2016 United States Presidential Election

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58th presidential election
November 8, 2016

Donald Trump by Gage Skidmore 10.jpg
Republican Party
Donald Trump / Mike Pence
electors 304  
be right 62,984,825  
Hillary Clinton Arizona 2016.jpg
Democratic Party
Hillary Clinton / Tim Kaine
electors 227  
be right 65,853,516  

Election results by state
Map of election results by state
  30 states + ME02  
Trump / pence
  20 states + DC  
Clinton / Kaine

President of the United States
Before the election
Barack Obama
Democratic Party

The 58th election for President and Vice President of the United States of America took place on November 8, 2016 . As a result, 306 Republican and 232 Democratic electors formed the Electoral College .

On December 19, 2016, Republican Donald Trump was elected 45th President by 304 votes and Mike Pence 48th Vice President with 305 votes. Hillary Clinton's Democratic candidacy with Tim Kaine received 227 votes each. Seven different electoral votes were cast for other candidates ( one of them in turn pence). Donald Trump's presidency began with his inauguration on January 20, 2017.

The indirect election of the president through the electoral college made it possible for the fourth time in US history to have a president elected to office despite a minority of votes by the electoral college.

It was the first presidential election since the 1848 election in which the presidential candidates of both major parties were older than 60 years.

Starting position

The former incumbent Barack Obama of the Democratic Party was allowed due to the 22 additional article not compete again for the Constitution of the United States in 2016 after two terms in office. Vice President Joe Biden , who had already tried to run for president in 2008, ruled out running again in October 2015.

The internal party primaries for the Democrats and Republicans began in February 2016 in the state of Iowa . The date of Super Tuesdays fell on March 1, 2016.

On the Republican side, Donald Trump prevailed against 16 internal party competitors and was elected as a presidential candidate on July 19, 2016 at the Republican Convention in Cleveland , Ohio . Most opinion polls predicted little chance for Trump of winning the November presidential election. Republicans feared a similarly clear defeat as in 1964 ( Barry Goldwater ).

Early on, the Democratic primary turned into a duel between Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders . On 26 July 2016 Hillary Clinton was on the party convention in Philadelphia the first woman presidential candidate for the Democrats. Because of her great political experience and the hoped-for broad support from female voters, Clinton was seen as a clear favorite against Donald Trump.


Democratic Party

Candidate successful

States / territories won in the Democratic primary:
  • Hillary Clinton
  • Bernie Sanders
  • Former Senator and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton , who failed because of Obama in the 2008 presidential primaries , officially declared her candidacy in April 2015. Hillary Clinton was - as the wife of Bill Clinton (US President 1993 to 2001) - first lady of the USA for eight years . In late 2014, Obama expressed the view that Hillary Clinton would be a great president.

    On April 29, 2015, Senator Bernie Sanders announced his candidacy. Sanders was non-party at the time, but was already a member of the Democratic Group in the Senate before his candidacy was announced. He joined the Democratic Party in November 2015. He describes himself as a democratic socialist and, compared to Clinton, represents positions that are significantly more left-wing . Martin O'Malley (2007-2015 Governor of Maryland), Lincoln Chafee (Ex-Governor and Ex-Senator for Rhode Island) and Ex-Senator Jim Webb also announced their candidacy, but never came in the polls above low single-digit percentages ; Webb and Chafee withdrew from the race in October 2015 shortly after the first televised debate among the Democratic presidential candidates. Former Governor Martin O'Malley also withdrew his candidacy after the first primary (in Iowa) after receiving less than 1% of the vote.

