ARD

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Logo since December 2019

The ARD (abbreviation for A rbeitsgemeinschaft the public R undfunkanstalten the Federal Republic of D erm ) is a broadcast composite consisting of the regional broadcasting authorities and the DW is. It was founded in 1950 and, together with ZDF and Deutschlandradio, forms the public broadcaster in Germany . The ARD is largely financed from the broadcasting fee and includes joint programs and offers such as Das Erste , dieARD media library and the ARD audio library .

story

1970s logo
Logo between 2003 and 2019

The ARD is based on the federal structure of the Federal Republic of Germany: Each federal state is entitled to a broadcaster. Historically, the federal broadcasting structure goes back to the early days of broadcasting in Germany in the 1920s, when individual broadcasters were established in Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Württemberg and were loosely organized in the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft . The National Socialists centralized broadcasting from 1933 and largely disrupted the federal structure. ARD was founded on June 9, 1950 by the then six regional broadcasting corporations Bayerischer Rundfunk (BR), Hessischer Rundfunk (HR), Radio Bremen , Süddeutscher Rundfunk (SDR), Südwestfunk (SWF) and Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR) and - with an advisory vote - RIAS Berlin founded. It served the cooperation in different areas and should exclude the preparation of an amalgamation. The form of the working group allowed the members their full independence.

The ARD program could also be received in the German Democratic Republic , which ARD intended. Reception was only not possible in certain regions, such as the Elbe Valley , Saxon Switzerland and Upper Lusatia , which is why the abbreviation “ARD” was jokingly interpreted as “out of Dresden” or “out of reach of Dresden” and so was the region Called " Valley of the Unsuspecting ". The ARD radio programs broadcast via long , medium and short wave could be received in these areas . The Deutschlandfunk program broadcast via the Donebach long-wave transmitter was very easy to receive throughout the GDR.

In the course of the 1950s, the preparation and broadcasting of the first joint television program in the Federal Republic of Germany began. After the foundation of the Sender Free Berlin (SFB) and the division of the NWDR into Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln (WDR) and Norddeutscher Rundfunk (NDR) as well as the establishment of the Saarländischer Rundfunk (SR), the ARD had nine members in 1959. They operated the community television program broadcast nationwide under the name "Deutsches Fernsehen". Further changes in the membership structure of the ARD followed: in 1962 the newly founded federal broadcasters Deutschlandwelle (DW) and Deutschlandfunk were added, in 1992 - after German reunification - the new state broadcasting corporations Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR) and Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (ORB). In 1994 Deutschlandfunk and RIAS merged with Deutschlandradio , which is jointly supported by ARD and ZDF, and left the ARD network. Most recently, SDR and SWF merged to form Südwestrundfunk (SWR) in 1998 and ORB and SFB to form Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB) in 2003 .

The nine broadcasters that have joined together to form ARD operate Das Erste as a joint television program, as well as their own television and radio programs. The tenth member of ARD is Deutsche Welle , the German international broadcaster.

Members of the working group

Current institutions

ARD currently consists of nine regional broadcasters and the international broadcasting corporation Deutsche Welle . The regional broadcasting corporations of the ARD have a total of around 23,000 permanent employees, they organize eleven television programs, 55 radio programs and have 16 orchestras and eight choirs. The total budget of the nine institutes is around 6.3 billion euros per year. Sports rights account for 366 million euros of this. The members of ARD are constantly present with around 100 radio and television correspondents in 30 locations around the world.

State broadcaster
Abbreviation
logo
Seat
Income 2009 (EUR million) Fee
income 2009 (EUR million)
Positions
founding
Transmission area
Inhabitants in the
transmission area (million)
Bavarian radio BR BR logo Munich 1000 0879 2,893 1949 Bavaria 12.9
Hessian radio Mr HR logo Frankfurt am Main 0481 0407 1,900 1948 Hesse 06.2
Central German radio MDR MDR logo Leipzig 0636 0556 2,023 1991 Saxony , Saxony-Anhalt , Thuringia 08.5
Northern German Radio NDR NDR logo Hamburg 1083 0956 3,447 1956 Hamburg , Lower Saxony , Schleswig-Holstein (all since 1956), Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (since 1992) 14.2
Radio Bremen Radio Bremen logo Bremen 0097 (2008) 0041 (2008) 0300 1945 Bremen 00.7
Broadcasting Berlin-Brandenburg rbb RBB logo Berlin , Potsdam 0395 (2008) 0344 (2008) 1,650 2003 Berlin , Brandenburg 06.0
Saarland radio SR SR logo Saarbrücken 0116 (2008) 0064 (2008) 0635 1957 Saarland 01.0
Südwestrundfunk SWR SWR logo Stuttgart 1190 (2008) 0959 (2008) 3,648 1998 Baden-Wuerttemberg , Rhineland-Palatinate 15.0
West German Radio Cologne WDR WDR logo Cologne 1350 1140 4.210 1956 North Rhine-Westphalia 17.9
Broadcaster Abbreviation logo Seat Income 2016 (EUR million) Federal grants 2016 (EUR million) Positions founding Transmission area
German wave DW DW logo Bonn 352 338 1,444 1953 world

