The state of Saxony-Anhalt [ˌzaksn̩ˈʔanhalt] ( Low German Sassen-Anholt , state code ST ) is a parliamentary republic and, as a state, a partially sovereign member state of the Federal Republic of Germany . The tract of land has about 2.19 million inhabitants. The two largest cities in the state are the state capital Magdeburg and Halle (Saale) , another regional center is Dessau-Roßlau .
The state was created on July 21, 1947 through the unification of the Free State of Anhalt with the Prussian provinces of Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg , which the Free State of Prussia had created on April 1, 1944 by dividing its province of Saxony . The state of Saxony-Anhalt was divided into districts with the GDR administrative reform and has existed in its current form since German reunification on October 3, 1990. It is divided into eleven districts and three independent cities . The neighboring states are Lower Saxony , Brandenburg , Saxony and Thuringia , and from 1990 to 1992 Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania as well .
Saxony-Anhalt has five UNESCO World Heritage Sites - the Bauhaus , the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm , the Luther memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg , the old town of Quedlinburg and the Naumburg Cathedral . The country has a diverse landscape of castles, palaces and churches and other valuable cultural monuments . With several universities and research institutions, Halle and Magdeburg are scientific centers.
In the north, Saxony-Anhalt is characterized by flat land. In the sparsely populated Altmark there are old Hanseatic cities such as Salzwedel , Gardelegen , Stendal and Tangermünde . The transition from the Altmark to the Elbe-Börde-Heide region with the fertile, poorly forested Magdeburg Börde is formed by the Colbitz-Letzlinger Heide and the Drömling . In the Magdeburg Börde are the cities of Haldensleben , Oschersleben (Bode) , Wanzleben-Börde , Schönebeck (Elbe) , Aschersleben and Magdeburg, from which the region derives its name.
In the southwest lies the Harz with the cross-border Harz National Park , the Harz foreland and the Mansfelder Land as well as the cities of Halberstadt , Quedlinburg , Wernigerode , Thale , Lutherstadt Eisleben and Sangerhausen .
On the border with Saxony is the Halle (Saale) / Merseburg / Bitterfeld-Wolfen conurbation (also known as the “ chemical triangle ”), which extends as far as Leipzig in Saxony. In the past, the chemical industry with its economic focus in Leuna was based here.
At the hall , the White Elster and the Unstrut in the south of the country where the wine region Saale-Unstrut is, are Zeitz , Naumburg (Saale) , Weissenfels and Freyburg (Unstrut) . Finally, Saxony-Anhalt also includes the Anhalt-Wittenberg region in the east with the third largest city in the state of Dessau-Roßlau , which emerged from the old Anhalt royal seat of Dessau , Lutherstadt Wittenberg and part of Fläming .
- Chemistry triangle
- Magdeburg region
- Mansfeld country
- Saale-Unstrut region
- Altmark with
- Elbe valley with
- Fiener break
- Magdeburg Börde
- Northern Harz foreland with
- Harz / Harz National Park
- Lower Saale Valley Nature Park
- Fläming / Fläming Nature Park
- Düben Heath Nature Park
- Saale-Unstrut-Triasland nature park with
- Karower plate
Low mountain ranges and mountains
The largest low mountain range in Saxony-Anhalt is the Harz Mountains, in which the highest elevation of Saxony-Anhalt and all of Northern Germany is located. This is Brocken .the
Saxony-Anhalt originally only had a few lakes . Where salts occur in the subsurface, representatives such as the Arendsee in the Altmark and the Mansfeld lakes, Süßer and Salziger See , formed due to subsidence . The majority of the larger lakes in Saxony-Anhalt, on the other hand, are man-made. Most of them were created through the renaturation of old opencast mining holes from lignite mining . The following list gives an overview of the largest lakes in Saxony-Anhalt:
For the history of the area before 1944 see, among others, Altmark , Erzstift Magdeburg , Hochstift Halberstadt , Stift Quedlinburg , Province of Saxony and Anhalt , main article see under History of Saxony-Anhalt
In July 1944, the former Prussian province of Saxony , consisting of the administrative districts of Magdeburg , Merseburg and Erfurt , was divided up. The provinces of Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg were created . The administrative district of Erfurt was subordinated to the Reich governor of Thuringia. After the German surrender in 1945, the Soviet military administration in Germany (SMAD) took over the two provinces of Magdeburg and Halle-Merseburg, as well as the Free State of Anhalt (around Dessau), the former Brunswick exclave of Calvörde and the eastern part of the district of Blankenburg in the Harz region, also before belonging to the state of Braunschweig , as well as the Thuringian enclave Allstedt united to the new province of Saxony and the name changed in October 1946 to the province of Saxony-Anhalt . In the course of the dissolution of Prussia, the province of Saxony-Anhalt announced its own state constitution on January 10, 1947 . On July 21, 1947, the name was changed to the state of Saxony-Anhalt . The state capital became Halle . The country covered 24,576 km².
In July 1952, as part of the administrative reform in the GDR, the state of Saxony-Anhalt was de facto dissolved (de jure it continued to exist for a few years) and divided into the two districts of Halle and Magdeburg . In doing so, border adjustments were made in which individual cities and municipalities were incorporated or outsourced from the neighboring districts, whereby the district boundaries shifted compared to the former state borders.