    A duel between Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders followed. Initially, Hillary Clinton was clearly in the lead, but Bernie Sanders caught up. After narrowly winning the Kentucky primary, Clinton was less than 100 delegate votes behind the 2,384 required for the nomination and appealed to Bernie Sanders to give up in order to focus on Donald Trump as an opponent. However, Sanders continued to hold on to his candidacy and justified this with the fact that the counts include the almost 700 super delegates . These are untied delegates who can vote for a candidate of their choice. Bernie Sanders hoped to get the majority of the votes of the committed delegates and then to be able to change the mind of the super delegates, as Barack Obama had succeeded in 2008, and thus still to become the candidate of the Democrats. At the end of June, Sanders hinted at his defeat in a program on TV station MSNBC , saying that he could count. He would vote for Clinton in the presidential election, as the only thing that would be about preventing Donald Trump from being elected president.

    Hillary Clinton became the first woman to be elected presidential nominee at the Democratic Party Conference in Philadelphia on July 26, 2016. In doing so, she received the support of her only major competitor from the primaries, Bernie Sanders. However, there were protests from supporters of Sanders. Before the start of the convention, party leader Debbie Wasserman Schultz announced her resignation after hacked and published emails revealed that the Democratic party leadership had swayed the primaries in favor of Hillary Clinton. Donna Brazile served as an interim chair of the Democratic National Committee from July 2016 to February 2017 . She wrote in a book published in November 2017 that she was considering replacing Clinton and her running mate in September 2016 after Clinton had to leave an event due to lung problems and canceled a campaign trip. She (Brazile) has considered US Vice President Joe Biden and US Senator Cory Booker as running mates.

    Republican Party

    Candidate successful

    States / territories won in the Republican primary:
  • Donald Trump
  • Ted Cruz
  • Marco Rubio
  • John Kasich
  • mostly undecided or no binding area code
  • Among the Republicans , three US Senators who declared their candidacy in the first half of 2015, the Texan Ted Cruz , the Senator for Kentucky Rand Paul and the Senator for Florida Marco Rubio were given good chances . All three candidates are close to the tea party movement . While Cruz has the support of the evangelicals and Paul has the libertarians, Rubio has the support of the neocons . Ted Cruz was last in the race until the beginning of May 2016.

    Mitt Romney , the failed presidential candidate from 2012, did not rule out another candidacy for a long time, but in early 2015 he announced that he did not want to run again for the office. Like Romney, John McCain , who lost the election in 2008, ruled out running again. McCain said in November 2014 that Jeb Bush , Lindsey Graham and Marco Rubio might be good candidates.

    Up until the fall of 2015, the Republican primary campaign was mainly characterized by a mood against the so-called “party establishment”. Many supporters of the Republicans see this as too aloof and accuse him of pursuing a clientele policy instead of being guided by the interests of the population. Previous favorites for the party's top candidacy such as Jeb Bush or Chris Christie suffered considerable losses in numerous opinion polls.

    Since the end of July 2015, Donald Trump has dominated the field of applicants in almost all national and state surveys. Trump caused quite a stir, especially with controversial statements about immigration and his sometimes harsh attacks against internal party competitors. Its strongly polarizing effect led to an enormous (also international) media presence. Trump also stood out from the rest of the applicants by the fact that he financed his election campaign largely from his own resources. In this context he accused his competitors like Jeb Bush of being a “puppet” of his financiers. In addition to Bush, Senators Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio received support in the polls. Until October 2015, Bush consistently ranked behind Trump and was able to achieve slight leads in individual states. Trump's dominance in the election campaign was hardly considered possible by both the media and high-ranking Republicans after his candidacy was announced. As of October 2015, some political observers considered a Trump nomination to be quite possible. Trump addresses people with a wide variety of values ​​and from all social classes because he “speaks their language” and, as an “anti-politician”, attacks the unpopular political establishment. He positioned himself - much like the end of the 1960s, Richard Nixon - as a candidate of a "silent majority" ( silent majority ).

    In the states in which votes on the Republican nomination were held from the beginning of February 2016, Donald Trump prevailed, with whom only two candidates, the Texan Senator Ted Cruz and Ohio Governor John Kasich, had competed since mid-March. Cruz succeeded in winning all delegates from his home state, a number of more conservative states, while Kasich won all delegates of Ohio on March 15. Despite the clear leadership of Trump, it was conceivable that he would not achieve an absolute majority of the delegates by the nomination party convention and that the candidate would only be found during this meeting (“ brokered convention ”).