Former institutions

Broadcaster Abbreviation logo Seat founding resolution successor
institution
Transmission area
Northwest German Broadcasting NWDR NWDR logo Hamburg 1945 1955 NDR, WDR, SFB Hamburg , Lower Saxony , Schleswig-Holstein , North Rhine-Westphalia , West Berlin (until 1954)
Süddeutscher Rundfunk SDR SDR logo Stuttgart 1949 1998 SWR Württemberg-Baden (transmission area remained unchanged after Baden-Württemberg was founded )
Südwestfunk SWF SWF logo Baden-Baden 1946 1998 SWR Baden , Württemberg-Hohenzollern , Rhineland-Palatinate (transmission area remained unchanged after Baden-Württemberg was founded )
Sender Free Berlin SFB SFB logo Berlin 1953 2003 RBB Berlin (until 1990 only West Berlin )
Deutschlandfunk DLF DLF logo Cologne 1962 1993 Germany radio Germany and other European countries
Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg ORB ORB logo Potsdam 1991 2003 RBB Brandenburg

organization

The nine regional broadcasters of the ARD

ARD is a voluntary association of ten German broadcasters. The working group adopted a statute in 1950 , which is supplemented by the State Broadcasting Treaty. These statutes regulate the work and organization of the ARD. After that, the ARD has a general assembly as the main organ (not a television council like the broadcasting company ZDF). This takes place either in the form of working meetings of the directors of the members or three times a year as a so-called large general meeting, in which the directors of the state broadcasters also take part in addition to the directors. This ARD general meeting is hosted alternately by the participating broadcasters.

The roughly ten meetings per year of the radio and administrative board chairmen without the artistic directors, however, are referred to as the committee chairman conference (GVK).

The general assembly entrusts one of its broadcasters with the management of ARD for one year. The director of this executive broadcaster is chairman of the ARD during this period. Re-election for a further year is possible and is now common practice.

Chair of the ARD

Term of office
begins
Term
expires
Surname Broadcaster
5th August 1950 February 2, 1951 Rudolf von Scholtz BR
3rd February 1951 2nd August 1951 Eberhard Beckmann MR
August 3, 1951 3rd February 1952 Adolf Grimme NWDR
4th February 1952 September 30, 1952 Walter Geerdes RB
October 1, 1952 March 31, 1953 Fritz Eberhard SDR
April 1, 1953 September 30, 1953 Friedrich Bischoff SWF
October 1, 1953 September 30, 1954 Rudolf von Scholtz BR
October 1, 1954 December 31, 1955 Eberhard Beckmann MR
January 1, 1956 December 31, 1956 Fritz Eberhard SDR
January 1, 1957 December 31, 1957 Walter Hilpert NDR
January 1, 1958 December 31, 1958 Franz Stadelmayer BR
January 1, 1959 December 31, 1960 Friedrich Bischoff SWF
January 1, 1961 December 31, 1962 Hans Bausch SDR
January 1, 1963 December 31, 1964 Klaus von Bismarck WDR
January 1, 1965 December 31, 1966 Werner Hess MR
January 1, 1967 December 31, 1969 Christian Wallenreiter BR
January 1, 1970 December 31, 1971 Gerhard Schröder NDR
January 1, 1972 December 31, 1973 Helmut Hammerschmidt SWF
1st January 1974 December 31, 1975 Hans Bausch SDR
January 1, 1976 December 31, 1977 Werner Hess MR
January 1, 1978 December 31, 1979 Friedrich-Wilhelm von Sell WDR
January 1, 1980 December 31, 1983 Reinhold Vöth BR
January 1, 1984 December 31, 1985 Friedrich Wilhelm Rauker NDR
January 1, 1986 December 31, 1987 Willibald help SWF
January 1, 1988 December 31, 1988 Hans Bausch SDR
January 1, 1989 December 31, 1990 Hartwig Kelm MR
January 1, 1991 December 31, 1992 Friedrich Nowottny WDR
January 1, 1993 December 31, 1994 Jobst plog NDR
January 1, 1995 December 31, 1996 Albert Scharf BR
January 1, 1997 December 31, 1998 Udo Reiter MDR
January 1, 1999 December 31, 2000 Peter Voss SWR
January 1, 2001 December 31, 2002 Fritz Pleitgen WDR
January 1, 2003 December 31, 2004 Jobst plog NDR
January 1, 2005 December 31, 2006 Thomas Gruber BR
January 1, 2007 December 31, 2008 Fritz Raff SR
January 1, 2009 December 31, 2010 Peter Boudgoust SWR
January 1, 2011 December 31, 2012 Monika Piel WDR
January 1, 2013 December 31, 2015 Lutz marble NDR
January 1, 2016 December 31, 2017 Karola will MDR
January 1, 2018 December 31, 2019 Ulrich Wilhelm BR
January 1, 2020 probably December 31, 2021 Tom Buhrow WDR

