2014 Winter Olympics
Жаркие. Зимние. Твои.
( Hot. Cool. Yours. )
|Venue:||Sochi ( Russia )|
|Stadion:||Sochi Olympic Stadium|
|Opening ceremony:||February 7, 2014|
|Closing ceremony:||February 23, 2014|
|Opened by:||Wladimir Putin|
|Olympic oath :||
Ruslan Sakharov (athlete)
Vyacheslav Vedenin ( referee )
Anastasija Popkova (trainer)
|Disciplines:||15 (7 sports)|
|← Vancouver 2010|
|Pyeongchang 2018 →|
|Complete medal table|
The 2014 Winter Olympics (also known as the XXII Winter Olympics ) took place from February 7 to 23, 2014 in Sochi , an urban region with 330,000 inhabitants on the “Russian Riviera ” on the Black Sea in Russia . They were the first Winter Games in a subtropical city and the second Olympic Games in Russia after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow . Russia had previously applied for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Sochi without success .
Choice of venue
By the deadline set on June 28, 2005, seven cities had submitted their applications to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to host the 2014 Winter Olympics : Almaty (Kazakhstan), Borjomi (Georgia), Jaca (Spain), Pyeongchang (South Korea), Salzburg (Austria), Sofia (Bulgaria) and Sochi (Russia). Based on a report by the evaluation commission, which examined and assessed various aspects of the applications, the IOC reduced the field of candidates to three cities on June 22, 2006: Pyeongchang, Salzburg and Sochi.
The final decision on the location of the Games was made on July 4, 2007 in Guatemala City . 103 voting members of the IOC were allowed to vote, although the members of the applicant countries were not allowed to exercise their voting rights. Before the election, the three candidates had one more opportunity to present the advantages of their application. Salzburg failed in the first ballot with 25 votes, while Pyeongchang received the most votes. In the second ballot, Pyeongchang lost 47 to 51 votes to Sochi (as in the candidacy four years earlier against Vancouver ). In 2014, the Olympic Winter Games were held for the first time in Russia and in a subtropical city by the sea - and for the first time in the Caucasus .
The results of the ballots are set out below:
|city||country||1 round||2nd round|
The 2014 Winter Olympics were prepared by the Sochi 2014 Olympic Organizing Committee (SOOC), which was established on October 2, 2007 by the Olimpijski komitet Rossii , the Ministry of Sports and the City of Sochi. Alexander Zhukov was appointed chairman of the organizing committee.
The task of the committee is to prepare the competitions, to build the sports facilities and improve the infrastructure, and to ensure that the games are financed. During the 2010 Winter Games, the current presidents of the organizing committee, Dmitri Chernyshenko and Andrey Stroev, said in an interview that they had financial security and that one billion US dollars had already been raised from private sponsors, even if allegations of corruption were heard.
With a view to the Olympic Winter Games, the transport infrastructure should be renewed and expanded. Roads, bridges and tunnels were supposed to be built to accelerate traffic. According to the head of the responsible building authority, around 70 million euros were missing in the budget in 2009, so that work could be delayed.
Added to this were the effects of the international financial crisis, which made the plan to have most sports facilities financed by private investors more difficult. In the first half of 2008, according to Russian media reports, there was still no investor for 8 out of 14 construction projects.
In December 2009 Russia's state railway company, Rossijskije schelesnyje dorogi , commissioned the construction of 38 Siemens Desiro trains , which will be used at the Winter Games in Sochi and have served the section between Tuapse and Adler since August 2013 . In addition, the purchase of 16 more trains was agreed, some of which are to be produced in Russia. The total cost of the purchase is around £ 580 million .
Television broadcasting rights
Due to the requirements of the IOC, the respective content was only allowed to be viewed by users in the respective broadcasting country - the TV stations and reporters had to provide their respective Internet content with a so-called geoblocking .