On October 3, 1990, the state of Saxony-Anhalt was re-established by the Land Introduction Act . Since then, Saxony-Anhalt has again consisted of the former districts of Halle (excluding the district of Artern ) and Magdeburg as well as the district of Jessen , which belonged to the state of Saxony-Anhalt before 1952. Magdeburg became the state capital. Saxony-Anhalt's partner country during the development of the new structures was Lower Saxony. The beginning of the 1990s was marked by frequent changes of state governments and political affairs. As a result, the CDU, which was initially in power, lost the second state elections after reunification and the PDS tolerated a state government of the SPD and Alliance 90 / Greens ( Magdeburg model ). Prime Minister Reinhard Höppner ruled the country for two legislative periods in a time of great economic and labor market restructuring, after the Greens left a single SPD government tolerated by the PDS. Saxony-Anhalt had the highest unemployment rate of all federal states. In the third electoral term since reunification, the right-wing extremist DVU succeeded in entering the state parliament. However, this faction soon broke up due to internal disputes and was not re-elected to the state parliament in 2002. The ongoing economic crisis led to another change of government in the 2002 elections. Since then, Saxony-Anhalt has been ruled initially by a CDU / FDP government and then by a CDU / SPD government under Wolfgang Böhmer . After the state elections in 2011, he was replaced by Reiner Haseloff for reasons of age , who in turn has led a so-called Kenya coalition since 2016 .
The area of today's state of Saxony-Anhalt was one of the cultural focal points in the German-speaking area in the early Middle Ages . Today's state capital Magdeburg was at that time one of the political centers in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation . The well-preserved architectural monuments from the Romanesque and Gothic periods ( see also: Romanesque Road ), such as the cathedrals in Magdeburg and Halberstadt , the old town of Quedlinburg and many castles, testify to the earlier importance of the entire region and churches. According to the state marketing company, Saxony-Anhalt is the state with the highest density of UNESCO world cultural heritages in Germany. These include the Bauhaus Dessau in Dessau-Roßlau, the Luther memorials in Wittenberg and Eisleben, the old town of Quedlinburg , the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm with the Wörlitzer Park and the Naumburg Cathedral . The local towns and cities are characterized by winding, half-timbered old towns and densely built-up villages, also often with half-timbered architecture and attractive old village churches, as well as buildings from the time of the Prussian province of Saxony , which was considered the richest province in the state at the time.
In the 7th century AD, the population of Saxony-Anhalt was made up of Lower Saxony ( Ostfalen ) and Thuringians . In addition, there were the Elbe Slavs who were Christianized in the course of the German settlement in the east . Furthermore, descendants of the Flemings and Huguenots who immigrated in the past centuries, as well as other persecuted ethnic groups who found refuge with the early modern sovereigns in what is now Saxony-Anhalt, also live in Saxony-Anhalt . After the Second World War, displaced persons and refugees from the former German eastern regions and Czechoslovakia were settled . From 1990 Russian-German repatriates moved to Saxony-Anhalt. The proportion of foreign immigrants is comparatively small; the proportion of foreigners was 4.5% at the end of March 2017. The largest group here is the Vietnamese , followed by Russians and Ukrainians .
The historically correct designation for the inhabitants of the state, supported by the state authorities , is Sachsen-Anhalter , the corresponding adjective Saxony-Anhalt . In addition, the terms Sachsen-Anhaltiner and the expression Saxon-Anhaltinian recorded in the Duden dictionary are incorrectly used in colloquial language , whereby 'Anhaltinian' means a reference to the noble family of the Anhalt line of the Ascanians .
Saxony-Anhalt belongs to both the Low German and Central German language areas. A colored High German is spoken in the state today, which has a large number of specific expressions from Mark-Brandenburg , but is also characterized by Thuringian-Upper Saxon , especially in the southern parts of the country . In the northern part, in the Altmark and in the Börde , one still encounters the Low German language with older speakers . In the Mansfelder Land you can find the Mansfäller dialect , a dialect that strangers to the area understand only with great difficulty.
About 80 percent of citizens are non-denominational. In Saxony-Anhalt at the end of 2018, 337,172 people, or 15.3 percent of the population, belonged to one of the two major Christian denominations. Of these, 263,513 (11.9 percent of the population) were members of the Protestant regional churches, of which the Evangelical Church in Central Germany and the Evangelical Regional Church of Anhalt have the most members; 73,659 (3.3 percent) of the Saxons-Anhalter were Roman Catholic and mainly assigned to the diocese of Magdeburg and, to a small extent, to the archbishopric of Berlin (city of Havelberg ). As early as the first half of the 20th century, the Saxony-Anhalt region was one of the areas with a comparatively high proportion of people without religious affiliation. The small number of church members in Saxony-Anhalt even after the peaceful revolution in 1989 u. a. due to the fact that the GDR promoted a dissolution of church ties .
The trend is continuing to decline. Saxony-Anhalt currently has the lowest rate of church-bound residents in Germany. 80,000 inhabitants belong to other denominations, of which around 11,000 belong to the New Apostolic Church and 45,000 other religions ( Judaism , Jehovah's Witnesses , Islam ). Compared to many other German countries, the proportion of Muslim citizens is very low.