General Secretariat

The General Secretariat was established in 2006. The ARD general secretary has been the lawyer Susanne Pfab since January 1, 2015 .

The General Secretary reports to the respective ARD chairman, who changes every two years, and is jointly responsible for

  1. the strategic positioning of ARD,
  2. the representation of interests externally and
  3. public relations.

The Secretary General's place of employment is Berlin , while Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB) is responsible for administration. The term of office is five years.

The general secretary is also the deputy chairman of the ARD strategy group. He has the right of access and participation in all commissions and working groups, including in the subsidiaries, in the television program conference and in the ARD-politically relevant committees. From July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2011 , the general secretary was Verena Wiedemann , who was previously employed by Westdeutscher Rundfunk and was in charge of the ARD liaison office in Brussels. In 2014 the lawyer Susanne Pfab was to become the new ARD general secretary. Until then, the post remains vacant and Michael Kühn took over the tasks as authorized representative of the ARD chairmanship .

Program Director

The tasks of the program director of the ARD are laid down in the ARD State Treaty ( § 6 ARD-StV). He is elected for at least two years with a two-thirds majority of the state broadcasting corporations combined in the ARD ( § 5 ARD-StV). The task of the program director is to work with the directors of the state broadcasting corporations to work out the ARD's range of programs and to coordinate the delivery of programs to the individual state broadcasting corporations.

Program Advisory Board

The program director is supported by the ARD program advisory board as an advisory body. Paul Siebertz has been chairman of the program advisory board since April 2013.

The ARD program management is located in the Bayerischer Rundfunk high-rise in Munich .

subsidiary company

Common facilities

ARD capital studio

ARD's joint facilities in terms of content are, for example, ARD-aktuell at NDR in Hamburg, the ARD capital studio in Berlin and the ARD Play-Out Center at RBB in Potsdam , which broadcasts all TV programs and radio channels on ARD Digital . In addition, the ARD has its own worldwide network of correspondents ( ARD foreign studios ).

watch TV

Since October 31, 1954, the ARD has been broadcasting the television program, later known as the first German television and today officially called Das Erste , as a joint production of the individual regional broadcasters. The organizational center of the program is located in the program directorate in Munich .

The regional broadcasting corporations of the ARD jointly operate the television channels 3sat together with the ZDF, SRF and the ORF . KiKA and Phoenix are both operated in cooperation between ARD and ZDF and Arte in cooperation with ZDF and Arte France. The programs Tagesschau24 , One and ARD-alpha are broadcast via the ARD digital bouquet . In addition, ARD and ZDF operate the funk media offering on various digital distribution channels such as YouTube .

The German television program for foreign countries is broadcast by DW-TV on Deutsche Welle. Until the end of 2005, ARD also operated the pay channel German TV for North America together with ZDF and Deutsche Welle .

Radio

In the radio sector there are five joint ARD-night programs : the ARD Hitnacht , the ARD-night concert , the ARD Popnacht , the ARD Info Eight and the young night ARD . In addition, some state broadcasting corporations cooperate for night coverage in radio broadcasting in a different way. So is between 0 and 5 pm at Radio Bremen 1 the live program of SWR1 broadcast, BR hit and MDR Schlagerwelt the Schlagernacht and until June 26, 2019 also sent seven youth radio 23:00 to 1:00, the call-in show LateLine .

