For reception you need a receiver that supports the transmission standard supported in the cable. It used to be PAL B / G , nowadays it is mostly DVB-C . The receiver can be built into the television, an add-on device or a plug-in card / USB stick for the PC. The receiver is connected to the antenna socket with a suitable cable (usually coaxial cable RG-59).
The basic structure looks like this:
- A coaxial cable leads into the apartment.
- It meets a junction box that provides three signals:
- Classic FM radio receiver: downstream 85–111 MHz
- Internet and related services: upstream 5–85 MHz and downstream 111–864 MHz
- traditional cable television: downstream 111-864 MHz
- Classic radio broadcast receivers are connected to the first socket (female antenna socket, hollow inner conductor)
- Internet and telephone (VoIP) are connected to the middle socket (F socket)
- Television on the third socket (antenna socket male, solid inner conductor)
This antenna socket is usually installed in the apartment by a technician from the cable television network operator or is already present in the apartment.
In contrast to aerial and satellite television , you usually have to pay connection fees for cable television, and additional monthly subscription fees for specialty programs and private HDTV programs . The connection fee is often included in the rental price, so that the reception of ÖR programs (radio and television) as well as many private programs in SDTV quality is possible without additional costs. Regardless of this, the license fee must be paid (Germany: ARD ZDF Deutschlandradio Contribution Service (until 2012: GEZ); Austria: GIS ; Switzerland: Serafe (until 2018: Billag )).
In addition to the analog television signal and an analog is FM - radio offer in Volume II transmitted through the cable. In the network areas expanded to at least 450 MHz , a digital offer ( see also DVB-C offer ) in the form of digital channel packages or bouquets is provided in the hyperband (special channels starting with S21) . The digital television has the old analog transmission largely replaced by 2019 (see analogue switch-off ). To receive the television and radio programs broadcast in the digital offerings, a digital receiver is required - often a set-top box , with newer televisions the receiver is usually already built-in (see IDTV ) - which carries the signals encoded in the DVB-C standard for playback. A smart card is also required to receive pay TV such as Sky , the private channels in general with some providers, the HDTV variants of many channels, Kabel Digital Home or KabelKiosk .
However, due to its technology and the number of transmitters , the DVB-T and DVB-T2 have become a cost-effective alternative to cable TV in some cities and many receivers support both DVB standards anyway due to their technical similarity. As a result, cable television providers are increasingly forced to make their networks more attractive to customers through digitization and the simultaneous expansion of their offerings. In cable television, the digital DVB-T signals are converted centrally in the head-end station into analog television signals - mostly in PAL - or in DVB-C signals.
Technically, the transmission of DVB-T and DAB radio via a cable television network is possible without any problems. However, this option is usually only used with community antenna systems for reasons of cost.
For televisions that can only provide a supply voltage of 5 V at the aerial socket for an aerial amplifier when receiving DVB-T , it is possible to use an additional automatic switch ( relay ), either cable television or DVB-T via an additional DVB -T antenna to receive.
In Germany, large cable television providers often offered VHF radio, ARD, ZDF and the local television stations via analogue cable television as a small basic service very cheaply on request. With the help of (blocking) filters located in the distribution system or in the cable socket, the bandwidth of the cable connection is technically limited and thus the additional offer is blocked out.
Cable television can also broadcast radio stations .
Analogue FM radio offer
In the frequency range of 87.5 MHz to 108 MHz ( VHF band II , in some countries different, see OIRT-band ) and is an analog FM - radio service transmitted in the cable. Any commercially available VHF radio receiver with a 75 Ohm antenna connection (according to IEC 60169-2) for an external VHF antenna can be used to receive these radio stations. It is only necessary to connect the antenna connection on the VHF receiver to the corresponding connection socket on the cable connection socket with an antenna cable. The connections of the antenna cable are the same as for the television antenna cable. By reversing the plug and coupling at the connections, the laying direction is reversed to the television cable. The same types of cables as used for television reception can also be used for radio reception. Some older VHF receivers that have a connection for the symmetrical 240 ohm ribbon cable instead of a coaxial antenna connection also need a receiver balun or a radio antenna splitter with an integrated balun for the symmetrical VHF antenna connection.
Some network operators have already discontinued the analogue FM radio offer in 2018 (according to the largest provider Vodafone ) or are planning to do so.
Digital radio offer via DVB-C
In addition to the analogue programs on FM, the digital transmission of radio programs via DVB-C in high quality is also possible. Since encrypted transmission using DVB-C is also possible, DVB-C can be used for the transmission of additional chargeable radio programs (pay radio), which was used by Sky (to a limited extent) and used by many cable network operators. For a long time, the unencrypted feed of all ARD radio programs via DVB-C was only carried out by very few cable network operators, although this was possible with little technical effort. Since summer 2008, all public radio stations have been broadcast digitally and unencrypted in Kabel Deutschland's digital cable network. Digital radio programs are now available from all network operators.
Reception possibilities offer z. B. old, suitable for cable television set-top boxes , which are connected to the existing AUX inputs of the hi-fi system via analog cinch plugs . The audio signal can also be decoupled from a SCART plug using an adapter. Alternatively, digital S / PDIF or TOSLINK connections are also suitable for the transmission of radio to the hi-fi system. Special cable receivers ( DVB-C radio tuners ) for radio reception from TechniSat and Vistron have also been available since 2017 .
Digitization of cable television
Cable television has recently been gradually digitized through the introduction of additional digital services (Internet, telephony, etc.) and the switch from analog to digital image transmission methods. Analog and digital signals are transmitted in parallel over the cable. At some point, when as many customers as possible have switched, the analog signal is switched off. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, as well as in most countries worldwide, only digital broadcasts are made via satellite and antenna (see analogue switch-off ). By using digital data transmission methods such as DVB-C and DVB-C2 or HD, the bandwidth in cable television, which is limited for technical reasons, can be used more economically because these digital transmission methods can increase the picture quality or more stations can be transmitted simultaneously in the existing frequency spectrum . As a rule, the various analog and digital offers are available depending on the contractual relationship and provider. Today, many programs from digital transmission paths, as digital signal feed in the head-end stations of cable television, are still converted into analog radio signals for the cable network.
The reception of digital cable television requires a DVB-C tuner for a television. Newer televisions have built-in digital tuners for DVB-C, DVB-S and DVB-T, as well as CI interfaces for smart cards for decrypting pay channels. Older televisions need a set-top box (STB), also known as a digital receiver or cable box. A DVB-C tuner can usually also receive digital radio programs, which are usually also transmitted with DVB-C.