Saxony-Anhalt pays around 35 million euros a year in state benefits to the Protestant and Roman Catholic Churches. Although Saxony-Anhalt has the lowest proportion of members of these churches in a comparison of the federal states, the highest amount of state benefits per inhabitant is paid there. Even if the state benefits are allocated to the church members, Saxony-Anhalt leads the country comparison with 108 euros per church member per year.
In 2005, 1,949 resident doctors carried out 1,270,763 vaccinations in Saxony-Anhalt. In addition, there is a small proportion of vaccinations by the health authorities. 824,064 people were vaccinated against influenza ("real flu"); the proportion of the population vaccinated against influenza is estimated at 33 percent.
Since 2008, Saxony-Anhalt has been struggling with a shortage of doctors in both outpatient and inpatient areas, which is being countered by hiring doctors from Eastern Europe and Austria. In 2000 there were 1,654 general practitioners, in 2007 there were 1,437.
The average life expectancy in the period 2015/17 was 76.2 years for men and 82.5 years for women. The men are in 16th place among the German federal states, while women are in 14th place. Both values are thus below the national average. In 2013/15 Magdeburg (total population: 80.07 years), Dessau-Roßlau (79.88) and the Saalekreis (79.78) had the highest regionally, as did Altmarkkreis Salzwedel (78.79), Salzwedel (78.77) and the Salzlandkreis (78.41) has the lowest life expectancy.
On December 31, 2018, Saxony-Anhalt had a total of around 2.2 million inhabitants. The numerical decline in population in Saxony-Anhalt is a trend that has remained uninterrupted since reunification and can be traced back to approximately the same extent to the low number of newborns and the emigration of Saxony-Anhalters to other regions. Despite a slight increase in the birth rate since 1994, the reproductive rate only reached around 50 percent. According to a population forecast by the State Statistical Office of Saxony-Anhalt (detailed below), the population will decrease to around 1.9 million by 2025. Should this prognosis be correct, the population of Saxony-Anhalt would have shrunk by around 30 percent since the fall of the Wall.
The population after the 2007 district reform was between 92,000 and 237,000 in the urban districts and between 96,000 and 247,000 in the rural districts (2005 data). The population density in the new district areas fluctuates between 42 and 159 inhabitants per square kilometer (data status 2005). The two districts of Altmark, the district of Jerichower Land and the district of Wittenberg, have particularly low values.
The proportion of foreigners (residents without German citizenship ; dual nationals do not count as foreigners) was 2.8 percent in Saxony-Anhalt on December 31, 2014, making it the third lowest in comparison to the other German states - after Thuringia and Brandenburg .
The fertility rate per woman was 1.61 children in 2017, slightly above the national average of 1.57 children.
Population development in the districts and urban districts
The fifth regionalized population forecast for Saxony-Anhalt from 2008 to 2025 by the State Statistical Office of Saxony-Anhalt predicts a further decline in population. This was expected less strongly for the big cities than for more remote, economically weak and sparsely populated rural districts and areas with large housing estates. The forecast includes the following population development:
2005 per km²
|Population density in
2025 1) per km²
|City of Dessau-Roßlau||244.74||92,339||82 919||-||79,855||78,681||14.8||377||321|
|City of Halle (Saale)||135.01||237.198||236 991||-||238.158||206.120||13.1||1,757||1,527|
|City of Magdeburg||201.00||229.126||235.723||-||236.831||208.272||9.1||1,140||1,036|
|District of Jerichower Land||1,576.77||102.402||91,693||-||89,523||80,343||21.5||65||55|
|District of Stendal||2,423.15||131,267||115.262||-||110,944||96.114||26.8||54||40|
|State of Saxony-Anhalt (total)||20,451.58||2,469,716||2,245,470||2,238,286||2,190,795||1,976,237||20.0||121||97|
1) 5. Regionalized population forecast by the State Statistical Office of Saxony-Anhalt
3) For comparison and completion, the figures actually determined in the update.
In the 2011 2011 Bertelsmann Stiftung population forecast for municipalities in Saxony-Anhalt, a continuous population decline of 13.6 percent is predicted by 2030.
|December 31, 2009||2,354,830|
|December 31, 2015||2,217,180|
|December 31, 2020||2,113,040|
|December 31, 2025||2.008.060|
|December 31, 2030||1,901,200|
The sixth regionalized population forecast for Saxony-Anhalt 2016 to 2030 by the State Statistical Office of Saxony-Anhalt continues to forecast a population decline. The two large cities will initially continue to grow and will only lose part of their growth again from the mid-2020s. The forecast includes the following population development:
in population 2014–2030 in percent
|City of Dessau-Roßlau||82 919||75,553||70,825||−14.7|
|City of Halle (Saale)||236 991||240,582||238,551||2.6|
|City of Magdeburg||235.723||242,376||241.056||3.8|
|District of Jerichower Land||91,693||82,823||78.112||−14.5|
|District of Stendal||115.262||103,452||97.605||−14.9|
|State of Saxony-Anhalt (total)||2,245,470||2,086,750||1,990,324||−11.0|
2) 6. Regionalized population forecast by the State Statistical Office of Saxony-Anhalt
The constitution of the state of Saxony-Anhalt was passed in 1992 by the state parliament of Saxony-Anhalt . It is divided into four main parts.