In the United States, the NBC television station received the exclusive broadcast rights for around one billion US dollars. In addition to its entire sports team, NBC also sent a number of reporters experienced in terror and war to Sochi.
In Germany , ARD and ZDF reported on the games alternately daily, with detailed commentary and long interviews. The costs for the broadcasting rights are said to have been less than 20 million euros, as regular advertisements were made possible. The two ice hockey tournaments were also broadcast live on Sport1 ; in Austria broadcasts were made by ORF SPORT + or ORF eins and ATV ; in German-speaking Switzerland mainly through SRF two and occasionally through SRF info .
By 2014, two centers were built in Sochi. In contrast to the other candidacies, the Sochi competition venues only existed as computer animation at the time of the final presentation. The government and private investors such as Gazprom pledged investments of around 8.6 billion euros to the IOC.
Olympic Park Sochi ("coastal region")
All the ice rinks were built in the Sochi Olympic Park, which means that for the first time in Olympic history all halls are within walking distance. The site is located about 30 km south of the core city of Sochi in Adler directly on the Black Sea and is therefore also called the “coastal region”.
- Olympic Stadium - the stadium, completed in 2013, has a capacity of 40,000 spectators. The opening and closing ceremonies of the games took place here. The stadium is named after a mountain in the North Caucasus. After the games, the stadium will be used for soccer games. In addition, Sochi was selected as the venue for the 2018 World Cup , so the Olympic Stadium was used for another major international sporting event four years after the Olympic Games.
- Bolshoi Ice Palace (translation: Big Ice Palace) - the multifunctional arena offers space for 12,000 spectators and was completed in 2012. The final matches in ice hockey took place in the arena.
- Schaiba ice arena - ice hockey games were held in the multifunctional hall for 7,000 spectators. “Schaiba” is the Russian name of the puck in ice hockey. The hall is designed so that it can be dismantled after the games and rebuilt in another city.
- Adler Arena - the hall has a capacity of 8,000 spectators and offers space for a 400-meter ice rink. Speed skating took place here. After the games, the hall can again be dismantled and rebuilt as a trade fair hall in another city.
- Iceberg Ice Skating Palace - the multifunctional arena was completed in 2012 and has a capacity of 12,000 seats. Figure skating and short track took place in the hall. The arena is again designed so that it can be dismantled after the games and rebuilt as an ice rink in another city.
- Ice Cube Curling Center ( "Ice Cube" Curling Center) - in the multi-purpose hall for 3,000 spectators, the curling competitions were held. This hall can also be dismantled after the games and rebuilt in another city.
The “Medal Plaza” for the award ceremonies, the Olympic village and the media center are also located in or near the Olympic Park.
Krasnaya Polyana ("Snow Region")
The snow, bobsleigh and toboggan competitions were in the area around the nearly 4,000 inhabitants mountain village Krasnaia Poljana (dt. Red clearing ), the 30 km northeast of Adler to about 600 m in the valley of the Mzymta is discharged. This region was expanded into an exclusive winter sports resort in preparation for the Olympic Games. The "snow region" consists of the following competition venues:
- RusSki Gorki Ski Jumping Center - the ski jumping facility was built in the 400-inhabitant village of Esto-Sadok , which is located on the northern slopes of the Aibga mountain range. The facility has a capacity for 7,500 spectators. It is to become the national training center for Russian ski jumpers after the Olympic Games.
- Bobsleigh and toboggan run Sliding Center Sanki - the bobsleigh and toboggan run designed by the Gurgel + Partner engineering office was built in Rschanaja Poljana and offers space for 5,000 spectators. The top speed is limited to 138 km / h. "Sanki" is the Russian word for "sledge".
- Laura biathlon and cross-country skiing center - the facility was built on the Psechako mountain ridge (Chrebet Psechako), which is about 6 km from Krasnaya Polyana. The facility will include a cross-country and a biathlon stadium for 7,500 spectators each. The name "Laura" comes from a wild mountain river in the Caucasus.