The best-known device for digital television in Germany was the d-box , which was also available for cable television. Since this device was no longer developed (production was discontinued in 2001), regional cable television operators have offered their customers further developed set-top boxes (depending on the type of contract, subsidized). These devices do not have to be suitable for Sky . Every consumer can independently purchase and connect a digital receiver suitable for DVB-C from specialist retailers.
Analogue HDTV signals are not broadcast in Germany. Older televisions are often HDTV-capable, but often only have an analog receiver. Only with a set-top box designed for HDTV can HDTV be received with these old televisions.
Many digital programs (pay TV) are encrypted and transmitted on cable TV and can only be received after an additional activation with a smart card and additional offers that are subject to a fee. In order to activate encrypted programs, the appropriate smart card from the provider must be inserted into the card reader.
Digital televisions can now receive DVB signals directly and no longer need a separate set-top box. These televisions are standard in stores today. A set-top box can usually only decode one television program together with a smart card, so that when using digital video recorders, an additional smart card and possibly a CI interface for the decoder is often required in order to record encrypted programs.
When switching from analogue to digital cable television, broadcasters and cable network operators generally strived for an automatic improvement in image quality. The number of digitally available DVB-C channels increased five to tenfold with the changeover.
Some German cable network operators broadcast their private television programs until April or May 2013 with basic encryption . However, the basic encryption was banned by the Federal Cartel Office at the beginning of 2013 and the RTL and ProSiebenSAT.1 group fined 55 million euros for illegal agreements. Since May 2, 2013 you can now receive up to 51 programs via the simple digital cable connection from Kabel Deutschland. Including the programs of the RTL and ProSiebenSAT.1 groups as well as sixx, Tele 5, ServusTV, Sport1, Eurosport and other programs. The basic encryption was initially lifted for the next ten years. In the past, you needed a special smart card from the cable network operator. The public broadcasters have forbidden this basic encryption. Kabel BW has waived basic encryption from the start and since January 2, 2013, Unitymedia and many smaller cable network operators.
In the case of cable television, the changeover is taking place with DVB-C . The digitalization of cable television should initially be driven by the market.
Since July 2015, the Unitymedia cable network has been gradually discontinuing analog broadcasting: On June 1 and 6, 2017, the analog signal in Baden-Württemberg was completely switched off, Hesse followed on June 13, and North Rhine on June 20 and 26 -Westphalia.
The ANGA Association of German Cable Network Operators announced that analog television broadcasting in the German cable networks will be discontinued by the end of 2018 at the latest. Operation and channel allocation for cable television is approved in Germany by the state media authority of the respective federal state .
In 2016, around 82.1 percent of all households with cable reception received the television signal digitally. The annual increase is 7 percent (replacement of old televisions with new ones). Almost all new televisions today have DVB-C tuners to receive the digital signal in the cable. So it happens that around half of the households that still receive analog television via cable today already have a television with a digital receiver.
In particular, many elderly people and many low-income households still receive analogue cable television via older devices, from outdated channel lists in their devices or from outdated house distribution systems. For households with purely analog televisions, a digital set-top box provided free of charge by the cable companies could bring about a change.
Vodafone Kabel Deutschland has also switched off VHF broadcasting in the cable television networks. The VHF range is still used in the Unitymedia cable network.
Technical enhancements (triple play)
Modern cable networks are usually bidirectional networks, with the help of which a return channel capability is given. This also allows value-added services and interactive services to be used, such as broadband Internet access using a cable modem over the television cable, provided they are offered by the cable network operator . It is also possible to make calls via the cable network in areas that are being developed.
In many cases, the return channel capability was only retrofitted in the last few years after the cable network was originally designed as a pure distribution medium for radio and television signals. For the conversion to return channel capability, it was particularly necessary to replace the old amplifiers in the distribution boxes, which are often located on the roadside. The new amplifiers also support an extended frequency spectrum of up to 862 MHz, which creates additional capacities in the cable network. If the return channel capability is retrofitted, often only those apartments are equipped with a suitable antenna connection socket (third connection for broadband internet access) that use internet access from the start. There are therefore push-on adapters for conventional sockets. They contain a filter that extracts the data signal from the existing signal and makes it available via a third connection.
A frequently used protocol for connecting the Internet via the television cable is DOCSIS , which in the newer specification 3.1 enables data rates of up to 10 Gbit / s in the downstream and 1 Gbit / s in the upstream and data traffic in real time in the future. Such data rates are not yet available for private end customers. Currently, speeds with DOCSIS 3.0 up to 600 Mbit / s are common. The next development step will take place with these data rates and, according to the Teltarif portal, should enable television, internet and multimedia services to be merged in selected major German cities. For triple play , the simultaneous use of television / radio, Internet and telephone, data rates from around 2000 kbit / s are sufficient, but IPTV with a resolution similar to that of television images may require higher data rates.
The telephony services offered are exclusively Voice over Cable , i.e. VoIP connections (Internet telephony). The cable modems used are made available by most providers as rental devices and include an integrated IP adapter as well as the SIP standard for the Fritz boxes from AVM . They enable a conventional analog telephone to be connected to the cable modem. The modem models are already pre-configured by the provider. Telephony via alternative VoIP providers in this case requires the customer to connect an external SIP adapter or use alternative services such as Skype .
Internet service provider's gateways connect the telephone customer to the landlines of the other telephone companies via the Internet . The participant is identified via the MAC address of the IP adapter. In the case of Internet-based telephony services and Skype, there can generally be disruptions due to packet loss. Even when using analog data services via modem and fax via these connections, depending on the transmission protocol used, interference can occur. (See VoIP, Fax over IP (Fax over IP, FoIP) ).
HD telephony with an extended frequency spectrum has not yet been offered by any well-known cable network operator, but is possible via regular Internet use with alternative telephony providers. This possibility is not limited by cable television, but by the requirement that the entire transmission chain between the participants must be developed continuously ( G.722 compatible).
Transmission of television signals via Ethernet
Cable TV Fiber Optic (CATV FO) is a fiber optic solution for the transmission of digital television signals via Ethernet / LAN (Local Area Network). This process is one of the internet-based (IP) transmission processes that can exist independently of traditional cable television. With this system, the signals in the fiber optic network can be transmitted over long distances without additional amplifiers and so extensive regions can be digitally developed in order to provide them with cable television and other media after implementation.
Areas of application are building complexes and larger company locations with structured cabling; for example company and industrial parks, leisure facilities, hotels, logistics centers, refineries, ports, train stations or modern residential complexes. With individual products, television signals can be distributed over distances of up to 2000 meters and to up to 64 receivers ( FTTH ). The multimedia solution can be used in the structured building cabling ( structured cabling ) as a campus, building and floor distributor and can be integrated into existing networks.