    After Donald Trump won more than 60% of the vote in his home state New York on April 19, 2016 , he expanded his lead in delegates to such an extent that only he was able to win the absolute majority of the delegates before the party congress to unite. The nomination of another candidate would only have been possible if Trump had also missed an absolute majority of delegates. This would have required a second ballot at the party congress, in which most of the delegates would no longer be bound by the pre-election result. After Trump clearly won the Indiana primary on May 3, 2016 , Trump's main competitor Ted Cruz and a few hours later also John Kasich withdrew from the primary, so that Trump has since been considered the de facto Republican candidate. Then Trump won the primary elections for Nebraska, West Virginia, Oregon and Washington. When some of the unbound candidates also assured Trump of their vote, the Associated Press stated on May 26, 2016 that Trump had won the votes of more than 1,237 delegates and would thus be the Republican candidate for the presidential election.

    On 15 July 2016 chose Trump the governor of Indiana , Mike Pence , as a candidate for the office of Vice President ( " running mate ") from. Previously, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich , New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and retired General Michael T. Flynn were also mentioned in the media . All three played advisory roles in Trump's campaign and were traded as part of a Trump administration in the event of an election victory. Pence had previously commented positively on Trump in the Republican primary in his state on May 3, but said he would vote for his opponent Ted Cruz . After Trump prevailed surprisingly clearly and was consequently the party's candidate, the governor declared his support for Trump in the actual election campaign. According to the media, Trump's children Don junior , Ivanka and Eric played a central role in the selection of the runner-up. In the election campaign, Pence was primarily intended to compensate for Trump's lack of political experience; for example, before his time as governor (since 2013) he had been a member of the House of Representatives for twelve years . From this time he also has good relationships with important officials and officials of the Republicans. Pence is also supposed to compensate for Trump's extroverted demeanor with his calm and matter-of-fact personality and appeal to evangelical voters who are skeptical of Trump but who form an important part of the Republican electorate.

    Donald Trump was elected presidential candidate at the Republican Convention on July 19, 2016 in Cleveland. His strongest rival in the primaries, Ted Cruz, refused to support him at the party conference. An attempt by delegates to change the voting rules to prevent Trump from being elected failed. Trump is the first candidate for a major political party since Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 , who never held political office. He is also the first applicant since the lawyer and businessman Wendell Willkie in 1940 to have neither a political mandate nor a high military rank.

    Numerous well-known Republicans doubted Trump's suitability for president. There were considerations within the conservative political camp, in the event of a victory for outsider Donald Trump, to nominate an independent third candidate for the general election in November. There was also speculation about the appearance of a previously non-running party size at the nomination convention, and House spokesman Paul Ryan was mentioned particularly often , who denied such plans, but not in the absolute manner required by the American media landscape. On August 8, 2016, Republican Evan McMullin announced his candidacy as an independent candidate .

    Libertarian party

    See also: Libertarian Party

    Voting options for the electors of the Libertarian Party
  • On the ballot
  • At their convention in Orlando, Florida on May 29, 2016 , the Libertarian Party elected former Republican governor of New Mexico , Gary E. Johnson , as its candidate in the upcoming presidential election. Johnson had been the top candidate in the previous election and received just under 1% of the national vote. In national polls in May it reached values ​​of around 10%. This has been attributed to the relative unpopularity of the likely candidates Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. Former Republican governor of Massachusetts , Bill Weld , was elected as a candidate for vice presidency . Both Johnson and Weld, as Republicans, belonged to the moderate wing of their former party and take more liberal positions, especially on socio-political issues. The Libertarian Party was the only third party eligible for election in all states of the United States as well as Washington, DC in the 2016 presidential election . Because of this general eligibility and the relatively good poll numbers Johnson demanded this and his supporters that he should participate in the TV debates . However, this was considered unrealistic, as Johnson's polls are below 15%. This value was set by the responsible Commission on Presidential Debates as the lower limit for admission to these debates. On September 1, he and the Green Party candidate, Jill Stein, filed an appeal against a negative complaint against this restriction.

