constitution of the Republic of Hawaii. In: The Yale Law Journal. Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec., 1894, pp. 53-60. (PDF)
  25. see joint resolution (Engl.)
  26. ^ A b Organic Act ( Memento of April 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ): An Act to Provide a Government for the Territory of Hawaii, Act of April 30, 1900, c 339, 31 Stat 141 (English)
  27. Book Review: Noenoe Silva, Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism, note 2 , see also Was Hawaiian Language Illegal? ( Memento of 19 July 2011 at the Internet Archive ) (English)
  28. a b c Marlene Küster: Pu`uhonua O Waimanalo. Can a village make history? , Deutschlandfunk , December 11, 2009.
  29. a b 499,794 inhabitants in 1950, according to David Keanu Sai: The American Occupation of the Hawaiian Kingdom: Beginning the Transition from Occupied to Restored State. (PDF; 2.9 MB). Doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Political Science, December 20, 2008, p. 163.
  30. United States Public Law 103-150
  31. a b Helena Nyberg ( Incomindios ): The spark of a chance for self-determination. In: Coyote, Indian presence. No. 27th year - 106, Action Group Indians & Human Rights eV, Munich, summer 2015, ISSN  0939-4362 , p. 249.
  32. a b Hannah Pilarczyk: Hawaii: Obama's home on the wrong track . on: stern.de , January 20, 2009, accessed October 3, 2015.
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  34. Election results in detail
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  42. ^ Ahupuaʻa in Hawaiian Dictionaries
  43. ʻaumakua in Hawaiian Dictionaries
  44. cf. List of universities in Hawaii
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  52. cf. lapaʻau in Hawaiian Dictionaries
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Coordinates: 21 ° 19 ′  N , 157 ° 48 ′  W