- “Rosa Chutor” free style and snowboard park - the freestyle and snowboard competitions took place on the snow-sure mountain plateau Rosa Chutor. The facilities in the park offer space for 4,000 or 6,250 spectators.
- Rosa Khutor Alpine Center - in Rosa Khutor,about eight kilometers from Krasnaya Polyana, all alpine skiing decisions were held. The ski slopes are located on the steep slopes of the Aibga mountain range and were designed by the former Swiss ski racer Bernhard Russi . The total length of the slopes is around 9 km.
At least one athlete from 88 countries had qualified to take part in the Sochi Winter Games. With a total of 2,861 participants, that is a new record. The teams from the following seven NOKs made their Olympic winter debut : Dominica , Malta , East Timor , Paraguay , Zimbabwe , Togo and Tonga .
Initially, the qualified athletes from India started as independent Olympic participants , since the NOK of India was still suspended by the IOC at the beginning of the games. On February 11, 2014, the suspension was lifted with immediate effect, so that the athletes were allowed to start under the flag of India. This was the first time the IOC lifted the suspension of a National Olympic Committee during the Olympic Games.
Algeria , Puerto Rico and South Africa decided not to let their only athlete qualified for the Games (for Algeria Mehdi-Selim Khelifi ) take part. The Bahamas had, although two athletes met the qualification criteria, a message not even considered.
|Europe (1949 athletes from 45 nations)|
|America (491 athletes from 15 nations)|
|Asia (340 athletes from 22 nations)|
|Oceania (76 athletes from 3 nations)|
|Africa (5 athletes from 3 nations)|
|(Number of athletes) * Participation in winter games for the first time|
The number of participants from the federal states was taken from the organizer's website as of February 9, 2014.
Logo and motto
The logo , designed by the international agency Interbrand and a panel of experts from the organizing committee, was presented on December 1, 2009 in Moscow. For the first time in the history of the IOC, it shows an Internet address as a logo, the domain sochi2014.ru . However, since the top-level domain “.ru” was placed above the Olympic rings and the number in “2014” was written in Cyrillic characters (“ ZОІ Ч ”, without being any), only “sochi. ru “ perceived - a forwarding from the supposed to the actual Internet address www.sochi2014.ru was set up anyway. The lines “sochi” and below “2014” in blue are arranged in such a way that, according to the agency, they are mirrored “like the peaks of the Caucasus in the Black Sea off Sochi”. To the right of this is the white “.ru” for Russia with a blue border, the five Olympic rings are shown below. The logo with the Internet address is intended to appeal to the digital generation and promote an open dialogue between nations and fans.
These Winter Olympics should be under the slogan “Gateway to the Future”. Sochi 2014 should be the gateway to the future for Russia, for sustainable sporting, social, economic and ecological development. According to OK boss Dmitri Tschernichenko, these winter games are supposed to "change the whole region". Despite investments of an estimated 35 billion euros (equivalent to 12.2 million euros per Olympic participant), foreign experts doubt the sustainability and, above all, the ecological compatibility of the Olympic Winter Games in a subtropical city.
The official motto of the games was announced in September 2012 and is “Жаркие. Зимние. Твои. "Or" Hot. Cool. Yours ”,“ Hot. Cool. Yours". Dmitri Tschernichenko said that the motto describes the diversity of Russia. It also refers to "the passion of sport, the season and the perception of Russia in the world and the Olympic Games for everyone".
The audience on the Russian TV channel Pervy Kanal chose three animals as official mascots : the Caucasian leopard (28 percent of the vote), the polar bear (18 percent) and the mountain hare (16 percent) are the official mascots of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Russia's Prime Minister Vladimir Putin described the leopard as a "strong, fast and beautiful animal that was once native to the Caucasus and is now to be reintroduced to the region".