In the first free election after the (re) establishment of the country in 1990, the CDU (39.0 percent) and the FDP, which achieved its best result to date in East Germany with 13.5 percent, formed a black-yellow coalition under Prime Minister Gerd Gies (CDU). Gies resigned in July 1991, followed by Werner Münch (CDU) , who had been Finance Minister to date . When Münch resigned in November 1993, Christoph Bergner (CDU) was elected Prime Minister. High unemployment and the poor economic situation in the former focus area of the chemical industry and heavy engineering led to high voter dissatisfaction with the black-yellow coalition. In the 1994 state elections , the SPD, with 34 percent, drew almost level with the CDU (34.4 percent). However, since the FDP left the state parliament with 3.6 percent, the CDU lost its coalition partner. So the SPD top candidate Reinhard Höppner was initially able to form a red-green minority coalition with the Greens with the tolerance of the PDS. After the Greens left the state parliament in the state elections in 1998 , Höppner formed an SPD minority government under tolerance of the PDS. This became known as the Magdeburg model . The success of the right-wing extremist DVU, which achieved 12.9 percent, also caused a stir.
With the election for the fourth Saxony-Anhalt state parliament in March 2002 , the previously ruling SPD fell behind the CDU and PDS with double-digit losses and only became the third largest party in the state parliament. The DVU was broken by internal disputes and left the state parliament again. In contrast, the FDP was able to move into the state parliament again with a result of 13.3 percent, while the CDU and FDP formed the government under the new Prime Minister Wolfgang Böhmer . In the 2006 state elections , the FDP suffered a loss of 6.7 percent, but it was no longer enough to re-form a coalition with the CDU (36.2 percent). Therefore, the CDU and the SPD formed a grand coalition under the renewed Prime Minister Böhmer. In the state elections in 2011 , the Greens were able to return to the state parliament for the first time since 1998 , after failing to pass the five percent hurdle in 2006 . The FDP left the state parliament with further losses and a result of 3.8 percent. A mathematically possible red-red coalition led by the left (23.7 percent) was strictly ruled out by the SPD (21.5 percent) with its top candidate Jens Bullerjahn , as the left claimed the post of prime minister for itself. Thus, under the new Prime Minister Reiner Haseloff (CDU) , the CDU and SPD formed a grand coalition again. Incumbent Böhmer did not run again for reasons of age. From 1994 to 2016, Saxony-Anhalt had a four-party parliament with alternating participation.
In the state elections on March 13, 2016 , the majority structure was changed significantly: The AfD , which was running for the first time, received 24.3 percent of the votes from scratch and replaced the left as the second strongest force in the state parliament. The Left Party itself achieved third place with significant losses and 16.3 percent, while the SPD fell from 21.5 percent of the vote to 10.6 percent and thus only reached fourth place. Furthermore, the CDU was the strongest force with 29.8 percent, the fifth was the Greens.
For the first time in the country's history, the CDU and SPD failed to achieve an independent majority, so that Prime Minister Rainer Haseloff formed the first nationwide “ Kenya coalition ” made up of the CDU, SPD and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen.
- State Parliament President of Saxony-Anhalt
- 1946–1948 Bruno Böttge , SED
- 1948–1950 Adam Wolfram , SED
- 1950–1952 Michael Schröder , SED
- 1990–1998 Klaus Keitel , CDU
- 1998–2002 Wolfgang Schaefer , SPD
- 2002–2006 Adolf Spotka , CDU
- 2006–2011 Dieter Steinecke , CDU
- 2011–1. December 2015 Detlef Gürth , CDU
- December 9, 2015–2016 Dieter Steinecke , CDU
- April 12, 2016 - August 21, 2016 Hardy Güssau , CDU
- since September 1, 2016 Gabriele Brakebusch , CDU
- Prime Minister of Saxony-Anhalt
|No.||Surname||Life dates||Political party||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires|
|1||Erhard Hubener||1881-1958||LDPD||July 21, 1947||August 13, 1949|
|2||Werner Bruschke||1898-1995||SED||August 13, 1949||July 23, 1952|
|3||Gerd Gies||* 1943||CDU||October 28, 1990||4th July 1991|
|4th||Werner Münch||* 1940||CDU||4th July 1991||November 28, 1993|
|5||Christoph Bergner||* 1948||CDU||2nd December 1993||July 21, 1994|
|6th||Reinhard Höppner||1948-2014||SPD||July 21, 1994||May 16, 2002|
|7th||Wolfgang Böhmer||* 1936||CDU||May 16, 2002||April 19, 2011|
|8th||Pure Haseloff||* 1954||CDU||April 19, 2011||officiating|
Previous state governments
- 1946–1950: SED / LDPD / CDU, from 1949 NDPD
- 1950-1952: SED / LDPD / DBD / NDPD
- 1990–1994: CDU / FDP coalition
- 1994–1998: Coalition SPD / Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen (minority government, tolerated by PDS)
- 1998–2002: SPD (minority government, tolerated by PDS)
- 2002–2006: CDU / FDP coalition
- 2006–2016: CDU / SPD coalition
- since April 25, 2016: CDU coalition; SPD and Alliance 90 / The Greens
According to the report on the protection of the constitution , the proportion of right-wing extremist acts of violence was higher in 2005 than in other German countries. In the first quarter of 2007, criminal offenses were almost halved, which was only due to a “different interpretation” of criminal offenses by the State Criminal Police Office . In 2006 there were 1,240 right-wing extremist crimes.
