Winter Olympic Games are part of the Olympic Games and have been held since 1924. Before that, there were winter sports competitions (such as figure skating) as part of the Summer Olympics in London in 1908 and Antwerp in 1920. The founder of the Olympics, Pierre de Coubertin , was against winter games because they didn't exist in ancient times and he was against his friend's Nordic Games and IOC founding member Colonel Viktor Balck(Sweden) wanted to protect. With Coubertin's withdrawal, the way was clear to establish another Olympic tradition. Until 1992, the Winter Games took place in the same year as the Summer Olympics. Since 1994 they have been held in alternation with the Summer Olympics every two years.
The Olympiad is the period between two summer games or between two winter games, which is normally four years. However, the term Winter Olympics refers to the respective Olympic Games in winter.
In contrast to the Summer Olympics, the Winter Olympics counts the number of games and not the number of Olympics. Games that were canceled due to the war are therefore not included in the official count.
The 2014 Winter Olympics took place in Sochi (Russia) from February 7th to 23rd ; the 2018 Winter Olympics from February 9th to 25th in Pyeongchang (South Korea).
Timeline Olympic Winter Games
Overview of all previous Olympic competitions in winter sports.
|I.||1924||Chamonix||16||258||247||11th||16||9 (6)||The international winter sports week was only subsequently recognized by the IOC as the 1st Olympic Winter Games. The official competitions were curling and a comparison in the military patrol run .|
|II.||1928||St. Moritz||25th||464||438||26th||14th||8 (4)||Since the 10,000 m speed skating could not be finished, medals were only awarded in 13 disciplines.|
|III.||1932||Lake Placid||17th||252||231||21||14th||7 (4)|
|IV.||1936||Garmisch-Partenkirchen||28||646||566||80||17th||8 (4)||For the first time with alpine ski races.|
Sapporo St. Moritz Garmisch-Partenkirchen
||Japan had to return the games to the IOC because of the Sino-Japanese War .
The IOC canceled the new award to St. Moritz due to differences in the ski competitions.
Because of the Second World War , the games were finally canceled entirely.
|1944||Cortina d'Ampezzo||Failed because of the ongoing Second World War.|
|V.||1948||St. Moritz||28||669||592||77||22nd||9 (4)|
|VII.||1956||Cortina d'Ampezzo||32||821||687||134||24||8 (4)|
|VIII.||1960||Squaw Valley||30th||665||521||144||27||8 (4)||No bobsleigh run available; Recording of biathlon .|
|IX.||1964||innsbruck||36||1091||892||199||34||10 (6)||Admission of toboggans .|
|XII.||1976||innsbruck||37||1123||892||231||37||10 (6)||In a second decision, the IOC awarded the games to Innsbruck after Denver had to give them back due to popular rejection in a referendum .|
|XIII.||1980||Lake Placid||37||1072||840||232||38||10 (6)|
|XV.||1988||Calgary||57||1423||1122||301||46||10 (6)||The IOC extended the duration of the Winter Games from 12 to 16 days.|
|XVI.||1992||Albertville||64||1801||1313||488||57||12 (6)||First time freestyle skiing ( mogul slope races only )|
|XVII.||1994||Lillehammer||67||1737||1215||522||61||12 (6)||The IOC had postponed the Winter Games to the intermediate years of the Summer Games, which meant that the Winter Games in 1992 and 1994 took place every two years.|
|XVIII.||1998||Nagano||72||2176||1389||787||68||14 (7)||Inclusion of curling as the seventh sport.|
|XIX.||2002||Salt Lake City||77||2399||1513||886||78||15 (7)||The Winter Games lasted 17 days. Skeleton was back on the program.|
|XXII.||2014||Sochi||88||2873||1714||1159||98||15 (7)||The largest expansion of the program to date with twelve new competitions.|
|XXV.||2026||Milan - Cortina d'Ampezzo||First ski mountaineering event|
Sports at the Winter Olympics
|ice Hockey||ice Hockey||0x||7x||17 ×||0x||0x|
|Ice skating||figure skating||0x||24 ×||0x||0x||0x|
|Speed skating||0x||17 ×||7x||0x||0x|
|Short track||14 ×||9x||0x||0x||1x|
|Alpine skiing||3x||21 ×||0x||0x||0x|
|Nordic skiing||Cross-country skiing||0x||19 ×||5x||0x||0x|
|Nordic combination||0x||0x||24 ×||0x||0x|
|Ski jumping||0x||3x||21 ×||0x||0x|
|biathlon||Military patrol||20 ×||0x||1x||0x||3x|
|Additional demonstration competitions|
|Ice skating||figure skating||Ice dance||23 ×||0x||0x||0x||1x|
|Speed skating||women||23 ×||0x||0x||0x||1x|
|Skiing||Freestyle||Jumping / ballet||23 ×||0x||0x||0x||1x|
Sums: The winter sports at the Summer Olympics 1908 and 1920 are not included.