The international radio station Deutsche Welle is a member of ARD .

The state broadcasting corporations, which are part of the ARD, and the ZDF cooperate with the public corporation Deutschlandradio (DLR) with the three national radio programs Deutschlandfunk , Deutschlandfunk Kultur and Deutschlandfunk Nova .

Internet

On the Internet , ARD operates its own online offering under ARD.de, with a focus on news, sports, the stock market, advice, knowledge and culture, among other things. While the content of the editorial offices of tagesschau.de in Hamburg, sportschau.de in Cologne and the ARD stock exchange editorial office in Frankfurt am Main are used for the "News", "Sport" and "Stock Exchange" sections, the content for the " Advice ”,“ Knowledge ”and“ Culture ” compiled by the ARD.de editorial team in Mainz .

In its audio and video portal ARD Mediathek , ARD offers limited access to the content of the ARD state broadcasters and community facilities. The programs and contributions of the first and third television programs and radio waves are thematically bundled here. In addition, ARD operates its own channel on YouTube .

Institutions

The "German Sound Archive", now the German Broadcasting Archive (DRA), was set up in 1952 as a joint facility of the ARD . The archive has two locations in Frankfurt am Main and Potsdam- Babelsberg (formerly Berlin-Adlershof). From 1994 to 2002 it awarded the “DRA-Stipendium” on behalf of ARD, a sponsorship award for research into the radio and media history of the GDR.

technology

The program of Das Erste and joint program parts of the radio (for example with the ARD-Nachtexpress ) are technically brought together in the broadcasting center of the ARD in the ARD-Stern in Frankfurt am Main (on the premises of the Hessischer Rundfunk). These signals are distributed to the individual broadcasters via HYBNET's own fiber optic network .

Since February 2005, Das Erste has been played out by the Central Broadcasting Center (ZSAW) in the ARD broadcasting center. Before that, the ARD station that delivered a broadcast for the community program (regardless of whether it was "live" or recorded) switched a line to the ARD star, from where the signal was passed on to all other ARD stations for terrestrial distribution. With the start-up of the ZSAW, all programs that are not “live” (films, soaps, documentaries, etc.) were played directly from the servers in Frankfurt for the first time. The ZSAW is a joint institution of the state broadcasting corporations and is intended to bring significant savings in broadcasting operations. The broadcast processing is nevertheless able to play out up to ten programs at the same time. This is necessary for regionalized advertising broadcast the evening before.

Fundraising

In connection with natural disasters, ARD regularly calls for donations in the various program formats of the affiliated broadcasters. In March 2011 it became known that she is contractually linked to the Alliance Development Helps .

In light of the Fukushima nuclear disaster and the Tōhoku 2011 earthquake triggered tsunami , the ARD refused its cooperation partner on the recommendation of Alliance Development Works against the Germany's Relief spread, donations for the victims of these disasters. Appeals for donations by the Chancellor and the Federal President were also not supported with information in the news programs. The reason: Japan is a rich country and therefore does not need any donations. The Germany's Relief Coalition , under the patronage of Richard von Weizsacker and members such as the auxiliary associations Malteser , Johanniter , AWO and World Vision , complained about this decision in the German line.

Reception, media criticism and controversy

Allegations of unilateral reporting

A scientific study by the Otto Brenner Foundation (OBS) from 2016 accuses both ARD and ZDF of having reported one-sided and unbalanced reports on the Greek sovereign debt crisis as part of their programs . Journalists' personal opinions and objective facts could not be clearly separated from each other vis-à-vis the audience, general topics and the reform efforts of the Greek government were superficially reflected, the Greek government was also able to speak less than the German, the titles were often striking.

A study by the Otto Brenner Foundation of March 2010 on business journalism in times of crisis examined, among other things, the working methods of the ARD from spring 1999 to autumn 2009. The study comes to the conclusion that the ARD news programs “Tagesschau” and “Tagesthemen” not only technically, but also before the substantive challenges of reporting on the crisis itself. The editorial team works “poorly in terms of perspectives”, the focus is on the officially most important actors: representatives of the German government first and foremost, bank representatives, a few academics and their points of view.