In November 2018, in a small inquiry in the state parliament of Saxony-Anhalt, initiated by the AfD parliamentary group, new figures on political crime were named. According to this, in the previous year 2017, after a significant drop, there were only 1,461 crimes motivated by legal policy (including 105 violent crimes), a further 357 crimes motivated by left-wing politics (including 41 violent crimes) and 30 religious crimes as well as 14 political crimes committed by foreign ideologies.
Saxony-Anhalt is administratively divided into eleven districts and three independent cities . The current administrative structure was created through two district reforms, whereby in the first district area reform on July 1, 1994, 21 new districts were formed from 37 districts, the number of which was reduced to eleven on July 1, 2007 ( see also: District reform Saxony-Anhalt 2007 ).
(December 31, 2019)
(people per km²)
|Altmarkkreis Salzwedel (SAW)||83.173||2,293.05||38|
|Anhalt-Bitterfeld district (ABI)||158.486||1,453.51||115|
|District of Börde (BK)||170.923||2,366.64||73|
|Burgenland District (BLK)||178,846||1,413.69||131|
|District of Harz (HZ)||213.310||2,104.55||105|
|District Jerichower Land (JL)||89,589||1,576.77||58|
|Mansfeld-Südharz district (MSH)||134,942||1,448.82||99|
|District of Stendal (SDL)||111.190||2,423.15||48|
|Wittenberg district (WB)||124,953||1,930.30||67|
|Dessau-Roßlau (DE), independent city||80.103||244.74||342|
|Halle (Saale) (HAL), independent city||238,762||135.01||1,715|
|Magdeburg (MD), independent state capital||237,565||201.00||1,149|
|State of Saxony-Anhalt (total)||2,194,782||20,451.58||110|
Saxony-Anhalt is divided into 218 municipalities, including 104 cities, three of which are independent (as of January 1, 2014). Up to December 31, 2009 there were 857 municipalities, some of which were united in administrative communities in order to fulfill their tasks . As part of the municipal reform in 2010, the administrative communities were dissolved and converted into association communities or unitary communities.
Until 2003 there were three administrative districts in Saxony-Anhalt: Dessau , Halle and Magdeburg . These were dissolved on January 1, 2004, the work of the regional councils was taken over by the state administration office set up for the entire state with headquarters in Halle (Saale) and branches in Dessau and Magdeburg.
Most populous cities
December 31, 2017
January 1, 2018
January 1, 2018
|2.||Magdeburg , state capital||circular||238.478||+3.0||201.00|
|12.||Naumburg (Saale)||Burgenland district||32,755||−4.5||129.90|
|24.||Zerbst / Anhalt||Anhalt-Bitterfeld||21,702||−6.3||467.77|
badges and flags
The coat of arms of Saxony-Anhalt symbolizes the former Prussian province of Saxony in the upper field and the former Free State of Anhalt in the lower field. The national colors are yellow-black.
|State coat of arms||Country flag|
Order of Merit of the State of Saxony-Anhalt
The state of Saxony-Anhalt maintains the following partnerships:
- Center-Val de Loire region ( France ), since July 5, 2004
- Masovian Voivodeship ( Poland ), since October 13, 2003
Economy and Infrastructure
The state capital Magdeburg is the seat of the State Broadcasting House of Saxony-Anhalt, which belongs to the Central German Broadcasting Corporation . The Sachsen-Anhalt media authority is based in Halle (Saale) . In some areas there are private TV channels such as Magdeburger TV 1 , RAN 1, regional TV Harz or TV Halle . The largest daily newspapers are the Volksstimme , published in Magdeburg, and the Mitteldeutsche Zeitung in Halle (Saale), each with a circulation of around 190,000 copies.
With the division of the federal states into districts, the area of today's Saxony-Anhalt was essentially divided into the two districts of Halle and Magdeburg in 1952 . In the planned economy of the GDR, the Halle district was expanded into a chemical location, characterized by large chemical plants in Leuna ( Leunawerke ), Schkopau ( Buna-Werke ) and Bitterfeld / Wolfen, which still form the so-called Central German Chemical Triangle today. The Central German lignite district , to which the Geiseltal and the Bitterfeld mining district belong, as well as the copper ore mining in the Mansfelder Land and around Sangerhausen employed tens of thousands of workers. The economy in the Magdeburg district, on the other hand, was characterized on the one hand by large-scale agriculture in the Börde and Altmark , on the other hand by heavy machinery combines such as SKET , VEB Schwermaschinenbau "Karl Liebknecht" or VEB Schwermaschinenbau Georgi Dimitroff in Magdeburg, in which the numerous mechanical engineering companies from the period before 1945 were summarized.