This technology is suitable for all digital transmission methods, but especially for IPTV and web radio. It can also be used for DVB-C and, after digitization, also for analog radio and television signals. However, so that classic radio receivers, which receive their signals via an antenna socket and can only be received via DVB-C or analogue cable TV, can also be supplied, converters for the signals from Cable TV Fiber Optic to the conventional systems are required in the headend . Due to the possible high digital transmission quality, this transmission technology can be used to feed signals into the headend of the cable network provider.
Another new option is Sat-over-IP technology for the transmission and distribution of DVB-S and DVB-C television signals as IP data streams. With the help of smart TVs and HDMI sticks , further internet-based reception options are now available.
Other internet-based services
Independent of the digital expansion, additional internet-based video services can be used with appropriate devices via HbbTV .
Radio programs and multimedia services can be transmitted over the Internet using different protocols . These internet-based services are technically independent of the selected transmission medium (telephone / television cable or cellular phone). While web radio hardly causes problems today due to its relatively low data rate, high-resolution uninterrupted video streams (IPTV) are usually only possible with correspondingly powerful connections. However, the transmission through a provider-controlled protected network differentiates the IPTV services, which are mainly marketed by cable and DSL providers, from freely available Internet television.
High definition television, also called HDTV , is i. d. Usually transmitted digitally, as the bandwidth required for television transmission is much larger with HDTV than with conventional television.
HD-capable televisions with only one analog connection need an HD-capable digital receiver (set-top box) to receive HDTV.
HDTV is now broadcast digitally in Germany with DVB-C .
The transmission of the HDTV can optionally also be encrypted, for example for pay TV. The feed of all HD programs from ARD and ZDF is done by only a few cable network operators, although this is possible with little technical effort. The reason for this is that cable operators demand a feed-in fee from the public broadcasters. The reception of private television stations is currently also made possible in very different ways by the large cable network operators. This is primarily about the basic encryption of HD programs. The reception of pure pay TV, such as Sky , is also possible depending on the feed from the cable network operator. However, for cost reasons, Sky does not currently feed all HD channels into the cable television networks. The complete package is only offered in DVB-S via the Astra satellite position 19.2 ° East .
Network levels and delimitation of cable television from a communal antenna system
In principle, cable television can be combined with or confused with a large community antenna system (GGA, see house antenna ) or a community antenna system (e.g. a house antenna with an additional single-cable system ) and with direct satellite reception using a multi-switch .
If necessary, additional signals can be fed into the house's local cable network. In principle, it is also possible to receive direct satellite reception using a satellite receiver in your own apartment with cable television. Additional local radio or television stations, as well as DVB-T signals or signals from a satellite broadcast receiving system, can also be fed directly into the cable system or converted for cable television.
The decoupling can then take place at the respective antenna connection socket of the user, for example by means of an additional DVB-T or SAT receiver.
In order to avoid confusion with community antenna systems, network levels were defined for cable television in order to be able to make delimitations. The cable network in Germany can be organizationally divided into several network levels:
- Network level 1: between studio and television switchboard.
- Network level 2: between the television switching point and the BK amplifier point
- Network level 3: between the BK repeater and the house transfer point including the BK distribution network
- Network level 4: between house transfer point and broadband socket, new MMD multi media socket (house distribution)
- Network level 5: terminal area
In other countries, such as Switzerland, this division can be different. In Germany you are usually a customer of a provider at network level 4.
While a community antenna system (GA) in hotels or blocks of flats has up to a few hundred participants, large community antenna systems (GGA) are intended for several hundred subscriber connections and objects that are further apart. Large community antenna system was also the common name until the 1970s / 1980s, when, like a house antenna, the usual analogue terrestrial television signal was distributed by small businesses, clubs or communities. This was done partly to compensate for poor local reception, partly to receive programs from nearby foreign countries with somewhat greater technical effort. The transitions in the technology used between the large community system and the cable network are fluid. The designation GGA has been retained in numerous organizational designations , especially in Switzerland, which entered cable television early on, also in Austria and Germany.
Frequency range and signal strength
The bandwidth of cable television is the number of channels that can be transmitted simultaneously and the frequency range used. This usable frequency range is continuously expanded and expanded by the operators. By increasing the usable frequency range of the cable television network, the introduction of special channels for cable television became possible. The usable bandwidth always depends on the cables, amplifiers, distributors, connection sockets used and the size of the system.
|of which on
|≈1985||230 MHz||No||11 channels||6 channels|
|≈1988||300 MHz||No||16 channels||6 channels|
|≈1991||300 MHz||Yes||30 channels||11 channels|
|?||470 MHz||Yes||51 channels||11 channels|
|?||614 MHz||Yes||66 channels||26 channels|
|?||854 MHz||Yes||99 channels||56 channels|
Since more television stations can be transmitted in the same frequency range with digital cable television than with analogue cable television, new television channels are preferably transmitted digitally in addition to the expansion of the usable frequency range. Cable television has room for more channels than terrestrial broadcasting, but much less than satellite.
Expansion of the bandwidth
The expansion stage is often understood to mean the usable bandwidth (frequency range) for cable television. In the history of cable television, the number of channels that can be transmitted simultaneously and the frequency range used has been expanded several times by the operators. Originally, a maximum transmission frequency for the cable network of 300 MHz and 450 MHz was planned. It was later expanded to 600 MHz and 750 MHz. The range has recently been expanded to 862 MHz. Thus z. Currently in developed areas the frequency range from a maximum of 80 MHz to 862 MHz and in the transmission direction (return channel) from a maximum of 5 MHz to 65 MHz are available.
However, the use of return channels for Internet and telephony via cable television reduces the bandwidth that customers can use for their television services. The range from 30 MHz to 65 MHz is used here for the transmission direction ("upstream"). In the future, the introduction of Docsis 3.1 will also use the frequency range from 15 MHz to 30 MHz.
However, it is also technically possible to suppress unwanted television channels or services from the cable network using blocking filters and to add further radio stations and television channels (e.g. for video surveillance) in the existing gaps. In the case of the small analog basic service, which was previously offered cheaply, the bandwidth was restricted by means of a blocking filter for the subscriber concerned in order to limit the freely available television offer. With these connections, only ARD, ZDF, the respective third program in the region, existing local TV stations and the FM offer could be used.