Eternal medal table
A ranking list is created for all competitions at the Olympic Winter Games. The eternal medal table is a listing of all medals , sorted according to participating countries, that have been awarded in the history of the Games. The athletes (or teams) who rank first, second or third receive medals as an award. The winner will receive a medal known as a “ gold medal ” (actually silver medals with a gold plating). The second receives a silver medal, the third a bronze medal .
|1||Marit Bjørgen||NOR||2006-2018||Cross-country skiing||8th||4th||3|
|2||Ole Einar Bjørndalen||NOR||1998-2014||biathlon||8th||4th||1|
|3||Bjørn Dæhlie||NOR||1992-1998||Cross-country skiing||8th||4th||0|
|4th||Lyubov Ivanovna Egorova||EUN / RUS||1992-1994||Cross-country skiing||6th||3||0|
|5||Lidija Pavlovna Skoblikowa||USSR||1960-1964||Speed skating||6th||0||0|
|6th||Ireen Wüst||NED||2006-2018||Speed skating||5||4th||1|
|7th||Claudia Pechstein||GER||1992-2006||Speed skating||5||2||2|
|8th||Larissa Yevgenevna Lasutina||EUN / RUS||1992-2002||Cross-country skiing||5||1||1|
|9||Clas Thunberg||FIN||1924-1928||Speed skating||5||1||1|
|10||Thomas Alsgaard||NOR||1994-2002||Cross-country skiing||5||1||0|
|As of February 26, 2018|
|As of February 25, 2018|
|RUS||URS||/ / Soviet Union (1952–1988)||78||57||59||194|
|EUN||United team (1992)||9||6th||8th||23|
|OAR||Olympic athletes from Russia (2018)||2||6th||9||17th|
|GER||GER||German Empire (1928–1936)||3||3||3||9|
|GER||(West) Germany (1952)||3||2||2||7th|
|EUA||/ Germany (1956–1964)||8th||6th||5||19th|
|FRG||/ Federal Republic of Germany (1968–1988)||11th||15th||13th||39|
|GDR||/ German Democratic Republic (1968–1988)||39||36||35||110|
|GER||Germany (since 1992)||86||83||55||224|
To date, four qualified Winter Olympics participants have died preparing for Olympic competitions:
- The British luge driver Kazimierz Skrzypecki and the Australian skier Ross Milne had a fatal accident during training a few days before the opening of the Innsbruck Winter Games in 1964 .
- Nicolas Bochatay , a Swiss participant in the demonstration discipline speed skiing, died in a collision with a snowcat on a public ski slope during the 1992 Albertville Winter Games .
- Georgian luge driver Nodar Kumaritashvili died during the last training session on the opening day of the 2010 Vancouver Games when he was thrown off the track after the last corner and crashed into a steel girder.
- Olympic Sports
- Applications for Winter Olympics
- List of participating teams in Winter Olympic Games
- List of records of participation in the Winter Olympics
- List of competitions of Olympic winter sports
- List of the most successful Winter Olympians
- ↑ Arnd Krüger (1996). The History of the Olympic Winter Games. The Invention of a Tradition. Matti Goksör, Gerd von der Lippe, Kristian M0 (Ed.): Winter Games - Warm Traditions . Oslo: Norsk Idrettshistorisk Vörening 1996, pp. 101-122.
- ↑ Winter Olympics. In: duden.de. Retrieved November 27, 2017 .
- ↑ Rob Longley: Georgian luger killed in training, Officials meeting to decide future of competition. In: torontosun.com. Toronto Sun , February 12, 2010, accessed October 10, 2012 (video on website).
- ↑ Associated Press : Georgian luger fourth-ever Winter Olympian to die. In: sports.espn.go.com. ESPN , February 12, 2010, accessed February 13, 2010 .
- ^ Sports information service : Georgian tobogganer dies after a serious accident. In: Abendblatt.de. Hamburger Abendblatt , February 13, 2010, accessed on October 10, 2012 .