New York (State)
|List of states|
|Residents:||19,745,289 (2016 estimated) (162 U / km²)|
|Member since:||July 26, 1788|
|Time zone:||Eastern: UTC − 5 / −4|
|The highest point:||1,629 m ( Mount Marcy )|
|Average Height:||305 m|
|Deepest point:||0 m Atlantic Ocean|
|Governor :||Andrew Cuomo ( D )|
|Post / Office / ISO||NY / / US-NY|
New York (standard language ( AE ) [ nuːˈjɔɹk ], regionally also [ nuːˈjɔə̯k ] or [ nɪˈjɔə̯k ]; BE : [ ˈnjuːˈjɔːk ]) is a state in the northeast of the United States of America . In addition to New Jersey , Pennsylvania , Delaware and Maryland , New York is included in the Central Atlantic States . New York has an area of 141,299 square kilometers and is with 19.3 million inhabitants (as of 2010) the third most populous state in the USA after California and Texas .
The capital of the state, the official surnamed Empire State ( Empire has -State) is Albany ; largest city is New York City . The area north of the New York metropolitan area is referred to as Upstate New York ; New York City and Long Island together form Downstate New York . Major cities in upstate New York are Buffalo , Rochester , Syracuse , Albany , Schenectady, and Utica .
New York borders Pennsylvania and New Jersey to the south, Massachusetts , Connecticut and Vermont to the east, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario to the north and northwest . New York also has a maritime border with Rhode Island . The state covers an area of slightly more than 141,000 km² and thus ranks 27th among the US states by area.
The state of New York is shaped by the northern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains . The average height above sea level is between 300 and 1000 m. In the north are the Adirondacks with Mount Marcy , the highest mountain in the state with 1629 m.
In the north, the state borders on Lake Erie and Lake Ontario as well as on the St. Lawrence River , where there are smaller lowlands. In the southeast is the valley of the Hudson River and Long Island , an approximately 200 km long and 20 to 30 km wide island on which large parts of New York City are located.
The Appalachians, which occupy most of the state, are a folded mountain range . The mountain ranges in the state belong to the northern part of the Appalachian Mountains, are therefore around 500 million years old and are among the mountains that were formed by the Caledonian mountain formation. Due to this old age, however, a lot of material was removed. This explains the relatively low altitude that the Appalachians have compared to other folded mountain ranges. The lowlands and Long Island are geological tables.
The soils (especially black earth ) are very similar to those in Central Europe and are relatively fertile, but still of poor quality. The higher it gets in the Appalachians, the more rocky and therefore more sterile the soil becomes. There are no extensive mineral deposits, only small deposits of iron ores , rock salt and crude oil / natural gas as well as lead and zinc .
All of New York State has a temperate climate. The average temperature on the coast is around 12 ° C. The temperature is around 0 ° C in winter (December – March) and around 25–30 ° C in summer (June – September). The difference is relatively high at up to 30 ° C for a coastal region. The high temperatures in summer can be explained by the relatively southern location (approx. 42 ° a. B.). The cool temperatures of winter result from the influences of the Appalachian Mountains. The annual amount of precipitation is about 1000 mm, the precipitation is evenly distributed over the whole year.
In the Appalachian Mountains, on the other hand, temperatures are lower due to the altitude and there is less precipitation. In the winter months the average temperature is down to −10 ° C, in summer around 20 ° C. The amount of precipitation is 200 to 300 mm less than on the coast, but is evenly distributed. In the north-west of the state, by the lakes and the St. Lawrence River, the climate hardly differs from that of the Appalachians, except that it is a little milder due to the lower altitude.
The most important river is the Hudson River , which rises in the north of the state. It has numerous smaller tributaries (e.g. Mohawk River ), which also arise in the Appalachians . Other significant rivers include the Saint Lawrence River , which forms part of the Ontario border, the Susquehanna River, and the Delaware River .
The state lies on Lake Erie in the west and Lake Ontario in the northwest. There are also a number of small and medium-sized lakes (e.g. the Finger Lakes with Seneca Lake , Cayuga Lake and Oneida Lake , Lake George and Lake Champlain , which forms the border with the state of Vermont in the northeast), plus many waterfalls ( e.g. Niagara Falls or Taughannock Falls ).
New York has 19,378,105 inhabitants (as of the 2010 census), of which 57.2% are white, 17.5% African-American, 18.4% Central or Latin American, 8.2% Asian, 1.0% Indian.