In residential areas with existing older house cabling, old, often inadequately shielded antenna lines were often used, which means that radio stations from the cable network can be received in the car radio and other radio services are disrupted. In the initial phase, the Deutsche Bundespost had to discontinue the analog use of some special channels (S02, S03 and S04) in order to avoid interference with air traffic. In addition, since the introduction of DAB radio ( Digital Audio Broadcasting ) there has been repeated interference from television stations in the cable network. This problem became clearly visible again by increasing the transmission power of DAB on TV channels 5 to 12. Parts of the cable television network act as antennas or there is direct irradiation in poorly shielded amplifiers and distributors because the installation regulations of the operator or the customer in the apartment were not complied with.
These old, poorly shielded coaxial cables and distribution elements, as well as the continued use of outdated sockets in residential buildings when converting from terrestrial antenna reception to a cable connection, are the cause of many faults in old cable networks. The former Deutsche Bundespost issued a recommendation for the installation companies to use double-shielded 75 Ω distribution elements, but compliance with the regulation was often not checked. This recommendation was therefore often ineffective in practice, as even the 60 Ω installations that were still common at the time were still used for cost reasons.
However, the fault must be eliminated by the person who caused it. The successor to the troubleshooting service of the Deutsche Bundespost will also determine the cause of the disturbance free of charge for the person concerned upon request and can then oblige the person responsible to eliminate them.
Before cable television was introduced, many of the frequencies now available to cable television were also assigned to other radio services such as aviation and amateur radio services or BOS (radio services of the authorities and organizations with security tasks). These radio services can be disrupted if the antenna cables and plug connections are incorrectly or insufficiently shielded or have been deliberately manipulated. These frequencies are usually the special channels of cable television. In Germany they are marked with an additional S. Direct reception of these channels is only possible with televisions that are equipped with a cable tuner. From the mid-1980s onwards, most televisions could receive these special channels or a cable tuner could be retrofitted if necessary.
Insufficient equalization of the level in the frequency band used or too high a gain can seriously disrupt cable television reception.
Typical malfunction symptoms
The following disorders were typical:
- Noisy picture ("snow") or grizzly due to insufficient signal level
- Shadows, ghost images , a weak “copying through” of another transmitter and other reception disruptions due to insufficient shielding or reflections in the cable network
- With digital cable television, there may be "block formation" and "freezing" of the picture ( blocking / freeze ) or sporadic dropouts when the signal level is too low or too high.
- In the case of ingress, unwanted reception of other radio services is even possible due to insufficient shielding.
The effects described above have an even greater impact on Internet access via cable television lines, since electromagnetic emissions in the short-wave range can cause interference. The shortwave radio , the maritime radio service , weather radio, aviation radio , military radio services, embassy radio , amateur radio service / emergency radio and broadcasts from press agencies are then disrupted . Compared to the previously known interferences in the UHF / VHF range, which could range a few 100 m, these undesired emissions can lead to interferences in the shortwave range several kilometers away.
Through a third party
In Germany, interference caused by the transmission of the cable television signal is determined by the Federal Network Agency , the successor to the former radio interference suppression service, usually at the request of the person concerned. The polluter is obliged to comply with the legal limit values for a fee or the source of the interference is confiscated. Additional legal measures can then be taken, similar to the pursuit of black markers.
Since the special channels S02, S03 and S04 are now also used for DVB-C, a new broadband antenna socket is often required for reception , which is usually replaced by the operator at the customer's site if necessary. The "old" antenna socket has a frequency filter that attenuates the digital channel S02 / 113 MHz above 108 MHz and thus affects its interference-free reception. Older broadband antenna sockets can, however, cause picture interference due to overmodulation on the television due to high FM levels. This can be remedied by using modern antenna sockets with frequency filters, as modern antenna sockets with frequency filters are suitable for receiving special channels. Alternatively, there are also high-pass filters that can be used in conjunction with the broadband antenna socket.
With the introduction of DVB-T and DVB-T2 as well as the LTE cellular standard in the 800 MHz frequency band, poorly shielded cable television networks are causing mutual interference, as the frequency range up to 862 MHz is used here. The network operator already had to filter or even block television channels. See also digital dividend .
For additional installations and maintenance in cable networks, depending on the country and legal framework, further requirements of the responsible cable network operator may apply.
By the end user (network level 4)
The area of responsibility of the cable network operator extends to network level 3 (house connection), network level 4 concerns the building installation. Interference in this area is mainly caused by the use of poorly shielded cables and system components that were installed for collective antenna reception before the introduction of cable television. Such disturbances can be eliminated by the operator of the building services or the end user by using sufficiently shielded cables and distributors. An additional capacitive sheath current filter at the antenna input ensures a network separation at the antenna connection between the cable television network and your own devices and thus prevents network interference and a hum loop .
In most countries, the limitation of unavoidable interference radiation is regulated by law. This means that the connection of CB radio , mini-transmitters or other unsuitable end devices or network components that spread locally strong interference radiation to the cable television network is generally excluded. Suitable receivers in Europe bear the CE mark .
Signal strength and quality
The signal strength and the signal quality to be provided by the cable television operator are standardized. These parameters are to be made available to the customer at the central house transfer point (end of network level 3 ) or at the antenna socket (end of network level 4 ).
The following applies to the analog television sector : it ranges from approximately 60 dBµV to 75 dBµV (converted: 1 mV to 5.6 mV). In most houses there is an amplifier and a central distributor in the basement near the actual connection, which ideally should provide 67 dBµV (converted: 2.2 mV) at each junction box.
For the digital television range DVB-C with a modulation of 64 QAM, the following applies: It ranges approximately from 50 dBµV to 65 dBµV (converted: 0.3 mV to 1.8 mV). The signal on the house amplifier should be leveled in such a way that, taking into account the distribution structure, almost 57 dBµV (0.7 mV) are available at each junction box.
The following applies to the digital television sector DVB-C with a modulation of 256 QAM: It ranges from about 57 dBµV to 69 dBµV (converted: 0.7 mV to 2.8 mV). The signal on the house amplifier should be leveled in such a way that, taking into account the distribution structure, almost 63 dBµV (1.4 mV) are available at each junction box.
The level (signal strength) is so high that two televisions with a passive distributor can usually be connected directly to a cable antenna socket without interference. By transmitting signals with a defined strength (level) at a specified frequency in the cable ( pilot tone ), cable amplifiers can automatically compensate for fluctuating cable attenuation caused by temperature fluctuations. These amplifiers are usually only used to bridge large distances, but not as house connection amplifiers.