The ARD's reporting on the Ukraine conflict was also controversial. In June 2014, the eight-member program advisory board of ARD unanimously criticized the reporting from December 2013 to June 2014 as one-sided, undifferentiated and incomplete. Some of the ARD programs gave the “impression of bias” and “tended to be directed against Russia and the Russian positions”. Sahra Wagenknecht (Die Linke) assessed the program advisory board's report as "devastating". He confirms that the ARD reports "unbalanced and tendentious" and positions itself "unilaterally against Russia". The AfD vice-chairman Alexander Gauland also joined the criticism. Thomas Baumann , editor-in-chief of ARD, rejected the program advisory board's criticism. Ulrich Clauß from the newspaper Die Welt described the advisory board as "simple-minded", since Putin's propaganda columns launched and multiplied the negative viewer reviews and therefore there was no real motive for examining the broadcast quality.

In October 2015, “ ARD aktuell ” editor-in-chief Kai Gniffke admitted a distorted visual representation of the flow of refugees to Europe through the Tagesschau and the Tagesthemen: “When cameramen film refugees, they look for families with small children and big googly eyes”, although “80 Percent of refugees are young, well-built single men ”.

Accusation of "state radio" and party political influence

In the public debate, the ARD, like the ZDF, is often accused of designing its programs on behalf of politics and the government. BDZV President Matthias Döpfner compared the public broadcasters with North Korea in order to draw attention to the omnipresence and one-sidedness that he perceived. According to Christian Meier in DIE WELT, it is fatal that terms such as “state radio” or “silent cartel” are also used by politicians from established parties, journalists from bourgeois daily newspapers and former moderators when criticizing ARD. The contributors “must become sovereign over the broadcasters they finance. It also needs more transparency. More participation. ” Jan Fleischhauer defended the use of the term state radio as appropriate and commented:“ Many systems of political coercion did not perish because of the coercion that they exerted on people, but rather because of the double talk that required citizens to do what they felt compelled to greet as a perk. ” Rainer Hank and Georg Meck also defended the use of the term state radio . The term expresses “a simple, unideological truth”. "Just as the French state operates nuclear power plants, the German state operates television companies." The founding act of the public broadcasters was "a sovereign act of the state", and the ZDF was founded with a "state treaty".

Cordt Schnibben criticized in 1989 that ARD was at the mercy of "dilettantes and dark men". A survey of the broadcasting councils of the ARD had shown that they were less informed about the programs to be controlled than the television viewers and that the councils see the reason for their unsatisfactory work 76 percent in "other professional obligations" and 39 percent in "lack of expertise "And 16 percent in" lack of interest ". In the supervisory bodies of the ARD, this dilettantism was bred "in order to turn the public broadcasters into Reich broadcasters for the parties". The originally liberal broadcasting laws have been amended until the parties have access to law. In the whole body there is at most one without a party membership, and one can predict the voting behavior of everyone. The Nazis would have misused the radio, then the Allies would have decreed democratic structures, "and then everything degenerated again," complained the former ARD chairman Hartwig Kelm . In an interview he described how he was put under pressure in terms of personnel and budgetary policy. Not everyone could withstand this pressure, since even head department heads are simply concerned with existence. He called for the party representatives to be removed from the supervisory bodies and for ARD to be fundamentally reorganized. Even after the Federal Constitutional Court ruling of 2014, Judge Andreas Paulus saw no decisive improvement: In fact, party-political standards still dominated, the promise of “radio and television remote from the state” remained unfulfilled even after the 14th broadcast decision by the Federal Constitutional Court. Paul expressed fundamental criticism of the presence of state representatives in the supervisory bodies.

Use of interpretation grids for opinion control (framing)

In February 2019 it was announced that the German by Elisabeth Wehling a so-called left Create a communication guideline framing - Manual entitled Our free radio ARD joint, . This was published under the trademark Berkeley International Framing Institute . By using the methods proposed in it, ARD officials should emphasize the social relevance of ARD or its member organizations not through facts or details, but primarily through conviction and moral principles. For example, there is no longer any question of collecting a broadcasting fee, but rather of “managing the citizens' broadcasting capital”. The focus on moral rather than fact-based communication is based on the determination of part of the population as an opponent against whose "orchestrated attacks" one wants to defend oneself.

The 2017 report itself was made available on the Netzpolitik.org website shortly after it became known . ARD put the fee paid to the Framing Institute at a total of 120,000 euros. Wehling was commissioned with nine workshops for employees. The ARD general secretariat supports the management of the broadcasting group in the strategic positioning of ARD, external representation of interests and public relations.