Age and gender structure
The age structure of New York is composed as follows (as of: Census 2010):
- up to 18 years: 4,185,670 (21.6%)
- 18 to 64 years: 12,401,985 (64%)
- from 65 years: 2,790,447 (14.4%)
The median age is 38 years. 48.5% of the population are male and 51.5% are female.
12.8% of the population are of Italian descent, making them the largest group. This is followed by the Irish (11.6%), German (10.0%), English (5.0%) and Polish groups (4.6%) (as of 2014).
The religious communities with the largest number of members in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 7,550,491, the United Methodist Church with 403,362, the American Baptist Churches USA with 203,297 and the Anglican Episcopal Church with 201,797. In addition, 1,653,870 residents were Jewish and 223,968 residents were Islamic .
New York State GDP per capita in 2016 : $ 75,360 (US average $ 57,118)
Economic growth (2014): 2.5% (US average: 2.2%)
Unemployment rate (November 2017): 4.7% (national average: 4.1%).
Overall, the New York economic area is characterized by the secondary (industry) and tertiary (services) economic sector. Agriculture (mixed and traditional) and fishing play a relatively minor role. Fruit (mainly apples, strawberries and cherries) is grown on the Hudson and Lake Ontario, and smaller amounts of wheat are also grown in the Rochester area. There are also small wine-growing areas. Livestock is also raised in the more hilly areas. The state of New York is therefore one of the largest milk producers in the USA. The farms are small, the "agrobusiness" widespread in the Midwest and South of the USA does not exist here because the areas are relatively small. The extraction of raw materials, which is also part of the primary sector, is mainly carried out in the north of the state. Iron ores and steel refiners are mined in a few places, as are rock salts (in the Rochester region) and small amounts of oil and natural gas in the southwest. Industry plays a major role in medium-sized cities (Buffalo, Rochester, Albany), and the entire state of New York belongs to the Manufacturing Belt . The most important branches of industry are mechanical engineering and vehicle construction as well as electrical engineering. The basis for this is iron and steel production, which is primarily operated in and around Buffalo.
Electrical engineering and printing are two of the major industries in the New York City area. Nevertheless, this region occupies an exceptional position, because the service is by far the most important branch of the economy here. Numerous companies in the high-tech industry (e.g. IBM ), banking and finance (e.g. Goldman Sachs , JP Morgan ) and influential newspapers (e.g. The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal ) and television stations (e.g. NBC , HBO ) are based in New York City, as is the world's most important stock exchange ( New York Stock Exchange ). In addition, numerous important scientific (e.g. New York University , Columbia University ) and cultural (e.g. Metropolitan Opera , Museum of Modern Art ) institutions are located in a very small space in New York City .
The infrastructure in the state of New York is well developed; the New York State Department of Transportation is responsible for planning, construction and maintenance in addition to other authorities . Several highways connect New York City with the cities on the Great Lakes as well as with the other states, especially New Jersey , which is home to many people who work in New York City. The road network is only very extensive in the southwest of the state, but there is hardly any need there due to the low population density.
Long- distance passenger rail transport does not exist, with the exception of the Niagara Service (on the New York City - Buffalo - Niagara route ) and the daily train pair to Montreal . On the other hand, the widely branched and much-used subway and regional train network of the city of New York is rather untypical for the USA . This network relieves the roads, which often have large traffic jams anyway.
With the J. F. Kennedy Airport (mainly for international flights), New York City has the thirteenth largest airport in the world (41.9 million passengers in 2005; sixth largest airport in the USA). Another airport is La Guardia Airport , which is mainly used for domestic flights. In 2006, a good 25 million passengers were handled there. Other airports are in Albany , Rochester , Buffalo ( Buffalo Niagara International Airport and Buffalo Municipal Airport ) and Syracuse , i.e. in every major city.
The Port of New York is the largest seaport on the US east coast. Container throughput has increased enormously , especially at the Newark (NJ) location of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey .
An important inland port is that of the city of Buffalo . Mainly raw materials for the industries based in the state of New York, such as B. coal, iron ore and steel, delivered. The Erie Canal , which connects Lake Erie to the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson , also flows here .
As in the rest of the United States, almost all residents of New York State have access to clean drinking water and electricity. However, these supply networks are also in great need of renovation; extensive power failures are a frequent indication of this. The telecommunications network (including the Internet) is one of the best developed and densest in the world.
An important source of energy is hydropower ; the power plants at Niagara Falls are particularly worth mentioning here. Another large portion is generated from nuclear power (the state has three nuclear power plants with multiple nuclear reactors at two locations) and natural gas .