Situation in individual countries
Cable television is provided by various network operators for a fee. In 2015, around 41 percent of Germans used cable television. These statistics also include satellite viewers of foreign origin or with various branch interests who receive foreign language television or non-cable specialty programs via satellite, although a cable connection is available and has to be paid for via the additional rental costs. In addition, customers are recorded who prefer other reception channels but are bound to the cable connection via their rental agreement. At least 46 percent use a satellite antenna , and 5 percent receive terrestrial ( DVB-T ) via the house antenna or do without television.
In Germany there are currently the following major providers: Unitymedia (Baden-Württemberg, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia), Vodafone Kabel Deutschland (other 13 federal states, by far the largest provider) and Pÿur (see also cable network operator #Germany ). The state media authorities monitor the cable network operators and determine the programs that must be fed into the cable network. As a rule, all local (German) stations that can be received on site without any special effort must be fed into the cable network in analogue mode. The digital offer of the public broadcasting corporations ( ARD and ZDF ) only needs to be fed into the cable network via DVB-C in SD quality. The feed of all TV and radio programs of the ARD via DVB-C is currently not provided by all cable network operators, although this is possible with little technical effort. At the moment, some providers do not have any dates for feeding the missing ARD stations and the radio transponder via DVB-C. There is no legal obligation for cable network operators to feed in public television programs in HD quality.
Unitymedia and Kabel Deutschland no longer offer analogue cable television to new customers (see DVB-C in Germany ). Nevertheless, analog and digital cable TV are still available to all customers from cable providers, even if new customers are no longer contractually entitled to analog cable TV. The situation is different in the rental properties of large landlords (formerly municipal housing companies). Since the cable network operator often has the monopoly in a property there, the tenant cannot choose between the providers. For this reason, a contract with reduced terms is often negotiated between the landlord and the cable network operator in such rental properties, so that in these cases new customers can also benefit from a cheaper analog supply (compared to digital supply).
The first consistently developed applications of cable television existed as early as the mid-1930s in Berlin and later also in Hamburg under the term "television wire radio". Television signals were modulated onto a 4.2 MHz carrier via coaxial cables and transmitted to the television rooms and communal reception systems in Berlin. The television wire radio had the advantage over the antenna television reception that picture disturbances by interference signals from the S-Bahn network could be avoided. Many of the television receivers of the time therefore had both a television antenna connection and a cable input. The sound was transmitted partly over the same line and partly over the telephone network.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, a form of cable television was only introduced in the early 1960s, communal and large antenna systems for supplying apartment buildings. These systems mostly only delivered local radio and television programs to the individual apartments via cable. However, this was at best a preliminary stage to cable television as we understand it today.
It was not until 1972 that the Deutsche Bundespost began gradually building test cable networks in shaded areas with a capacity of twelve television and radio programs each. At the end of 1974 and 1978, respectively, these cable networks, which were equipped with analog cable headends with a bandwidth of 47 MHz to 350 MHz, were put into operation.
In the GDR, local antenna communities founded the first cable television networks at the end of the 1970s, which, in addition to improving local radio reception, also enabled high-quality western television to be received.
Cable television was first broadcast in West Germany on January 1, 1984 as part of the Ludwigshafen am Rhein cable pilot project until 1986. Further cable pilot projects followed in Munich (1984–1985), Dortmund (1985–1988) and West Berlin (1985–1990). Specialized channels (for education or sport) and open channels for citizens' programs were also tested here for the first time . The hour of birth of cable television in 1984 was also the hour of birth of commercial private television .
Cable television was available to most citizens earlier and more cheaply than direct satellite reception today.
Apparently there is conflicting information here. Research on Kabel Deutschland revealed the following: On the occasion of Eurobau , the first headend is said to have gone into operation in Altenholz (near Kiel) in 1978 . The first satellite broadcast reception system (SEE) is said to have been installed on the Kiel television tower and put into operation in 1983.
In 1982 the Federal Republic was still one of the "cable developing countries" with a coverage rate of around two percent. In 1984 the Deutsche Bundespost put the cost of the cabling at 13.5 billion DM (6.9 billion euros) and in 1988 at 15 billion DM (7.7 billion euros). According to a report published in October 1987 by the German Institute for Economic Research , the cabling gave the job market only a small amount of positive impetus , in contrast to forecasts by the Federal Ministry for Post and Telecommunications . By the end of 1990, 8.1 million households in West Germany had a cable connection, which, according to official information, corresponded to a cable connection density of 31.5 percent of all households in the Federal Republic.
Source: Deutsche Bundespost. The percentage refers to the proportion of the total number of apartments
On December 31, 1995, Deutsche Telekom reported 15.8 million users of cable connections; the cable density nationwide was 65.3 percent, the level of coverage ( connection density ) 64.7 percent. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (75.1 percent) and Brandenburg (74.4 percent) had the highest connection density of all federal states , the highest level of coverage was achieved in Hamburg (99.4 percent) and Bremen (98.0 percent).
The lowest port density have German cable accordingly Saxony-Anhalt (56.9 percent) and Schleswig-Holstein (61.4 percent), the lowest penetration rate have Thuringia (32.4 percent) and Saxony-Anhalt (27.6 percent) followed by Brandenburg (39.5 percent) and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (39.6 percent). Most of the apartments connected to the television cable network are in North Rhine-Westphalia (3.7 million), Baden-Württemberg (2.0 million) and Bavaria (2.3 million).
At the beginning of 1997 the Monopoly Commission demanded that Deutsche Telekom should sell its cable network. The federal government rejected this demand in March 1997 on the grounds that such a forced sale would violate the Basic Law and company law .
After the prohibition of the nationwide joint digital cable television media platform of Deutsche Telekom, Bertelsmann and the Kirch Group for antitrust reasons by the European Commission in 1998 and further pressure from the EU and national competition authorities, Telekom gradually sold its cable network from 2000 to 2003 of regional subnetworks such as ish , iesy , Kabel Deutschland , Kabel BW , Primacom and Tele Columbus , which paved the way for the return channel-capable expansion and the offer of cable telephony and cable modem ( triple play ) via the German cable network. When it bought the cable networks in Schleswig-Holstein, Kabel Deutschland received all the documentation for cable television. Today's Deutsche Telekom AG has confirmed that the files and notes relating to the establishment of the cable networks have been completely handed over to Kabel Deutschland.
At the beginning of 2004, Kabel Deutschland was about to take over other large competitors, which would have again led to a monopoly position; the Bundeskartellamt therefore initially prohibited the takeover. At the beginning of 2005 two regional providers - ish (North Rhine-Westphalia) and iesy (Hessen) - tried to merge. This merger took place in May 2007 under the common name Unitymedia. The new name stands for the union of television, internet and telephone from a single source. Even more customers were integrated through the acquisition of Tele Columbus West.