The 1300 gold, silver and bronze medals for the Olympic Games and Paralympics were made by the Moscow jewelery factory "Adamas". This required 3 kilograms of gold, 2 tons of silver and 700 kilograms of bronze. A gold medal is made of pure silver coated with at least 6 grams of gold. The medals have a diameter of 10 cm and have a semicircular recess into which a polycarbonate insert is inserted, which is the first time in medals for the Olympic Games. A total of eight working hours per medal are used for the 25 manufacturing steps. In particular, the insertion step is very complicated. All metals used were mined on the territory of Russia, and the medals were made only by Russian specialists. Those gold medals awarded on February 15 included a fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteor that had fallen into Lake Chebarkul a year earlier .
The Olympic flame started the torch relay by Alexander Ovetschkin on October 7, 2013 at 12:00 (Moscow time) on Red Square in Moscow. The torch was designed from the silhouette of a feather of the magical firebird, which according to a Russian folk tale is said to bring luck and success. The first torchbearer was Olympic champion Anastassija Davydowa .
With the atomic icebreaker “ 50 Let Pobedy ”, the Olympic flame was brought from the port city of Murmansk to the North Pole 5000 kilometers away by October 20, 2013 after four days. This was the first time the Olympic flame was at the North Pole. Representatives of all the countries bordering the polar sea continued the torch relay there.
From the Baikonur spaceport in Kazakhstan , the torch was launched on November 7, 2013 for the International Space Station ISS . There she was carried into free space for the first time. The event was broadcast live on Russian television. The flame was not ignited because of the lack of oxygen in space and general safety concerns.
On November 23, 2013, the torch sank to the bottom of Lake Baikal in Siberia , the deepest freshwater lake in the world. At a depth of 13 meters, the torch was handed over by three divers. Then the torch was carried with a flyboard to the surface of the water and on to the shore. Here, too, the event was shown on state television.
On February 1, 2014, the IOC confirmed that the supposed "live" broadcast of the torch relay on the 5642 meter high Elbrus (Russia's highest mountain) had already started at the end of October in order to avoid unnecessary danger to the torchbearers due to the weather.
The Organizing Committee of the 2014 Winter Olympics had commissioned the “Ceremonies Staging Agency”, founded especially for this purpose, with the planning, design and production of the opening ceremony. Konstantin Ernst, the general director of the state television broadcaster Channel One , was the director and chief creative producer of the opening ceremony. Andrey Boltenko was the artistic director. The executive producer was Andrey Nasonovskiy. The set was designed by production designer Georgy Tsypin. Konstantin Ernst, Andrey Boltenko and Georgy Tsypin wrote the script together.
The “Ceremonies Staging Agency” was supported by the makers of the award-winning opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London “Isle of Wonder”. The American event specialist Scott Givens took over the management of the opening and closing ceremonies in Sochi.
The opening ceremony of the XXII. The Winter Olympics took place on the evening of February 7, 2014 in the Fischt Olympic Stadium in Adler in front of 40,000 spectators. More than 3000 actors took part in the show. The performers consisted of volunteers and various professional dance and acrobatic groups from all over Russia. The most famous were the members of the Moscow Bolshoi Ballet . The Olympic anthem was sung by Anna Netrebko .
A video on the big screens in the stadium showed the girl Lyubov (Russian for “love”), played by 11-year-old Liza Temnikova, asleep. At the same time, the girl dreamed of various artists and inventions of Russia in the order of the Russian alphabet .