- Fitzpatrick nuclear power plant (construction started in 1970, one boiling water reactor, 852 MW (net))
- Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Plant
- Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant in Buchanan , about 55 km north of New York City
(two pressurized water reactors, construction started in 1966 and 1969, 1020 and 1025 MW (net))
Most of the Indians in what is now the state were evicted. Many Lenni Lenape went to Oklahoma , Mohican and Munsee to Wisconsin , the Abenaki are recognized in Canada , but not in New York. The Mohegan nation with its individual tribes, the Shinnecock , Pequot and Narraganset , remained in the region, but their numbers are small. The Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center in Connecticut is particularly reminiscent of the Indians of New York. Only the Iroquois still live to a large extent in the state of New York.
The Dutch colony Nieuw Nederland , founded in 1621, was annexed by the English crown in 1664 and divided into New Jersey and New York. New York was named after the Duke of York , later King James II , who received the colony as a gift from his brother, King Charles II . In 1667 the Netherlands ceded to England in the Peace of Breda Nieuw Nederland . The assignment was confirmed after the temporary occupation of the city of New York by a Dutch fleet in 1674 in the Peace of Westminster . In 1685 New York became a crown colony and three years later, in 1688, it became part of the short-lived Dominion of New England. When news of the Glorious Revolution reached the colonies in 1689 , turmoil broke out in which the German-American Jakob Leisler played a leading role. The colonial constitution of the province of New York was reinstated after the arrival of a new governor in 1691.
As one of the Thirteen Colonies , New York joined the American Union in 1788 as the eleventh state. The city of New York City became the first capital of the United States in 1789.
Governor and State Government
The governor exercises executive power at the state level, that is, he leads the state government and determines the guidelines of the policy. He has the right to pardons , appoints senior civil servants and judges to the state constitutional court, and plays a central role in lawmaking by signing or vetoing bills. He is also commander in chief of the New York National Guard and represents the state externally. The governor is elected directly by the people every four years. Other important members of the executive are the lieutenant governor , the attorney general , the secretary of state and the state treasurer (roughly equivalent to a finance minister).
The legislative power at the level of the state is determined by the New York State Legislature exercised. It consists of a state senate with 63 directly elected senators and the state assembly with 150 directly elected representatives. The terms of office are four or two years. Since the state parliament elections in 2018 , the Democrats have had a clear majority in both chambers. The state legislature is seated in the Capitol in Albany, the capital of the state.
Presidential elections and Congress
Between 1809 and 1972, New York was the state with the highest number of electoral votes in the Electoral College in the presidential election. For the Democratic Party of the USA, the state - in addition to its tradition as a former heavyweight vote (now only in third place with 29 electoral votes, behind Texas with 38 electoral votes and California with 55 electoral votes) - is of great importance; he is considered a stronghold of the Democrats and last voted in a presidential election in 1984 with a majority for the Republican candidate.
In the last election, the New York Democrats achieved results that were always just under or even over 60 percent. However, this concentration is limited to the cities of New York City , Buffalo and Rochester ; the rural population - as in other states of the USA - predominantly elects Republicans.
It is also worth noting that New York Republicans, who have played a major role in the democratic state over the past decade, are more likely to belong to the left wing of their party. Worth mentioning here are George Pataki and Rudy Giuliani . Synonymous with "moderate Republican" is the former US Vice President and Governor of New York State Nelson Rockefeller .
In the Senate of the 114th Congress , New York is represented by the Democrats Charles Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand . The state delegation to the 116th Congress House of Representatives consists of 21 Democrats and five Republicans.