    Elected as a candidate

    Green party

    Voting options for the electors of the Green Party
  • On the ballot
  • Handwritten entry not possible on ballot paper
  • Not on ballot papers
  • See also: Green Party (United States)

    • For the office of President: Jill Stein , doctor and candidate of her Green Party for the 2012 election
    • For the office of Vice President: Ajamu Baraka , political activist

    Constitution Party

    Voting options for the electors of the Constitution Party
  • On the ballot
  • Handwritten entry not possible on ballot paper
  • Not on ballot papers
  • See also: Constitution Party

    Independent Evan McMullin

    Voting options for Evan McMullin
  • On the ballot
  • Handwritten entry not possible on ballot paper
  • Not on ballot papers
  • On August 8, 2016, Republican Evan McMullin announced that he would run as an independent candidate, serving in Arkansas and New Mexico for Better for America , Minnesota for the Independence Party of Minnesota, and South Carolina for the South Carolina Independence Party ran for. In a number of states, the deadlines for a candidacy had already passed. Evan McMullin planned to be eligible in all 50 states anyway. He wanted to achieve this by either being nominated by other parties, by suing him or by the voters choosing him by adding his name by hand (" Write-in "). McMullin had access to 84 votes in Electoral College , in addition, he was able to get 245 additional votes through write-ins. On October 6, McMullin announced that Mindy Finn , a former "Digital Strategy Advisor" to the Republican National Committee and the National Republican Senatorial Committee , was his candidate for the vice presidency.

    For the electoral process itself, however, Nathan Johnson was the candidate for the vice-presidency, a friend of McMullin's: He only fulfilled a placeholder function , which results from the fact that in many states a candidacy is only valid if it contains an early nomination for the vice-presidency. In the event of his election, Johnson stated that he would not accept his position and would leave it to Mindy Finn.

    Social media, fake news and disruptive maneuvers by hackers

    In the summer of 2016, Trump hired the same agency that Brexit proponents had hired. They surprisingly won the EU membership referendum on June 23, 2016 . The company Cambridge Analytica (then CEO Alexander James Ashburner Nix , CEO Steve Bannon , appointed chief advisor Trumps after the election) works with methods of psychometrics, an offshoot of psychology, to collect, analyze, use and allocation, as well as the direct marketing and the Selling mainly personal data obtained on the Internet ( see Big Data and Psychography ).

    Cambridge Analytica claimed in late 2016 that it had Big Five (psychology) (OCEAN model) -based personality profiles of 220 million adults in the United States.

    Social media such as Twitter and Facebook as well as “ social bots ” are basically able to influence discussions that take place during election campaigns and to bring new topics into circulation. In the election campaign for the US presidency, social media and associated automation technologies such as text robots and bots were widely used and their possible foreign origin and influence discussed. Donald Trump's handling of internet media, which he perfected as a long-time media personality, was considered particularly advanced in 2016. At the beginning of his candidacy, Trump was already better known than all of his Republican competitors combined. On the day of his candidacy, he had 3 million followers on Twitter, 5 million in December 2015 and 7.5 million in summer 2016. Hillary Clinton had 5.9 million followers, Bernie Sanders 1.9 million and John Kasich , the last remaining internal contestant, 289,000. A Twitterbot was programmed at MIT to imitate typical Trump tweets.

    About 20% of the posts on Twitter during the election campaign were probably generated by social bots. Trump, in particular, made personal statements about the candidates during the election campaign via his Twitter account. Some of his tweets met with criticism not only in the camp of his opponent Clinton.

    In particular, the phenomenon of fictitious news reports, so-called “fake news” , which were often created by private individuals and passed on to large sections of the user base through Facebook's internal processes, was feared to influence voting decisions.