|1.||А||А збука (Букварь)||Russian alphabet ( fibula )|
|2.||Б||Б айкал||Baikal lake|
|3.||В||В ертолёт (Сикорский, Игорь Иванович)||Helicopter ( Sikorski )|
|4th||Г||Г агарин, Юрий Алексеевич / Г жель||Gagarin / ceramics from Gschel|
|5.||Д||Д остоевский, Фёдор Михайлович||Dostoevsky|
|6th||Е||Е катерина Великая||Katharina the great|
|7th||Ё||Ё жик в тумане||The hedgehog in the fog|
|8th.||Ж||Ж уковский, Николай Егорович||Zhukovsky|
|9.||З||З ерноуборочный комбайн||Harvester|
|10.||И||Российская И мперия||Russian Empire|
|11.||Й||Чайковски й , Пётр Ильич||Tchaikovsky|
|12.||К||К андинский, Василий Васильевич||Wassily Kandinsky|
|13.||Л||Л уноход (космическая программа)||Lunochod (space program)|
|14th||М||М алевич, Казимир Северинович||Malevich|
|15th||Н||Н абоков, Владимир Владимирович||Nabokov|
|16.||О||О рбитальная станция (Российский сегмент МКС)||Russia's share of the International Space Station|
|17th||П||П ериодическая система химических элементов||Periodic table of the chemical elements|
|18th||Р||Р усский балет Дягилева||Ballets Russes|
|19th||С||С путник-1||Sputnik 1|
|20th||Т||Т олстой, Лев Николаевич / Т елевидени (Розинг)||Tolstoy / television ( Rosing )|
|22nd||Ф||Ф ишт||Fischt (mountain near Sochi)|
|24.||Ц||Ц иолковский, Константин Эдуардович||Ziolkowski|
|25th||Ч||Ч ехов, Антон Павлович||Chekhov|
|26th||Ш||Ш агал, Марк Захарович||Chagall|
|27.||Щ||Щ усев, Алексей Викторович||Shchusev|
|28.||Ъ||Пушкин ( ъ ), Александр Сергеевич||Pushkin|
|31.||Э||Э йзенштейн, Сергей Михайлович||Eisenstein|
|32.||Ю||Параш ю т (Котельников, Глеб Евгеньевич)||Parachute ( Kotelnikow )|
Then Lyubov, live in the stadium, grabbed the rope of a paper kite and flew under the stadium roof. In the process, she floated past nine different Russian landscapes that showed the diversity and size of Russia. Lyubov flew over the Urals, Kamchatka, Lake Baikal and Russian village landscapes. These landscapes flew through the stadium on nine small stages at a height of 15 meters. At the end of their flight, hundreds of actors appeared in ethnic costumes as well as five large snowflakes that flew towards each other and united to form the Olympic rings . Due to a technical error, only four of the five rings united and there was no fireworks display. This mistake was not broadcast by Russian state television Rossija 1 in Russia.
Cosmonauts hoisted the flag of the host country to the Russian national anthem , performed by the men's choir of Moscow's Sretensky Monastery . The invasion of the nations followed, led by the Greek team. The athletes entered the stadium through an opening from below and took their seats in the lower seats. During the march, which was accompanied by a DJ with remixes of Russian music, each participating country was projected onto the floor of the stadium.
The games were officially opened by the Russian President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin . The last torchbearers were the Russian ice hockey player Vladislav Alexandrowitsch Tretyak and the Russian figure skater Irina Konstantinovna Rodnina . The Olympic oath was taken by the short tracker Ruslan Albertowitsch Sakharov , the cross-country referee Vyacheslav Vedenin and the alpine trainer Anastassija Popkowa .
At the beginning of the show there was ironic reference to the fact that the fifth ring was not opened at the opening ceremony. Then the celebration of Chagall's painting , the music of Rachmaninov , the books of famous Russian writers (e.g. Pushkin , Tolstoy ), the world-famous ballets of the Bolshoi and Mariinsky theaters and the Russian circus led through the rich culture of Russia.
98 competitions (50 for men, 43 for women and 5 mixed competitions) in 7 sports / 15 disciplines were held. That was 12 more competitions than in Vancouver 2010 - the number of sports / disciplines stayed the same. The changes are detailed below:
- In the biathlon , the mixed 2 × 6/2 × 7.5 km relay expanded the program.
- When figure skating the mixed team competition was added.