Diversity

A survey of colleagues carried out by ARD volunteers in 2020 and published in journalist magazine came to the conclusion that 60% of young journalists came from cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The proportion of women was also 60%, and the proportion of responses that indicated a migration background was 30%. More than 95% of the people surveyed had a university degree, which is five times the overall population average. When asked about their political preference, 57.1 percent said they voted for the Greens, 23.4 percent for the Left Party, and 11.7 percent voted for the SPD; 3% voted for the CDU, the FDP received 1.3 percent. The results of the polls regarding political affinity generated critical responses; The journalist Michael Hanfeld remarked in the FAZ that this is where the claim to be diverse and at the same time to represent the whole of society is realized, least of all. Biographical diversity and a high proportion of women are opposed to a strong urban-rural divide, a high proportion of academics and political uniformity. The latter in particular invites you to confirm prejudices about a “left-green” public broadcaster. Rainer Haubrich also commented in DIE WELT that every journalist could of course choose who he wanted. However, if the preferences of the editors differ to such an extent from those of the fee payers, balanced reporting and thus the fulfillment of the broadcast assignment is practically impossible: “92 percent for green-red-red! If ARD continues like this, there will soon be a diversity in their editorial offices like at the Chinese People's Congress. ”A comment by Übermedien magazine questioned the informative value of the survey, as only 47% of the volunteers took part in the study and three age groups were not contacted at all be.

Negative awards

See also

literature

  • Manfred Buchwald, Wilhelm von Sternburg: topic of the day ARD: the dispute over the first program . Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1995, ISBN 978-3-596-13026-9 .
  • Petra Flaischlen: The ARD - tasks, structure, organs . 3. Edition. GRIN, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-638-74823-0 .
  • Hans-Bredow-Institut Hamburg and published by ARD: ARD yearbook . Nomos publishing company, since 1969

Web links

Commons : ARD  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: ARD  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
 Wikinews: Category: ARD  - in the news