    The alleged interference by Russian hackers in the election campaign, which led to the publication of confidential data and documents of the democratic electoral staff in favor of Trump, was also of particular importance. WikiLeaks published several batches of documents in October 2016 from the email account of Hillary Clinton's campaign manager , John Podesta . American security groups suspected hackers working for Russia to have stolen the data. The publication by WikiLeaks on October 11th, just as Clinton's rival candidate Donald Trump was also coming under strong public pressure, was interpreted by Clinton's team as an attempt to influence the election on behalf of the Russian President. Putin rejected any involvement of his country in the attacks. The Washington Post explained, however, how Trump could have quoted Sputnik from the “pulled” information from the Russian propaganda source without questioning it. Julian Assange rejected the allegations of cooperation with Russia in several statements. He also linked the blocking of his Internet access in his London embassy asylum on October 15, 2016 with recently published transcripts of three lucratively paid lectures by Clinton to representatives of the investment bank Goldman Sachs .

    In May 2017, the responsible Vice President of the US Department of Justice, Rod Rosenstein, authorized former FBI Director Robert Mueller to conduct a special investigation into influencing the election campaign in the United States in 2016 after the FBI had already started investigations into the complex in June 2016. Mueller brought charges against 13 Russian citizens and organizations in February 2018 for conspiracy to influence the election. The accused are accused of building a complex organizational structure in Russia to prepare and carry out the influence, as well as setting up a server structure in the USA to conceal the Russian IP addresses. They then appeared as committed Americans with numerous false identities on social networks in order to influence public opinion in key areas of the USA.

    Use of language in election campaigns

    The linguistic style of the candidates was scientifically analyzed several times. Purely based on the Flesch-Kincaid readability index , Trump and the runner-up John Kasich had the simplest grammar among the Republicans . The democratic applicant Bernie Sanders appeared much more complex in terms of readability. With Sanders, a difference between simple grammar and a thoroughly sophisticated vocabulary was particularly noticeable.

    The later election winner Trump mostly used short, clearly structured sentences and often the imperative, as in his slogan Make America Great Again , in public appearances . The words had few syllables. His campaign speeches used an extremely simple grammar, which, according to appropriate indices, even eleven-year-olds understand. The vocabulary was just a little more difficult. Trump also used a clearly more feminine connotated style of language than all of his competitors and the democratic rival candidate.

    Provocations and punchlines

    The party's internal primaries were already considered extremely confrontational. Trump regularly used provocative remarks. He echoed various conspiracy theories and outsider theses and thus attracted constant attention. Trump alluded to rumors, among other things, that Rafael Cruz, father of his competitor Ted Cruz , was involved in the assassination of President Kennedy. Cruz, in turn, tried to portray Trump as too left-wing for religious and conservative voters and too unreliable in the past. Trump already had more followers on social media at the beginning of his candidacy than all of his (party-internal) opponents combined. He had decades of experience and networking in the show and celebrity environment and was preferred to be quoted and discussed. He consciously distanced himself from the rhetoric common in politics. His mostly short sentences were structured more like punchlines , with the most important words following at the end. They were also very well suited for media playback. Professional political actors, including Clinton, often evaded critical questions and situations in abstraction. Under pressure, they used restrictive phrases and generalizing terms. Trump, on the other hand, consistently stayed with the simplified sentence structure and thus also signaled distance from professional politics. Trump tended to evade questions about content and positions. He repeated questions about how to proceed rather than answering them, referring to anecdotes rather than committing to details.

    Gender-specific language style

    According to a linguistic study, Trump uses a clearly more feminine connotated style of language than all of his competitors, including Hillary Clinton. A style of speech that addresses social and emotional aspects, is expressive and dynamic and implements this through the greater use of auxiliary verbs and other appropriate markers is considered to be more feminine. The investigation describes Clinton's fundamental dilemma as the claim to be made to be more masculine in order to be considered for a leadership role. Especially at critical times in her career, Clinton fell into expressions that were understood differently depending on the gender. The male candidates, on the other hand, could gain advantages if they use a language style that is perceived as more feminine.