|year||Candidate (winner)||percent||be right||Candidate (loser)||percent||be right|
|2016||Hillary Clinton (D)||59.00||4,556,142||Donald Trump (R)||36.51||2,819,557|
|2012||Barack Obama (D)||63.35||4,485,877||Mitt Romney (R)||35.17||2,490,496|
|2008||Barack Obama (D)||62.88||4,804,945||John McCain (R)||36.03||2,752,771|
|2004||John Kerry (D)||58.36||4,314,280||George W. Bush (R)||40.08||2,962,567|
|2000||Al Gore (D)||60.22||4,113,791||George W. Bush (R)||35.22||2,405,676|
|1996||Bill Clinton (D)||59.47||3,756,177||Bob dole (r)||30.61||1,933,492|
|1992||Bill Clinton (D)||49.73||3,444,450||George HW Bush (R)||33.88||2,346,649|
|1988||Michael Dukakis (D)||51.62||3,347,882||George HW Bush (R)||47.52||3,081,871|
|1984||Ronald reagan (r)||53.84||3,664,763||Walter Mondale (D)||45.83||3,119,609|
|1980||Ronald reagan (r)||46.66||2,893,831||Jimmy Carter (D)||43.99||2,728,372|
|1976||Jimmy Carter (D)||51.87||3,389,558||Gerald Ford (R)||47.45||3,100,791|
|1972||Richard Nixon (R)||58.54||4,192,778||George McGovern (D)||41.21||2,951,084|
|1968||Hubert H. Humphrey (D)||49.76||3,378,470||Richard Nixon (R)||44.30||3,007,932|
|1964||Lyndon B. Johnson (D)||68.56||4,913,156||Barry goldwater (r)||31.31||2,243,559|
|1960||John F. Kennedy (D)||52.53||3,830,085||Richard Nixon (R)||47.27||3,446,419|
|1956||Dwight D. Eisenhower (R)||61.19||4,340,340||Adlai Ewing Stevenson (D)||38.78||2,750,769|
|1952||Dwight D. Eisenhower (R)||55.45||3,952,815||Adlai Ewing Stevenson (D)||43.55||3,104,601|
|1948||Thomas E. Dewey (R)||45.98||2,841,163||Harry S. Truman (D)||45.00||2,780,204|
|1944||Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)||52.31||3,304,238||Thomas E. Dewey (R)||47.30||2,987,647|
|1940||Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)||51.50||3,251,918||Wendell Willkie (R)||47.95||3,027,478|
|1936||Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)||58.85||3,293,222||Alf Landon (R)||38.97||2,180,670|
|1932||Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)||54.07||2,534,959||Herbert Hoover (R)||41.33||1,937,963|
|1928||Herbert Hoover (R)||49.79||2,193,344||Alfred E. Smith (D)||47.44||2,089,863|
|1924||Calvin Coolidge (R)||55.76||1,820,058||John W. Davis (D)||29.13||950,796|
|1920||Warren G. Harding (R)||64.56||1,871,167||James M. Cox (D)||26.95||781.238|
|1916||Charles Evans Hughes (R)||51.53||879.238||Woodrow Wilson (D)||44.51||759.426|
|1912||Woodrow Wilson (D)||41.27||655.573||William Howard Taft (R)||28.68||455.487|
In August 2020, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation published a bill to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thus implement the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act . The proposal initially envisages a 40 percent reduction in methane and other harmful gases by 2030 and an 85 percent reduction by 2050. In addition, a carbon-free electricity system must be created by 2040 .
The state of New York is a major educational location in the USA . The most important state universities are grouped together in the State University of New York and the City University of New York . The best known private colleges are Columbia University , Cornell University and New York University . Other well-known private colleges are Fordham University , Hofstra University , Long Island University , St. John's University , Syracuse University , University of Rochester, and Yeshiva University . Other universities are included in the list of universities in New York .
Important goals for the Americans are Long Iceland (many beaches and large fish stocks for fishing), some small towns in Appalachia (ski resorts), as well as almost the entire state in the fall when the so-called Indian summer the leaves of deciduous trees many, obtained exceptionally intense shades. New York City is very interesting with its many cultural institutions (Metropolitan Opera, Museum of Modern Art, Guggenheim Museum) and famous buildings (Statue of Liberty, Empire State Building, Chrysler Building).
Overall, tourism is becoming more and more important as it is becoming more popular to spend your summer vacation on Long Island. The increase in airfares in recent years is the reason why many Americans no longer fly to the Caribbean or even further (e.g. to Hawaii ). The winter sports areas are still very poorly developed. The Indian summer is still popular.
- US Census Bureau ( Memento from May 16, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- US Census Bureau _ Census of Population and Housing . Retrieved November 21, 2014
- Extract from Census.gov . Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Excerpt from factfinder.census.gov.Retrieved February 28, 2011
- Census New York Selected Social Characteristics
- US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic Analysis: Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved August 27, 2017 (American English).
- US Bureau of Economic Analysis: Regional Economic Accounts
- Unemployment Rates for States. Retrieved January 8, 2018 .
- William A. Ritchie: The Archeology of New York State , 1965, eBook, Random House, 2014, o. P.
- Governor Cuomo Announces Appointment of Rachel Haot as New York State's Chief Digital Officer
-  Internet portal CNN Politics.com
- David Leip: Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections. Retrieved December 2, 2018 .
- New York state releases proposed regulations to battle climate change. In: Reuters. August 14, 2020, accessed on August 14, 2020 .