- In luge , a mixed team relay was introduced.
- Freestyle skiing has been expanded to include halfpipe and slopestyle for men and women.
- Women's debut in ski jumping with individual jumping on the normal hill.
- In snowboarding , slopestyle and parallel slalom have been added for men and women.
Olympic sports / disciplines
- Biathlon total (11) = men (5) / women (5) / mixed (1)
- Curling total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Ice hockey total (2) = men (1) / women (1)
- Ice skating
- Luge total (4) = men (2) / women (1) / mixed (1)
Number of competitions in brackets
|Ice skating||figure skating||1||1||1||1||1||5|
Doping and doping allegations against Russian athletes
A positive doping sample was taken from seven participants in the games. These were the German biathlete Evi Sachsenbacher-Stehle , the bobsleigh riders William Frullani from Italy and Daniel Zalewski from Poland, the two cross-country skiers Maryna Lissohor from Ukraine and Johannes Dürr from Austria and the ice hockey players Vitālijs Pavlovs from Latvia and Nicklas Bäckström from Sweden. Four athletes were convicted of doping with methylhexanamine .
In May 2016, the New York Times published a report that there was a state-sponsored doping system in Russia ahead of the Sochi Winter Olympics. The newspaper wrote of at least 15 doped Russian medal winners, citing the head of the anti-doping laboratory in Moscow, Grigory Rodchenkov . He developed a mix of three different doping agents especially for Russian athletes and exchanged urine samples during nightly activities. According to the doped athletes, the bobsleigh pilot Alexander Zubkov (two gold medals in the two and four-man bobsleigh), the cross-country skier Alexander Legkow (gold over 50 km, silver with the 4 × 10 km relay), the skeleton pilot Alexander Tretyakov (gold in the individual ) and the Russian women's ice hockey team (6th place). Subkow, Legkow and Tretyakov denied the allegations, as did the Russian government. However, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) confirms this report. At the beginning of November 2017, the IOC Legkow recognized the Olympic medals that had been won.
Criticism and controversy
The Winter Games in Sochi cost around 50 billion dollars, which, depending on the source, was more than all five previous games put together or even more than all the Winter Games ever run combined.
Working conditions on the construction sites
In early 2013, Human Rights Watch reported grievances on construction sites and found that employers had confiscated passports and work permits from overseas migrant workers . According to press reports, most of the 100,000 or so workers employed on the Olympic construction sites are said to have received no or only part of their wages. After a few protests, unwanted workers were brought back to their homeland. The Sochi office of the human rights organization Memorial reported that the authorities tried to find “an excuse for the expulsion” of the workers who were apparently no longer needed. “The police, volunteers and immigration authorities ensure that nobody stays in Sochi. Our brigades will clean the streets. I demand: No mercy! ”Said Governor Alexander Tkachev at the time.
The International Circassian Committee criticizes the choice of Sochi as the venue for the 2014 Winter Games. The Caucasus War ended in 1864 with the complete expulsion of the indigenous population, the Ubyches , and an 80 percent expulsion of other indigenous Circassian tribes. The last, devastating battles of the Caucasus War took place in the area above today's city of Sochi and hundreds of thousands were forced to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire . The genocide of their people - especially seen as such by many Circassians - is not honored or commemorated here, although Sochi is regarded by many Circassians as their last historical capital, as their central assembly, the Majlis , met there for the last time in 1864 . The chairman of the International Committee of Circassians, Iyad Youghar, criticized the holding of games on the slopes of Sochi, as the graves of their ancestors were among them. According to the committee, a mass grave was discovered on the construction site during the construction work. Shortly before the Games began, leading Circassian critics were arrested by Russian police.
There were also protests and criticism, as Russia passed a law in 2013 that fines the positive representation of homosexuality in public or in the presence of minors as "homosexual propaganda".