    According to a comparative computer linguistic study, Trump's linguistic style was rated more feminine than Hillary Clinton's. According to the study, Clinton was about average, she spoke more feminine than George W. Bush, but more masculine than Barack Obama. Donald Trump's feminine language was also noticeable in that the difference in measured femininity between Trump and the second, Ben Carson , is similar to the difference between Carson and the manly candidate Jim Webb , who ran as a former Republican in the Democratic primary was. Ted Cruz was the last and most linguistically manly Republican. The candidates placed after Cruz, Dennis Kucinich , Martin O'Malley and Jim Webb are all Democrats.

    Election result

    Percentage of votes
    ( Popular Vote )
    Election result by county
    The change in voting behavior in the states compared to the 2012 presidential election

    On November 8, 2016, the electoral college for the election of the 45th President of the United States of America was determined in a general election by the respective voters of the 50 states and Washington DC . According to the electors' original vote , the Republican ticket (Trump / Pence) in Electoral College received 306 votes and the Democratic ticket (Clinton / Kaine) received 232 votes.

    In addition to the Red States , the Republican camp Florida and North Carolina , as well as Michigan and Wisconsin in the Rust Belt of the Midwest , won over. The Democrats won the election of the swing states of Virginia , Colorado and Nevada . Most states voted more republican than they did in the 2012 presidential election.

    Contrary to the voting ratio of the electoral college determined on November 8, 2016, there were a total of seven deviating votes in the actual election for president on December 19, 2016 by that same body .

    It is estimated that the turnout on November 8, 2016 was 60.2%.

    Political party Home state Votes
    (" Popular Vote ")
    Electoral votes
    ( "Electoral Vote")
    Absolutely % On November 8th determined voting ratio in the Electoral College Actual voting by Electoral College on December 19, 2016
    Donald Trump
    Mike Pence
    republican New York
    62,984,825 46.09% 306 304
    Hillary Clinton
    Tim Kaine
    Democrats New York
    65,853,516 48.18% 232 227
    Gary Johnson
    William Weld
    Libertarian party New Mexico
    4,489,221 3.28% 00- 00-
    Jill Stein
    Ajamu Baraka
    Green party Massachusetts
    1,457,216 1.07% 00- 00-
    Evan McMullin
    Mindy Finn
    More independent Utah
    District of Columbia
    731.788 0.54% 00- 00-
    Other 1,152,671 0.84% 00- 007th
    total 136,669,237 100  %00 538 538
    Source: Federal Election Commission