With the Football World Cup in 2006 , the new HDTV standard found its way into the cable network, but only on pay TV. By converting to central distribution with fiber optic cables and remote maintenance , many old head-end stations (local receiving points) have now been abandoned or dismantled, and cable network segments have been combined. As a result of this centralization, free-to-air or customary foreign broadcasters, such as ORF in the Bavarian area near the border, are no longer available in the local cable network.
Cooperation between housing administrations and cable network operators
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the introduction of cable television often resulted in long-term contracts between cable network operators and housing administrations as well as commercial landlords for the supply of apartment buildings. For the first time, these contracts ensured high-quality, interference-free radio and television reception for many tenants and at the same time ensured that a cable connection was available in many apartments. At the same time, the tenants' often inadequate individual antenna systems became superfluous, and the existing communal antenna systems for apartment blocks and high-rise buildings were often included in the newly established cable networks.
In some cities, housing administrations also set up their own cable network operators or worked with local electrical companies to supply their housing units on network level 4. Since the program feed mostly comes from the large cable operators, there are often conflicts with the supply of Internet and telephone via these systems. In some cases, installation bans are issued by the NE4 operator, which can lead to resentment among tenants.
Media-political significance of cable television
After the change of government in the Federal Republic of Germany in October 1982, the establishment of area-wide broadband cable distribution networks (BK networks) using copper coaxial technology was given high priority. With 24 to 35 theoretically usable television and around 40 radio channels, the copper coaxial cable in the broadband network offered a transmission capacity that made a diverse range of programs possible. The then Federal Post Minister Christian Schwarz-Schilling stated very clearly in 1983: "In order to increase the demand for cable connections, it cannot just be about improving the picture and sound quality, but about offering more programs" - primarily private ones were meant Providers. The Deutsche Bundespost doubled the funds for the expansion of the broadband communication networks with copper coaxial cables in 1983 to a total of one billion DM. A similar investment was assumed for the following years, in 1990 it was 1.5 billion DM per year. Before 1982, the Deutsche Bundespost limited itself to cabling only those areas that - mostly due to geographical conditions - allowed no or only poor reception from terrestrial transmitters. By 1982 around 300,000 households (1.3 percent of television households) were connected to the cable networks of the Deutsche Bundespost. The cabling strategy of the Post has now been changed under the decisive influence of the new Post Minister: The previously demand-oriented expansion of the cable distribution networks has been replaced by a supply-oriented sales strategy. The cable infrastructure required for the media-politically desirable program increase, also for private television providers , seemed only feasible through the massive use of state funds - and through the use of the comparatively expensive copper coaxial cables. For many citizens, cable television was available earlier and cheaper than direct satellite reception.
In addition to public television from ARD , later all third-party programs and ZDF , these networks also broadcast state television in the GDR , and from the mid-1980s onwards for the first time to commercial private broadcasters (initially Sat.1 and RTL plus ), as well as those near the border ORF and SRG SSR, even unencrypted the Swiss pay TV station Teleclub . The television stations ( Eins-Plus , 3sat , RTL plus , Sat.1) broadcast the first digital programs in D2-MAC 4: 3 (16: 9 optional). For this purpose, 12 MHz wide hyperband special channels were used in expanded cable television systems. The DSR digital satellite radio was temporarily offered on cable television.
Introduction of the return channel
The broadband distribution networks of the Deutsche Bundespost originally planned for cable television had provided for the use of a return channel . Such a function is primarily not required in cable television. However, at that time there were also attempts to implement the return channel for interactive television, similar to hybrid television and home shopping . For this purpose, the interference-prone range from 5 MHz to 30 MHz was mostly used with a passive return path. After protests by data protectionists , this functionality was never used on a large scale. Only with the advent of the Internet via television cables at the turn of the millennium did the return channel capability spread again in the range from 30 MHz to 65 MHz by exchanging distributors and amplifiers. At that time, the German cable television networks were no longer owned by Telekom.
In Austria there are several large cable providers as well as some regional cable network operators . All of the major Austrian cable network operators also offer internet and telephony over their lines.
However, digital satellite television is more widespread in Austria than in any other European country - 55 percent of Austrian households are equipped for digital satellite reception. Therefore cable television plays a smaller role in Austria with 36.5 percent. Above all, the easy availability of all Austrian and German programs and the now inexpensive satellite reception technology that is available without any further running costs contribute to this fact.
However, as individual exceptional cases, there are certainly municipalities with a high cable connection rate - either because cable television was expanded very early (mostly by smaller companies or the municipalities themselves) and accordingly advertised close to the customer, or because particularly strict regulations on site protection are in force Prohibit television antennas and satellite dishes on buildings.
Beginnings of cable television in Austria
In November 1974, Vöcklabruck decided to be the first city in Austria to set up a community system for cable television. In May 1975 the first households were supplied with the two ORF programs and three German broadcasters. The latter could be received with good antenna technology due to the proximity to the border. From 1985 SAT 1 and 3sat were fed into the cable network via satellite .
Another pioneer is the association-like large community antenna system (GGA) in the municipality of Dietach , which has broadcast two ORF programs as well as three German programs to 90 households since May 1976. From October 1986 satellite signals were also fed in.
Wiener Telekabel (today UPC Austria ) was founded in 1978 by the City of Vienna and Philips and in 1979 it started operating in municipal housing in Floridsdorf and Donaustadt . In addition to the two Austrian programs, the German broadcasters ARD, ZDF, BR3 and WDR and the Swiss SRG SSR were fed to the post and telegraph administration via microwave links . The radio link to Vienna later also supplied other cities on its route or passed the signal from the Vienna Arsenal radio tower on to the distribution points of the Burgenland Cable TV Company (BKG), which were completed in Burgenland in 1980. The pan-European Super Channel was already fed in via satellite at the beginning . From 1984 3sat, SAT1 and RTL Plus were added via satellite. In 1995, Vienna also began to implement the back channel capability. In doing so, Internet via telecable with a shared 10 Mbit / s became available for a distribution area via the cable connection.
In 1978 Liwest was also founded by the Linz, Wels, Steyr and Siemens AG Austria authorities. From 1985 it fed in the satellite programs SAT1 and 3sat.
Due to poor local reception conditions, the municipality of Weng im Gesäuse laid a coaxial cable parallel to the construction of the public sewer system in 1978. In 1979 the cable operator KTV-Eisenerz was founded.