Individual evidence

  1. Chronicle of ARD - ARD founded. Südwestrundfunk, accessed November 13, 2012 .
  2. Organization. ARD.de, archived from the original on November 2, 2013 ; Retrieved April 17, 2009 .
  3. Markus Brauck, Hauke ​​Goos, Isabell Hülsen , Alexander Kühn: image disturbance . In: Der Spiegel . No. 41 , 2017, p. 10–16 ( online - October 7, 2017 ).
  4. Income-expenditure calculation for the year 2016 according to the budget system of the federal government , accessed on May 31, 2020.
  5. ^ ARD statutes. In: ard.de. Retrieved November 15, 2018 .
  6. Meetings and Committees. In: ard.de. Retrieved November 15, 2018 .
  7. Joachim Huber: “Cost-conscious” Annual General Meeting: RBB invites ARD to the “Waldorf Astoria”. In: Der Tagesspiegel . September 10, 2018, accessed November 15, 2018 .
  8. Committees. In: ard.de. Retrieved November 15, 2018 .
  9. http://www.ard.de/home/intern/ffekten/abc-der-ard/ARD_Generalsekretariat/564006/index.html
  10. www.ard.de ARD General Secretariat. Accessed July 31, 2015.
  11. www.ard.de Internal> Facts> ARD General Secretariat. Accessed July 31, 2015.
  12. ^ ARD General Secretariat. (No longer available online.) Südwestrundfunk, September 12, 2012, archived from the original on November 11, 2012 ; Retrieved November 13, 2012 .
  13. David Hein: Susanne Pfab will be Secretary General of ARD - in two years . horizont.net, September 21, 2012
  14. quotenmeter.de ARD: entertainment coordinator Schreiber will be the new Degeto boss , accessed on May 1, 2021
  15. Work of the program advisory board - ARD | The first. Retrieved February 25, 2019 .
  16. daserste.de
  17. Dr. Paul Siebertz: New chairman of the ARD program advisory board . br.de. April 9, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
  18. ^ Chronicle of the ARD | ARW founded. Retrieved August 6, 2017 .
  19. ^ Chronicle of the ARD | ARW under a new name and new management. Retrieved August 6, 2017 .
  20. ^ First German television , accessed on June 1, 2020.
  21. ARD.de. (No longer available online.) Südwestrundfunk, November 17, 2011, archived from the original on October 25, 2012 ; Retrieved November 13, 2012 .
  22. a b ARD annoyed Japan helpers. Spiegel Online , March 26, 2011, accessed March 28, 2011 .
  23. " Provoke the Greeks!" , Accessed on September 9, 2016
  24. ^ Reporting on Greece in the First ( Memento from September 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on September 9, 2016
  25. www.otto-brenner-stiftung.de
  26. a b Joachim Huber: Ukraine conflict: ARD criticizes ARD. In: tagesspiegel.de . September 18, 2014, accessed February 24, 2017 .
  27. a b Dietmar Neuerer: Does the ARD report too critical of Russia? In: handelsblatt.com. September 18, 2014, accessed November 28, 2014 .
  28. Ulrich Clauss: Putin's long arm reaches into committees of the ARD. In: welt.de. September 24, 2014, archived from the original on September 25, 2014 ; Retrieved November 28, 2014 .
  29. Focus : “Tagesschau” and “Tagesthemen”: ARD admits the wrong refugee image , October 19, 2015, accessed on October 21, 2015. However, the Focus statement that 80% of young men should be viewed critically, see picture blog [1 ]
  30. tagesschau.de: Public law: What is “state radio”? Retrieved February 25, 2019 .
  31. ^ Publishers against ARD and ZDF: "GDR instead of North Korea" . In: Spiegel Online . December 8, 2017 ( spiegel.de [accessed February 25, 2019]).
  32. Michael Hanfeld: Publishers against ARD: What Döpfner really said . ISSN  0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed February 25, 2019]).
  33. Christian Meier: ARD and ZDF - under fire like never before . February 1, 2016 ( welt.de [accessed February 25, 2019]).
  34. Jan Fleischhauer: Pay TV: Don't say the bad S-word! In: Spiegel Online . October 12, 2017 ( spiegel.de [accessed February 25, 2019]).
  35. R. Hank / G. Meck: Staatsfunk, in: FAS No. 34, August 27, 2017, p. 24.
  36. Cordt Schnibben: "The ARD is like the GDR". In: Der Spiegel . No. 46 , 1989, pp. 114-128 ( Online - Nov. 13, 1989 ).
  37. "Out with the parties!" Interview with the incumbent ARD chairman Hartwig Kelm . In: Der Spiegel . No.  46 , 1989, pp. 120 ( Online - Nov. 13, 1989 ).
  38. http://www.tagesspiegel.de/medien/ Judgment-zum-zdf-staatsvertrag-verfassungsgericht-politik-hat-zu-viel-einfluss-auf-oeffnahm-rechtlichen-rundfunk/ 9663170.html
  39. ^ Constitutional judge Andreas Paulus reiterates his criticism of the ZDF committee structure. Retrieved February 25, 2019 .
  40. Detlef Esslinger: ARD Framing Manual: Elisabeth Wehling defends herself. In: sueddeutsche.de. February 23, 2019, accessed February 25, 2019 .
  41. Joachim Huber: How the ARD should communicate: Come to all opponents just morally! In: tagesspiegel.de. Der Tagesspiegel , February 11, 2019, accessed on February 12, 2019 .
  42. Linguistic manipulation: ARD wants to influence GEZ opponents with "framing". In: focus.de. Focus , February 12, 2019, accessed February 12, 2019 .
  43. Jakob Biazza: Struggle for the frame of interpretation. In: sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung , February 18, 2019, accessed on February 19, 2019 .
  44. Framing Manual: Our common, free broadcasting ARD. (PDF) February 17, 2019, accessed on February 19, 2019 .
  45. Michael Hanfeld: Nine Seminars: The ARD "Framing Manual" is in use , in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung February 20, 2019, page 15 online in a modified version , accessed June 27, 2019
  46. Framing Manual: ARD paid 120,000 euros for controversial paper . Süddeutsche Zeitung, February 20, 2019
  47. Lynn Kraemer, Daniel Tautz, Nils Hagemann: How diverse are the ARD youngsters? In: journalist.de. November 4, 2020, accessed on November 6, 2020 (German).
  48. Michael Hanfeld: ARD volunteers: 92 percent for red-red-green . In: FAZ.NET . ISSN  0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed November 6, 2020]).
  49. ^ Rainer Haubrich: Public Law: Balanced Reporting? 92 percent of the ARD volunteers vote green-red-red . In: THE WORLD . November 3, 2020 ( welt.de [accessed November 6, 2020]).
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