Saxony-Anhalt processed the economic structural change after 1990 with both success and setbacks. The large combines had severe structural difficulties in the transition to the social market economy, as their technical systems were mostly completely out of date, were characterized by a high level of labor and caused severe environmental damage. In particular, the combines in mechanical engineering, the chemical triangle and mining collapsed quickly after the fall of the Wall, which resulted in the loss of tens of thousands of jobs. Unemployment rose from 10.3% (167,127 people) in 1991 to 16.5% (208,149 people) in 1995 to the highest level of 21.7% in 1998/1999 and remained at this, the highest level in Germany at that time Over several years until 2005. From 2005, unemployment fell slowly and continuously to 7.3% in December 2018. There was a gap within the state: the rate in the Börde district in December 2018 was 5.3% and was in the district Mansfeld-Südharz with 10.0 percent almost twice as high.
Overall, the country has experienced a slow but relatively steady economic recovery since 1990. The gross domestic product (GDP) doubled in seven years from 20.3 billion euros in 1991 to 42.7 billion euros in 1998. The next seven years up to 2005 were characterized by less dynamism, with GDP only growing to 47.4 billion euros Billion euros, which corresponds to around ten percent growth. In 2006 growth picked up again and GDP rose to 52.7 billion euros by 2008, which corresponds to around eleven percent in three years. After a setback caused by the financial and economic crisis in 2009, GDP in 2010 was 52.1 billion euros, which puts it in 12th place in a country comparison. In comparison with the GDP of the EU, expressed in purchasing power standards, Saxony-Anhalt achieved an index of 87.0 in 2014 (EU 28: 100 Germany: 126.0). The prosperity of Saxony-Anhalt is below the national average not only in terms of GDP, but also in terms of other indicators. With a wealth quota of 3.0%, Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania took last place in a comparison of the federal states in 2015 (national average 7.5%). In contrast, Saxony-Anhalt had the second-highest poverty rate after Bremen at 21.4% in 2019 and the highest among the regional states.
The most important branches of the economy today are primarily the chemical industry, mechanical engineering, the food industry and tourism, supported by a strong, publicly funded research landscape. In addition to the traditional sectors, the service sector and new industries such as the automotive industry , biotechnology , information and communication technology, media , wood industry, renewable raw materials , wind energy and photovoltaics have established themselves as important sectors. However, the country's structural weakness remains.
The region between the hall and lying in Saxony Leipzig forms an economic priority region , the benefits particularly from a cargo transportation technical accessibility (highways A 9 , A 14 , A 38 , A 143 , Leipzig-Halle airport , railway node Hall ). Traditionally, the area with the “Chemiedreieck” is a focus of the chemical and petroleum industry in Germany. The largest foreign investments in all of eastern Germany have been made in Leuna in recent years. The region north and west of Magdeburg, with its favorable location between Berlin and Hanover at the intersection of the A 2 and A 14 and the waterway intersection, has increasingly become a focus of investment and settlement.
June 30, 2012
since June 30, 2007
in percent 1
June 30, 2012
|Job density 2|
|year||GDP in € million 3||Unemployment rate
Universities and research institutions
A distinctive research and science landscape has developed in Saxony-Anhalt since 1990. In addition to the Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg and the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg , the state of Saxony-Anhalt has eight other universities.
- Anhalt University of Applied Sciences
- Harz University of Applied Sciences
- University of Merseburg
- Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences
- Burg Giebichenstein University of Art in Halle
- Evangelical College for Church Music Halle
- Friedensau University of Applied Sciences
- University of Applied Sciences Police Saxony-Anhalt
Research facilities of the major German research institutes have settled around the two universities in particular. Today there are five institutes of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Science Association , three Max Planck Institutes , one Max Planck Research Center, two Fraunhofer facilities and locations of two major research facilities of the Helmholtz Association . There is also the Julius Kühn Institute based in Quedlinburg . The Robert Koch Institute also maintains a property with a focus on infectious diseases in Wernigerode.
- Leibniz Institute for Economic Research Halle
- Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Development in Transition Economies in Halle
- Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology in Magdeburg
- Leibniz Institute for Plant Biochemistry in Halle
- Leibniz Institute for Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Gatersleben
Max Planck Society
- Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems in Magdeburg
- Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle
- Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle
- Max Planck Research Center for Enzymology of Protein Folding in Halle
- Fraunhofer Institute for Factory Operation and Automation in Magdeburg
- Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials in Halle
- Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics in Halle
- Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology , Project Group Molecular Drug Biochemistry and Therapy Development, Halle
- Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ in Leipzig , Halle and Magdeburg
- German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases in Magdeburg
With some explicit city quarters and locations for research institutes such as the Science Harbor in Magdeburg and the Weinberg Campus in Halle, the cities are trying to give particular support to other technology and research-related institutions.
With the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , the oldest permanent natural research academy in the world is based in Saxony-Anhalt. On July 14, 2008, the Leopoldina was declared the National Academy of Sciences in Germany. It has been based in Halle since 1878.