The most important provider is UPC Cablecom with a market share of over 50 percent. Other important providers are Quickline and the Digital Cable Group . There are 422 cable network operators throughout Switzerland. These include companies, cooperatives or municipalities. Only eleven cable network operators have more than 22,000 customers. This shows how many smaller providers there are. The networks are usually designed for 862 MHz . As a result, over 50 different television programs are often broadcast. Most cable networks also offer digital television (mostly for a fee) , with a total of 600,000 customers (as of December 2009).
Broadband internet access via the cable network using a cable modem with around 750,000 connections (as of December 2009) is more successful. The competitor technology ADSL has 1,368,000 connections (as of December 2007).
Since 2004, telephoning via the cable network has also been possible in various networks; according to the industry association swisscable there are 365,000 connections (as of December 2009). Since SRG SSR has been operating its own HD channel with HD suisse since December 1, 2007 , most Swiss cable networks have switched to HDTV offers.
The first cable networks for radio emerged as early as the mid-1930s. The PTT (today Swisscom ) renounced its monopoly because it still had to put numerous telephone connections into operation and therefore did not want to deal with the construction of a cable network. It also had its own wired radio technology with the telephone broadcast. As early as the 1950s, the first cable networks were also broadcasting television signals. In the years that followed, cable networks were established in numerous locations. At the beginning of the 1990s, cable networks were often expanded to 600 MHz or even 862 MHz. In some networks, up to 65 analog television programs were broadcast. In 1994 several larger cable networks merged to form Cablecom. In 1995, the first cable networks offered Internet access. Since November 1, 2006, Swisscom has also been offering television programs via VDSL connections ( IPTV ).
USA and Canada
As early as the mid-1940s, a form of cable television emerged in the USA, albeit as an emergency solution: In order to enable people in remote areas to receive television, large antennas were installed in some regions; then cables were laid from there to the individual houses. The desire for more programs in the USA and Canada then led in the 1950s to the introduction of "real cable television" in addition to the usual radio television coverage.
Channels and frequencies in German-speaking countries
For historical reasons, before the introduction of cable television, the technically available frequencies were assigned to television reception, VHF radio and other radio services . In order to prevent a possible double allocation or mix-up of the existing television channels, the frequency gaps in the cable that were otherwise occupied by other radio services were assigned the special channels for cable television.
For this reason, channels with only one number can also be used for conventional television via antenna. The channels marked with S , the special channels, are reserved for other purposes outside the cable network (in radio operation). Televisions from before around 1985 can therefore usually not receive special channels even on cable. However, the special channels S02 to S19 are usually on channels 82 to 99, so that they can also be received with older televisions.
In order to enable the reception of the special channels of cable television on old televisions, the receiving units (English tuners ) could be replaced by cable tuners . Another possibility was to convert the television channels into the UHF range (television channels 21-69) by means of a cable converter , which at that time was not or only partially used by cable television.
The following table only shows the assignments for the German-speaking area - in other countries the same channel numbers can sometimes denote other frequencies (see also frequencies of the television channels ). The frequency of the video carrier is given - but each channel includes all frequencies from 1.25 MHz below the specified video carrier frequency to 1.25 MHz below the video carrier frequency of the next channel. Channel 2 extends from 47 MHz to 54 MHz.
Frequency table in German-speaking countries
The specified reception frequencies are
- for analog television : the video carrier frequency, sometimes rounded to a whole megahertz,
- for digital television via DVB-C : the carrier frequency of the DVB-C modulation,
- for digital television via DVB-C2 : the mean value of the lowest and highest carrier of the OFDM modulation and
- for digital television via DVB-S / S2 : the carrier frequency of the DVB-S or DVB-S2 modulation.
In addition to the standardized reception frequencies, reception frequencies that differ from the standard are occasionally used, for B. To reduce EMC problems.
Broadcasting Volume I
|-||-||30.8 ± 3.2 MHz|
|-||-||37.4 ± 3.2 MHz|
|-||-||45.2 ± 3.2 MHz|
|2||48.25 MHz||51.8 ± 3.2 MHz|
|3||55.25 MHz||58.4 ± 3.2 MHz||D73||73 ± 4 MHz||D.|
|4th||62.25 MHz||meanwhile unused||D81||81 ± 4 MHz||D.|
- Channels 2 to 4 are only used in the undeveloped cable networks and there only analogue as television channels. In developed cable networks they are used i. d. Usually as a return channel for Internet access via cable modem.
- Channels D73 and D81 are only used in individual networks that have not been expanded. These are channels between Band I and Band II and not standardized reception frequencies. It is an emergency regulation in order to be able to offer the same range of programs nationwide. In the expansion areas, what is otherwise on channel D73 is on channel K27 in the UHF band.
Broadcasting Volume II
The frequency range VHF II (87.50 MHz – 108.00 MHz) is reserved for VHF broadcasting .
Lower special channel area (midband)
These are special channels .
The special channel S01 cannot be used due to the overlap with the FM radio frequency band.
The special channels S02 and S03 were only rarely used analog. Since March 31, 2009, the Federal Network Agency's Safety Radio Protection Ordinance (SchuTSEV) has banned the use of channels in the 112 to 125 MHz range for analog signal distribution.
For the digital assignment of channels S02 and S03, the QPSK-QAM converters require a bandwidth of 8 MHz. Against this background, a reorganization of the channel grid with a channel width of 8 MHz is sought in the existing cable networks. The rearrangement begins here based on the existing 8 MHz digital channel grid in the hyperband , from where the grid is continued down to lower frequencies (D114, D122, ..., D170). Individual cable network operators temporarily use the existing frequency grid for the distribution of digital channels until they are reorganized. This results in a shifted grid for digital channels, starting with D113, D121,…, D169.
Since January 1, 2011, due to the Safety Radio Protection Ordinance (SchuTSEV), the special channels S04 and S05 may no longer be used for analog signal distribution. Since then, only digital broadcasts have been made in the 125 MHz to 137 MHz range.
As a result of this change, there will be no third ARD television program in every federal state in the analogue cable television program at Kabel Deutschland (Vodafone) (e.g. Bavarian television in Lower Saxony). At Unitymedia, the changeover did not take place until January 25, 2011.
If S06 is still used analog at 140.25 MHz, S05 will not be used digitally due to the overlapping of the channels until analog channels are switched off again.
In Switzerland, all special channels S02 to S10 are used analogously in the cable networks, some with individual channels offset by up to 1.5 MHz in order to avoid interference with local or government radio.