  • Recount ended
  • Re-count canceled or rejected
    • Wisconsin , Pennsylvania and Michigan : In late November 2016, Green politician Jill Stein announced that she would officially request a recount of votes in these states. Had all three states been retrospectively awarded Clinton, she would have had a majority in Electoral College , winning the 2016 presidential election.
      Computer experts had criticized the voting machines used in the three states, which are susceptible to hacker attacks and therefore cannot be used in other states, including California . Clinton had fared significantly worse in constituencies where voting machines were used than in those where voting papers were used. Some statistics experts said that this could also be due to demographic differences in the respective counties . For the high costs of the challenge, Stein claims to have raised more than $ 7.3 million in donations in a short time. Clinton supported the initiative but did not actively participate. Trump moved on December 1 and 2, 2016, to stop the recounts in Pennsylvania and Michigan. Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette filed a lawsuit against a Michigan recount.
    On December 5, 2016, the Michigan recount began; it was canceled on December 9th by the Michigan Supreme Court . On December 12, the Wisconsin vote recount was completed. Clinton was awarded an additional 713 votes and Trump 844 votes. On the same day, a Pennsylvania federal district court judge rejected a recount.
    At the 33rd Chaos Communication Congress, Matt Bernhard and J. Alex Halderman from the University of Michigan spoke about the recount and said: “Evidence supports the integrity of the election outcome, but is not strong enough to definitively rule out a cyberattack on the voting machines , due to the recounts being incomplete. "(" The indications speak for the correctness of the election, even if the abortion of the counting does not allow a definitive statement about a cyber attack on voting computers. ")" Hacking a US presidential election [is] even easier than we thought! ”(“ Hacking a US presidential election is even easier than we thought! ”). They call for a reform of the US electoral system and name the hardening of the technologies used, the use of paper ballot papers (if necessary, printouts from the voting computer) and mandatory audits with the help of these ballot papers.
    On December 8th the recount was finished; no significant differences were found. The result from November 8th remains.
    • Florida : On December 2, 2016, three voters filed a lawsuit against the electoral body, candidate Trump and Florida governor Rick Scott , demanding that a recount in all Florida polling stations be funded because they believed computer fraud (hacking ), Malfunction of the voting machines and other problems had led to a falsification of the result of the first count. The lawsuit was initially accepted but could not have been dealt with until after the defendants responded to the lawsuit.
    A complete recount by the Secretary of State of Florida was not considered until December 15 , government spokeswoman Meredith Beatrice emailed ABC News that there was no evidence of electoral problems in Florida. A court refused to recount; the appeal was also dismissed by the First District Court of Appeal in Florida .

    Voting of electors and time afterwards

    The electors of the Electoral College gave their votes for the offices of the December 19, 2016 the President and Vice President from. On that day, the electors met in the capitals of the states. The ballot papers were sealed; they were tallied on January 6, 2017, ahead of a session of the U.S. Congress in Washington, DC. Although the official result was not announced until January, it was already clear on December 19 that there were seven deviants. Two electorates in Texas who should have voted for Trump refused to do so and voted for John Kasich and Ron Paul, respectively . Five electors who should have voted Clinton also voted for other people. In Washington state , three dissenters voted for former Secretary of State Colin Powell and another for American Indian environmental activist Faith Spotted Eagle ; in Hawaii one vote went to Bernie Sanders. There have never been seven electors with dissenting votes in Electoral College. The highest number up to 2016 was 1808 with six dissenting votes.

    Presidential candidate Vice presidential candidate be right
    Donald Trump Mike Pence 304
    Hillary Clinton Tim Kaine 227
    Colin Powell Maria Cantwell
    Susan Collins
    Elizabeth Warren
    John Kasich Carly Fiorina 1
    Ron Paul Mike Pence 1
    Bernie Sanders Elizabeth Warren 1
    Faith Spotted Eagle Winona LaDuke 1

    Up until December 19, 2016, attempts were made (for example through letters, e-mails or phone calls, in some cases through threats of violence and death) to influence Republican electors not to vote for Donald Trump. Nearly five million people signed an online petition to this effect addressed to the Electoral College. Following Trump's election by the Electoral College, Congress determined the election result on January 6, 2017 (according to United States Code § 15). On January 20, 2017, Donald Trump was sworn in and inducted into office as President , which began his presidency .

    Even months after his election victory, Trump claimed that illegally immigrants or the deceased had voted for Hillary Clinton a million times. Trump set up a commission to back up his claim. However, this found no evidence and was dissolved.


    • David A Schultz, Rafael Jacob (Eds.): Presidential Swing States. 2nd updated edition. Lexington Books, Lanham 2018, ISBN 978-1-4985-6587-5 .
    • Larry Sabato, Kyle Kondik, Geoffrey Skelley (Eds.): Trumped. The 2016 election that broke all the rules. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham 2017, ISBN 978-1-4422-7938-4 .
    • Jared Yates Sexton: The People Are Going to Rise Like the Waters Upon Your Shore: A Story of American Rage. Counterpoint, Berkeley 2017, ISBN 978-1-61902-956-9 .
    • Wolfgang Fach : Trump - an American dream? Why America got the wrong choice. transcript, Bielefeld 2020, ISBN 978-3-8376-5068-6 , download (PDF; 1.4 MB).

