|TV station ( public service )|
|Program type||Full program|
|reception||Antenna , cable , satellite|
|Start of transmission||January 19, 1937 (as National Radio of Spain )
October 28, 1956 (television broadcast)
|Seat||Madrid , Spain|
|Program director||Rosa María Mateo|
|List of TV channels|
Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, SA ( RTVE , German Spanish Radio and Television Corporation ) is the public broadcasting company in Spain based in Madrid . It is also the largest broadcasting company in Spain. Since 2010, most of the station's costs have been financed by public funds.
The company consists of the areas Televisión Española (TVE) for television and Radio Nacional de España (RNE) for radio. RTVE also includes the Instituto Oficial de Radio y Televisión (IORTV) and the Orquesta Sinfónica y Coro de RTVE symphony orchestra .
RTVE has represented various political and social positions since it was first broadcast. In addition, the structure of the station has been revised more frequently.
RTVE started in 1937 with the first radio transmissions from the city of Salamanca on the Radio Nacional de España (RNE) . In the first years the radio served as a propaganda tool for the nationalists during the Spanish Civil War . It was later used by Francisco Franco to keep the Spanish people informed of news. In 1955, RNE became part of the European Broadcasting Union .
The television Televisión Española (TVE) was only introduced in Spain in October 1956. TVE did not become a member of the European Broadcasting Union until 1960 . It was not until October 1973 that the two broadcasters Televisión Española (TVE) and Radio Nacional de España (RNE) were merged to form the Servicio Público Centralizado RadioTelevisión Española .
Further mergers followed in 1977 when RTVE emerged as an autonomous organization. Until 1980, during the transition in Spain , the institute was part of the Spanish Ministry of Information and Tourism and thus a government organization. When the Estatuto de la Radio y la Televisión came into force in 1980, the state restructured it, making RTVE a public corporation with its own legal personality . In 1989 the commercial radio station RCE was integrated into RNE, which, unlike TVE and RNE, was allowed to advertise.
In accordance with the State Radio and Television Act of June 5, 2006 and in view of the enormous financial deficit, the Ente Público RadioTelevisión Española was dissolved and, on January 1, 2007, the Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, SA (RTVE) was dissolved as a state Trading company newly founded. This gave RTVE more control over the public broadcasting services in Spain.
At the end of 2011 the newly elected Spanish government announced that it wanted to cut the RTVE budget for 2012 by 204 million euros as part of general austerity measures to reduce national debt, which corresponds to around a quarter of the company's total income.
In December 2018, RTVE released Filmoteca Española , which is accessible via the Internet and contains over 4000 videos of Spanish films and documentaries.
Televisión Española (TVE) is responsible for broadcasting and maintains various programs. TVE operates the first program La 1 and the second program TVE La 2 as the domestic broadcaster . The internationally distributed TVE Internacional program offers a cross-section of these two programs, including the news program Telediario , for example .
TVEi was specially designed for viewers from abroad, since with the exception of TVEi and Canal 24 Horas, all TVE channels are sent encrypted via satellite . Corresponding decoder cards are only available in Spain. This is intended to limit accessibility to Spain at the request of the film industry. Since the programs cannot be received in other Spanish-speaking countries, the film industry demands lower license fees in return. In 2003 RTVE produced more than 300 films.
|La 1||Broadcasts news, documentaries, magazines, TV series, films (preferably in Spanish) and popular sports competitions. Is Spain's first TV channel and the third most watched TV channel in Spain.|
|La 2||Broadcasts cultural programs, North American programs, documentaries, Spanish and European films, news, debates and musicals.|
|clan||RTVE's children's channel also broadcasts programs for young people in the evenings.|
|Teledeport||Transmits sports programs that cannot be accommodated on La 1 and La 2 due to lower audience interest.|
|Canal 24 Horas||Broadcasts news, debates, analysis and interviews for 24 hours.|
|La 1 HD||La 1 in HD .|
|La 2 HD||La 2 in HD .|
|Clan HD||Clan in HD .|
|Teledeporte HD||Teledeports in HD .|
|TVE Internacional||International RTVE broadcaster. Broadcasts TVE content worldwide.|
|Star TVE HD||International entertainment broadcaster from RTVE. However, only transmits to South America.|
Radio Nacional de España (RNE) is responsible for radio and maintains six different programs.
|Radio Nacional||Mainly transmits news and other programs.|
|Radio Clásica||Only transmits classical music.|
|Radio 3||Broadcasts cultural and alternative programs for a younger audience.|
|Ràdio 4||Only transmits in Catalan and therefore only has a Catalan target group.|
|Radio 5||Broadcasts news programs for 24 hours.|
|Radio Exterior de España||International radio program from RNE.|
Criticism and independence
Too uncritical, too pro-government - such criticism has existed on the Spanish state television RTVE for years. Nevertheless, according to swissinfo , RTVE and its channels enjoy a reputation as an independent broadcaster among the citizens of Spain . However, from 2000 onwards, complaints from journalists and citizens about government interference on sensitive political issues increased.
TVE journalists began complaining in 2017 about the influence of the ruling party on the public broadcaster. On the day of the Catalonia referendum , the broadcaster should have reported non-stop, said an employee of the NDR . No additional camera team was sent to Catalonia to cover what happened.
The editorial board of Televisión Española is a kind of internal control body. In 2018, the committee submitted a 72-page criticism of its own Catalonia reporting. In it he writes of “bad standards”, “censorship” and “lack of plurality” at TVE. The committee has the impression that the broadcaster is clearly on the side of the conservative central government in the conflict. There would be almost no supporters of the referendum in the discussion rounds.
- Official website of RTVE
- Spanish radio threatens a budget cut of 200 million euros in: Digitalfernsehen.de from January 3, 2012, accessed on July 3, 2017
- Pérez Gómez, Alberto, Nikoltchev, Susanne (Eds.): Iris Special: The Public Service Broadcasting Culture. European Audiovisual Observatory , Strasbourg 2007, ISBN 978-92-871-6188-8 .
- Orquestra y Coro rtve.es
- Veronica DeVore with input from Thomas Stephens, Belén Couceiro, Jie Guo, Kamel Dhif, Alexander Thoele, Igor Petrov, Akiko Uehara, swissinfo.ch: Public broadcasting in international comparison . In: SWI swissinfo.ch . ( swissinfo.ch [accessed on May 29, 2018]).
- Ley 4/1980, de 10 de enero, de Estatuto de la Radio y la Televisión
- LEY 17/2006, de 5 de junio, de la radio y la televisión de titularidad estatal. 2006, Retrieved August 7, 2019 (Spanish).
- El mayor grupo audiovisual español
- Spanish television postpones series starts after budget cut in: Digitalfernsehen.de from February 7, 2012, accessed on March 23, 2012
- RTVE: RTVE y Filmoteca Española lanzan en internet el mayor fondo histórico audiovisual de España. In: rtve.es. December 20, 2018, Retrieved August 7, 2019 (Spanish).
- Criticism about influencing Spanish television - Dark Night sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved August 14, 2018
- State television in Spain deutschlandfunk.de. Retrieved August 14, 2018
- NDR: Spanish government radio. Retrieved May 28, 2018 .