(7 MHz grid)
(8 MHz grid)
|(unused: VHF radio )|
|S02||112.25||D114||114 ± 4||D: Unitymedia, Vodafone|
|S03||119.25||D122||122 ± 4||D: Unitymedia, Vodafone; Cuxhaven settlement company|
|S04||126.25||D130||130 ± 4||D: Unitymedia, Vodafone; Cuxhaven settlement company|
|S06||140.25||D138||138 ± 4||D: Unitymedia (S05),
A: Vodafone; D: Cuxhaven settlement company
|S07||147.25||D146||146 ± 4||D: Unitymedia (S06),
A: Vodafone; D: Cuxhaven settlement company
|S08||154.25||D154||154 ± 4||D: Unitymedia (S07),
A: Vodafone; D: Cuxhaven settlement company
|S09||161.25||D162||162 ± 4||D: Unitymedia (S08),
A: Vodafone; D: Cuxhaven settlement company; Antenna community Niederwürschnitz
|S10||168.25||D170||170 ± 4||A: Vodafone; D: Cuxhaven settlement company; Antenna community Niederwürschnitz|
Alternative digital allocation as part of a transition phase between analog and digital broadcast:
(8 MHz grid)
|D113||113 ± 4||Antenna community Niederwürschnitz|
|D121||121 ± 4||Primacom ; Antenna community Niederwürschnitz|
|D129||129 ± 4||Primacom; Antenna community Niederwürschnitz|
|D137||137 ± 4||Primacom; Antenna community Niederwürschnitz|
|D145||145 ± 4||Primacom; Antenna community Niederwürschnitz|
|D153||153 ± 4||Primacom; Antenna community Niederwürschnitz|
|(D161)||(161 ± 4)|
|(D169)||(169 ± 4)|
Broadcasting Volume III
Channels 5 to 12 will still be used by the cable network operators in 2017 for analogue program distribution.
(7 MHz grid)
(8 MHz grid)
|5||175.25||(D178)||(178 ± 4)|
|7th||189.25||(D186)||(186 ± 4)|
|8th||196.25||(D194)||(194 ± 4)|
|9||203.25||(D202)||(202 ± 4)|
|10||210.25||(D210)||(210 ± 4)|
|11||217.25||(D218)||(218 ± 4)|
|12||224.25||(D226)||(226 ± 4)|
Upper special channel area (superband)
The special channels S11 to S20 are currently only used analogously by the cable network operators.
(7 MHz grid)
(8 MHz grid)
|S11||231.25||(D234)||(234 ± 4)|
|S13||245.25||(D242)||(242 ± 4)|
|S14||252.25||(D250)||(250 ± 4)|
|S15||259.25||(D258)||(258 ± 4)|
|S16||266.25||(D266)||(266 ± 4)|
|S17||273.25||(D274)||(274 ± 4)|
|S18||280.25||(D282)||(282 ± 4)|
|S19||287.25||(D290)||(290 ± 4)|
|S20||294.25||(D298)||(298 ± 4)|
Extended special channel range
|S21||303.25||(306 ± 4)|
|S22||311.25||(314 ± 4)|
|S23||319.25||(322 ± 4)|
|S24||327.25||330 ± 4|
|S25||335.25||338 ± 4|
|S26||343.25||346 ± 4|
|S27||351.25||354 ± 4|
|S28||359.25||362 ± 4|
|S29||367.25||370 ± 4|
|S30||375.25||378 ± 4|
|S31||383.25||386 ± 4|
|S32||391.25||394 ± 4|
|S33||399.25||402 ± 4|
|S34||407.25||410 ± 4|
|S35||415.25||418 ± 4|
|S36||423.25||426 ± 4|
|S37||431.25||434 ± 4|
|S38||439.25||442 ± 4|
|S39||447.25||450 ± 4|
|S40||455.25||458 ± 4|
|S41||463.25||466 ± 4|
|End of the receivable range
in cable networks with expansion stage 470 MHz.
Broadcasting Volume IV
|21st||471.25||474 ± 4|
|22nd||479.25||482 ± 4|
|23||487.25||490 ± 4|
|24||495.25||498 ± 4|
|25th||503.25||506 ± 4|
|26th||511.25||514 ± 4|
|27||519.25||522 ± 4|
|28||527.25||530 ± 4|
|29||535.25||538 ± 4|
|30th||543.25||546 ± 4|
|31||551.25||554 ± 4|
|32||559.25||562 ± 4|
|33||567.25||570 ± 4|
|34||575.25||578 ± 4|
|35||583.25||586 ± 4|
|36||591.25||594 ± 4|
|37||599.25||602 ± 4|
Broadcasting Band V
|38||607.25||610 ± 4|
|39||615.25||618 ± 4|
|40||623.25||626 ± 4|
|End of the receivable range
in cable networks with expansion stage 630 MHz.
|41||631.25||634 ± 4|
|42||639.25||642 ± 4|
|43||647.25||650 ± 4|
|44||655.25||658 ± 4|
|45||663.25||666 ± 4|
|46||671.25||674 ± 4|
|47||679.25||682 ± 4|
|48||687.25||690 ± 4|
|49||695.25||698 ± 4|
|50||703.25||706 ± 4|
|51||711.25||714 ± 4|
|52||719.25||722 ± 4|
|53||727.25||730 ± 4|
|54||735.25||738 ± 4|
|55||743.25||746 ± 4|
|56||751.25||754 ± 4|
|57||759.25||762 ± 4|
|58||767.25||770 ± 4|
|59||775.25||778 ± 4|
|60||783.25||786 ± 4|
|61||791.25||794 ± 4|
|62||799.25||802 ± 4|
|63||807.25||810 ± 4|
|64||815.25||818 ± 4|
|65||823.25||826 ± 4|
|66||831.25||834 ± 4|
|67||839.25||842 ± 4|
|68||847.25||850 ± 4|
|69||855.25||858 ± 4|
|End of the receivable range
in cable networks with expansion stage 862 MHz.
Broadband internet access
According to Euro-Docsis, the frequency ranges from 5 MHz to 65 MHz in the sending direction ("upstream" or "upload") and 450 MHz to 862 MHz in the receiving direction ("downstream" or "download") are available for Internet access in expanded cable networks. ) available (upper limit depends on the expansion, not specified by Docsis), in practice, however, these frequency ranges are not fully available or are only limited by the network operator (Euro-Docsis 2.0 or 3.0) from 30 MHz to 65 MHz and (Euro -Docsis 3.1) 15 MHz to 30 MHz in the transmit direction and from 450 MHz to 640 MHz in the receive direction supported.
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