    Web links


    Main choice

    Internal party primaries

    Individual evidence

    1. a b c d 2016 Electoral College Results U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
      Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results Federal Election Commission
    2. Biden renounces candidacy , dpa fr-online.de, October 21, 2015
    3. Timeline of the 2016 pre-election dates
    4. Amy Chozick: Hillary Clinton Announces 2016 Presidential Bid. nytimes.com, April 15, 2015
    5. Maggie Haberman and Alan Rappeport: Jim Webb Announces Democratic Bid for Presidency. nytimes.com, July 2, 2015
    6. Michael Walsh: Jim Webb drops out of Democratic primary race , Yahoo News, Oct. 20, 2015.
    7. ^ Presidential race: Ex-Republican wants to overtake Hillary on the left . FAZ.net, June 4, 2015;
      Chafee Withdraws from 2016 Democratic Presidential Race. ( Memento from February 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: Chafee2016.com , October 23, 2015.
    8. ^ Daniel Strauss: Lessig drops out of presidential race , Politico, November 2, 2015.
    9. ^ Matthias Kolb and Johannes Kuhn: Ted Cruz wins Republican area code in Iowa , Süddeutsche Zeitung of February 2, 2016.
    10. Alan Rappeport: Bernie Sanders, Long-serving Independent, Enters Presidential Race as a Democrat. nytimes.com, April 20, 2015
    11. ^ Peter Gruber: Family matter USA. on Focus.de, December 31, 2014
    12. If running: Obama would support Hillary Clinton. on Focus.de, November 24, 2014
    13. ^ Kathleen Ronayne: Sanders declares as Democrat in NH primary. burlingtonfreepress.com, November 5, 2015
    14. Laura Reston: Americans Love an Underdog - Just Not Lincoln Chafee, Jim Webb, or Martin O'Malley. In: The New Republic , October 14, 2015.
    15. 'There is no way I won't be' the Democratic nominee, says Hillary Clinton. In: PBS NewsHour. May 19, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2016 (American English).
    16. n-tv news television: The Sanders phenomenon: That's why “Bernie” doesn't give up. In: n-tv.de. Retrieved May 30, 2016 .
    17. Peter Winkler: Sanders wants to vote for Clinton. Presidential election in the USA. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung. June 24, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016 .
    18. Sanders wants to vote for Clinton. In: sueddeutsche.de. June 24, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016 .
    19. Democrats officially elect Hillary Clinton as a candidate. In: Spiegel Online. July 27, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016 .
    20. Debbie Wasserman Schultz resigns over email affair. In: Spiegel Online. July 25, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016 .
    21. Hacks: The Inside Story of the Break-ins and Breakdowns That Put Donald Trump in the White House , ISBN 0316478512
    22. Hillary Clinton cancels trip after California pneumonia forces departure from 9/11 ceremony
    23. Donna Brazile says critics of Hillary Clinton revelations can 'go to hell'
    24. Trump wants to be US President . Tagesschau.de, June 16, 2015.
    25. ^ Taylor Wofford: Rick Perry to Run for President . Newsweek, June 4, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
    26. Rick Perry gives up. Süddeutsche Zeitung, September 12, 2015. Accessed May 6, 2016.
    27. Jenna Johnson, Dan Balz and Robert Costa: Scott Walker suspends presidential campaign . Washington Post, September 21, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
    28. Bobby Jindal also wants to be president. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , June 24, 2015
    29. Ben Jacobs, Tom McCarthy: Republican Bobby Jindal Suspends Presidential Campaign. In: The Guardian , November 17, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
    30. ^ Kate Bolduan: Graham ends his campaign for the White House. In: CNN , December 21, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
    31. Republican candidate: George Pataki also wants to become US President. In: rp-online.de , May 28, 2015. Accessed May 6, 2016.
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