During the GDR era, the Stendal nuclear power plant was supposed to be the largest of its kind and, with a total output of 4,000 megawatts, would also have become the largest nuclear power plant in Germany as a whole. The Schkopau power plant is currently the largest power plant that runs on fossil fuels and has an output of 900 MW. The country's largest wind farm is located between the towns of Biere and Borne ; it has an output of 109 MW.
In a comparison of the federal states “Renewable Energy”, Saxony-Anhalt was named the winner in the “Economic Engine” category in 2012. Although it only ranks 5th in the overall ranking, the country is therefore in a particularly good position when it comes to the economic and employment effects of the renewable energy sector. The regional added value through wind, sun and biomass is promoted through production facilities from companies in the sector, but also through intensive use of renewable energies . According to the state government's 2020 energy concept, renewable energies should make up 20% of primary energy consumption by 2020.
Wind energy is particularly important . In 2012, the wind turbines installed in Saxony-Anhalt were able to cover around 55% of the state's net electricity demand. This puts the state in fourth place in Germany after Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In mid-2016, 2,731 wind turbines with a total output of 4,689 MW were installed. The tradition of increased use of wind power, especially in Anhalt, goes back deep into the 19th century.
The Saxony-Anhalt State Statistical Office regularly publishes data on electricity generation and consumption. In 2018, 26.7 billion kWh of electricity was generated in Saxony-Anhalt. Of these, 27.8% were generated by lignite (7.4 billion kWh) and 15.1% by natural gas (4 billion kWh). With 51.2%, the main share of electricity generation was made up of renewable energies (13.7 billion kWh). This 51.2% can be divided into 30.5% wind power (8.1 billion kWh), further 11.1% biomass (2.9 billion kWh), and 9.1% photovoltaics (2.4 billion kWh). kWh) and less than one percent hydropower as well as sewage and landfill gas.
One of the first railway lines in Germany was opened in 1840 between Köthen and Dessau . After the section-wise expansion of the so-called Anhalter Bahn via Wittenberg and Jüterbog , this route ended at Berlin Anhalter Bahnhof . Köthen became Germany's first railway junction because it was already on the Magdeburg-Leipzig railway . Their route reached Köthen in June 1840 after traffic between Magdeburg and Schönebeck had started in 1839.
Today the most important railway lines in the country are the Lehrter Bahn line from Berlin to Hanover via Stendal, the Berlin – Halle line as a connection between Berlin and Munich, the Berlin – Magdeburg line , the Magdeburg – Braunschweig line with connections to Hanover and the railway line Magdeburg – Leipzig , with which Magdeburg and Halle are connected. In addition, there is a network of other main and branch lines that connect the cities of the state, for example from Magdeburg and Halle to the Harz suburbs and the Harz. These routes are mainly served by the transport company Abellio Rail Mitteldeutschland , which in Saxony-Anhalt has the second most train kilometers after Deutsche Bahn . The Harz Narrow Gauge Railways (HSB) serve primarily tourist purposes .
The most important railway nodes are Halle and Magdeburg , and the railway stations in Stendal , Halberstadt , Köthen , Dessau , Lutherstadt Wittenberg , Bitterfeld , Weißenfels , Naumburg and Sangerhausen are also important.
The five federal highways that run through the country are of supraregional importance. The A 2 Berlin– Hanover runs in the east-west direction in northern Saxony-Anhalt past Magdeburg , in the eastern part of the country the A 9 Berlin– Munich runs in a north-south direction and opens up the cities of Dessau, Bitterfeld, Halle and Weissenfels. The A 14 runs right through Saxony-Anhalt from Dresden via Halle to Magdeburg, touching Bernburg, Staßfurt and Schönebeck. An extension of this motorway to the north via Stendal, Osterburg (Altmark) and Wittenberge (Brandenburg) to the Dreieck Schwerin ( Altmark motorway ) is planned. The A 36 begins near Bernburg and connects the towns of Aschersleben, Quedlinburg, Thale, Blankenburg (Harz) and Wernigerode to the north of the Harz and leads to Braunschweig. In the south of Saxony-Anhalt, the A 38 ( Leipzig - Göttingen ) runs east-west , touches Sangerhausen and opens up the southern Harz. This motorway is connected to the A 14 by the still unfinished A 143 , which goes around the city of Halle to the west and, once completed, is to become the Mitteldeutsche Runde , a double motorway ring around the cities of Halle and Leipzig. Its completion has been prevented by environmental groups for several years.
The north of Saxony-Anhalt is developed from Magdeburg mainly by the B 71 and B 189 , which, due to the lack of a motorway, have a high volume of traffic in this area. The B 71 connects Haldensleben, Gardelegen and Salzwedel, the B 189 the cities of Stendal, Osterburg (Altmark) and Seehausen (Altmark). The B 190 connects northern Saxony-Anhalt from Salzwedel to Seehausen. The continuation of the B 6 from the Bernburg interchange at the A 14 to the A 9 south of Dessau is already in operation as far as Köthen. The last section between Köthen and the A 9 south of Dessau is to be completed in 2022.
The Romanesque Road runs through Saxony-Anhalt as part of the Transromanica , a holiday route that was established because of the great Romanesque heritage of this landscape. The Bismarck family's road also runs through Saxony-Anhalt .