In an appeal signed by numerous celebrities, the Lesbian and Gay Association in Germany (LSVD) called on the German delegation in January 2014 to take a stand against the host country's policies, which have been criticized as homophobic .
Visits canceled and calls for boycotts
While German Chancellor Angela Merkel spoke out against an Olympic boycott, Federal President Joachim Gauck announced that he would not attend the Games “for reasons of protocol”. After criticizing “the rule of law deficits and obstruction of critical media” several times, Der Spiegel interpreted the rejection as criticism of human rights violations and the way the opposition was dealt with in Russia. A spokeswoman for Gaucks stated that the process should not be understood as a boycott. In 2010, the then Federal President Horst Köhler also decided not to travel to the Winter Games in Vancouver. Austria, on the other hand, will be represented by a larger government contingent in Russia. So have u. a. Federal Chancellor Werner Faymann , Defense and Sports Minister Gerald Klug but also FPÖ party chairman Heinz-Christian Strache have promised their visit. In this context, the sports historian Matthias Marschik from the University of Vienna takes the view that a boycott of politicians would have a great public response.
Likewise, French President François Hollande, Belgian Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo and Luxembourg Prime Minister Xavier Bettel said they would not travel to Sochi. The French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said that no high-ranking government officials from France will be present in Sochi, instead the French Minister of Sports will attend the opening ceremony. On December 17, US President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden announced that neither they nor any other current member of the government would travel to Sochi. The boycott was followed by Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaitė and Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper . British Prime Minister David Cameron will not travel to Sochi either.
British band Blondie declined an invitation to play during the Sochi Winter Olympics due to discriminatory Russian laws on homosexuality (lead singer Debbie Harry publicly admitted her bisexuality in 2014 ).
Attack threats and security measures
According to the media, Russia has invested the equivalent of around 1.4 billion euros in the security of the Winter Olympics.
It was reported in advance that during the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi the telephone calls and internet use of the participating athletes will be monitored. Shortly before the Games, a new law came into force in Russia on February 1, 2014. B. allows Internet pages to be closed without a court order if illegal activities are called for there. The extensive surveillance measures in Sochi are also seen as a field of experimentation for future security strategies across the country.
Four weeks before the start of the Winter Games, the US government issued an official travel warning for US citizens due to the threat of terrorism. In its updated travel advice on December 31, 2013, the Foreign Office in Berlin warned to be careful when traveling to Sochi and advised against traveling to the neighboring North Caucasus.
After the attacks in Volgograd in the autumn of 2013, the Russian authorities put considerably more stringent security measures into effect on January 7, 2014: The emergency services were placed on heightened alert, several 10,000 uniformed men and civil servants reinforced by Cossacks are to be deployed, they control, among other things access to various security zones . Russian visitors now also have to register within three days. Even the special military forces of Spetsna are used for security. Own cars must be parked several kilometers in advance and used for onward public transport; In Sochi, only vehicles that have been specifically approved or that have been specifically approved are allowed to drive there. These instructions are in effect until March 21, a few days after the 11th Winter Paralympics ends .
Sentencing of an Olympic critic to camp detention
The ecologist and environmental activist Yevgeny Vitischko was sentenced to three years in a camp . He denounced environmental damage caused by the construction work for the 2014 Winter Olympics and is said to have put up protest posters on a villa of the governor of the Krasnodar Olympic region, Alexander Tkachev , because the building was supposed to have been built without a legal basis. He was found guilty of willful damage to property and convicted. Human Rights Watch speaks of a political judgment.
As part of the development plan for the Olympic Park, it was decided to build Russia's first modern amusement park . With the participation of many European organizers and companies, the € 275 million “Sochi Park” was built within two years. Here, too, construction errors and time delays have become known. The park was not completed on time and was during the XXII. Olympic Winter Games only in a pre-opening phase, the full opening will only take place in summer 2014. One themed area of the park deals exclusively with the history of the Olympic Games .
Paralympic Winter Games
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