Mauna Kea from Mauna Loa Observatory seen from
|location||northern part of the island of Hawaii|
|Dominance||3946 km → Mount Shasta|
|Notch height||4205 m|
|Age of the rock||Pleistocene to Holocene|
|Last eruption||2460 BC Chr. ± 100 years|
|particularities||Hawaii's tallest mountain|
The Mauna Kea volcano ( Hawaiian for Schneeberg or Mauna a Wākea ) is the highest mountain in Hawaii at around . If the area below the sea surface is also included when measuring the height, Mauna Kea is the largest and highest mountain on earth at 10,203 meters. Mauna Kea is considered a sacred place in Hawaiian culture.
The Mauna Kea is of volcanic origin. From the sea floor about 6000 meters below the surface to the summit, it is over 10,000 meters high. Since it has sunk into the seabed due to its heavy weight, the actual foot of the mountain lies below the seabed. From the foot to the summit, Mauna Kea is over 17,000 meters high.
Mauna Kea and the other volcanoes on Hawaii, Mauna Loa , Hualālai and Kīlauea , were created over a hotspot where hot currents, so-called plumes , that rise from the deep mantle , transport material to the earth's surface. In the case of Hawaii , the region with the Pacific lithospheric plate was slowly moved over it by plate tectonics , which resulted in a chain of volcanic islands from the Aleutian Islands to the present day in the middle of the Pacific being formed at intervals of many millions of years .
Unlike its neighbor Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea is currently inactive and is considered a dormant volcano . Its age is estimated to be one million years, the oldest stones found were dated to a little over 200,000 years. The last active phase with at least seven eruptions took place around 6000 to 4000 years ago. There have been periods of dormancy that lasted longer than 4500 years before, so the current long period of dormancy is not necessarily a sign of an extinct volcano.
A deep drilling project has been running on the volcano since 2002. By examining the extracted rock samples from the interior of the volcano, one would like to gain further knowledge about the interior of the earth.
In Hawaiian mythology, Mauna Kea plays a central role. The mountain is considered a sacred place as the top of Mauna Kea has been a special place for prayer for generations. According to Hawaiian belief, one can establish contact with one's ancestors at the top of Mauna Kea and meet living relatives even after one's own death.
In Hawaiian mythology, the origin of man is explained by a partnership between heaven and earth. The Heavenly Father is symbolized by Heaven: he spans the earth and people in a protective manner. He offers orientation and guides us through the stars. His wife is the earth mother who gave birth to the earth and now nourishes its inhabitants.
Mauna Kea is the short form of Mauna a Wākea . Wākea is the mythical ancestor of all Hawaiians, who is also associated with the Heavenly Father . According to Hawaiian belief, the tip of Mauna Kea connects the earth with the Heavenly Father and thus with our origin. That is why the tip of Mauna Kea is also the place where one is connected with one's deceased ancestors in prayer.
Mauna Kea is home to the Mauna Kea Observatory , a group of international observatories that together make up the largest observatory in the world. These include the Keck Observatory with its two 10 m mirrors, which are currently among the most powerful telescopes in the world.
Since the telescopes react very sensitively to changes in the position of the subsurface, a typical expansion of the mountain would be registered immediately as a sign that activity is starting again.
In the novel, Cloud Atlas by David Mitchell two characters want to climb the mountain on which the observatory is located. The people in the valley live in a post-apocalyptic setting and believe that Old Georgie , their version of the devil, lives on the mountain .
Photos and videos
- Mauna Kea in GVP (English)
- HVO: Mauna Kea - Hawaiʻi's Tallest Volcano , USGS (English)
- Big Island Peaks - Mauna Kea (English)
- Ken Hon, ea: Field interpretation of active volcanoes. A handbook for viewing lava , Geology Dept., University of Hilo, Hawaii, 2008 (PDF, English; 8.3 MB)
- Huai-Jen Yang: Submarine lavas from Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Implications for Hawaiian shield stage processes , JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 99, NO. B8, P. 15,577, 1994; doi: 10.1029 / 94JB00895
- G. Danowski, ea: Investigation of the thermo-hydraulic field and the heat flux density in the vicinity of an active mantle plume (island of Hawaii) with the help of borehole temperature measurements , Diss., Technische Universität Berlin 2002 (PDF; 6.2 MB)
- A. Buysch, ea: The syn- to post-magmatic development of Mauna Kea / Hawaii, USA - Interpretation of geophysical borehole data and petrophysical core data from the deep borehole 'Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, HSDP-2' , Diss. 2005, Rheinisch -Westfälische Technische Aachen University (PDF; 6.3 MB)
- Claude Herzberg: Petrology and thermal structure of the Hawaiian plume from Mauna Kea volcano , NATURE, Vol 444, November 30, 2006 doi: 10.1038 / nature05254
- Peter Schiffman: Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core , Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 151 (2006) 217–228 (PDF, English; 617 kB)
- Alexander V. Sobolev, ea: An olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts , NATURE, Vol. 434, 2005 (PDF, English; 1.1 MB)
- Mauna Kea in Hawaiian Dictionaries ; kea in Hawaiian Dictionaries
- Mountains. Highest Points on Earth. National Geographic, accessed January 14, 2014 .
- Video Richard Hammond's Journey to the Center of the Earth, Part 2 (from minute 27) in the ZDFmediathek , accessed on January 14, 2014. (offline)
- Christine Hit: The Sacred History of Maunakea , in: Honolulu Magazine, August 5, 2019, http://www.honolulumagazine.com/Honolulu-Magazine/August-2019/The-Sacred-History-of-Mauna-Kea/ .
- Wakea in Hawaiian Dictionaries