The international airport Leipzig / Halle is located between Halle and Leipzig in Saxony . Magdeburg airfield is located in Magdeburg and is primarily used by sports and private pilots. Near the city of Aschersleben there is the Cochstedt Airport , which was without operation for several years and was used by Ryanair from March 30, 2011 to the end of 2013 . The airport filed for bankruptcy in January 2016.
By Saxony-Anhalt proceed with the Elbe, the Saale, the Midland Canal and the Elbe-Havel Canal important waterways that are on in the state capital Magdeburg waterway junction meet. Inland ports exist u. a. with the port of Magdeburg and the port of Halle (Saale) .
In contrast to the neighboring states of Brandenburg, Saxony or Thuringia, the cultural landscape of Saxony-Anhalt is extremely different from region to region and has relatively few similarities. First of all, the old German farming area west of the Saale and Elbe, which was populated from 700 onwards, differs from the Slavic settlement areas east of the two rivers that were Germanized during the German colonization of the East in the 12th century.
From 700 onwards, a settlement area arose between Magdeburg and the Harz Mountains, which - like the neighboring southern Lower Saxony - is counted as part of Eastern Westphalia . At the same time, an area characterized by Thuringia between Zeitz and Sangerhausen developed south of the Harz Mountains. In the north of the country, the Altmark settlement area , which is very similar to today's Brandenburg , was formed around the year 1000 . The same applies to the Jerichower Land between the Elbe and Fläming. In the south-east of the country, between Halle and Wittenberg, a region arose from 1100 that has close cultural ties to Saxony. In the middle of the country , the Anhalt region stretches in a narrow strip from the Harz Mountains to Dessau , which is a mixed region of cultural influences from Eastern Westphalia, Thuringia, Saxony and Brandenburg.
This means that today's state of Saxony-Anhalt can be subdivided into the cultural areas Altmark in the north, Jerichower Land in the east, Ostfalen in the west, Thuringian areas in the southwest and Saxon areas in the southeast. In between is in the center of the state of Anhalt.
On December 31, 2006, 1,116,692 out of 2,441,787 inhabitants lived in cities with more than 20,000 inhabitants, which corresponds to a relatively low degree of urbanization of 45.73%. Although most cities have been shrinking since 1940, they are the country's cultural centers. This applies in particular to the two largest cities Magdeburg and Halle as well as to the Bauhaus city of Dessau and Lutherstadt Wittenberg. Due to the cultural differences between the parts of the country, the cityscapes also differ considerably. The cities of Stendal , Salzwedel , Tangermünde , Gardelegen and Burg , for example, are influenced by the brick Gothic of the North German Middle Ages . The cities in the Harz region such as Halberstadt , Wernigerode , Sangerhausen , Aschersleben and, in particular, Quedlinburg and Eisleben are particularly characterized by the Romanesque and Gothic styles . Also Naumburg , Merseburg , Zeitz and Schoenebeck today wear a medieval imprint in their precincts. The following stylistic epochs of the Renaissance and the Baroque are represented in many cities, especially the Renaissance buildings in Wittenberg, which was flourishing at that time. The royal cities of Köthen , Bernburg and Weißenfels also have a large number of baroque buildings today. The largest city in the country, Halle, has a very mixed cityscape from Gothic to modern architecture. The town of Bitterfeld-Wolfen in particular has an industrial urban character . Due to the severe destruction in the Second World War, the inner cities of Magdeburg and Dessau-Roßlaus are mainly characterized by the socialist post-war architecture and buildings of recent times. According to the ideal of the socialist city , large parts of Wolfens and Halle-Neustadt , the largest prefabricated building city in the GDR, were built during GDR times .
The southern, hilly parts of the country were particularly favored for the construction of castles. In the north and in the plains, water castles were therefore mainly used . City castles (Magdeburg, Bernburg, Merseburg, Naumburg) also emerged along the German-Slavic settlement border in the early Middle Ages. The Ottonian royal palaces , which were located in Allstedt , Magdeburg, Memleben , Merseburg, Quedlinburg, Tilleda and Westerburg , are among the oldest castles in the country . The most important castles preserved today include Falkenstein Castle (Harz) , Landsberg Castle with a double chapel from the Staufer era, Neuchâtel near Freyburg an der Unstrut, the large Querfurt Castle , Rudelsburg and Saaleck Castle above the Naumburg Saale Valley, Giebichenstein Castle , the Moritzburg in Halle and the Wettin castle as the headquarters of the European ruling dynasty of Wettin and the castle Anhalt in the resin as origin Anhalt. There are also a large number of castles and castle ruins, especially in the Harz Mountains, but also in other parts of the country.
Later, the city of Magdeburg was expanded to a fortress by the Prussians, making it one of the strongest fortresses in Germany (see: Magdeburg Fortress ).
Most of the castles in Saxony-Anhalt date from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In the Harz there are many city palaces that emerged from castles and are located above the medieval old towns. The best known of these locks is the Wernigerode Castle , but also the Stolberg Castle , the Blankenburg Castle or the Castle Mansfeld fall into this category lane. Often these are mixed forms of castle and palace.
There are also some residential castles in Saxony-Anhalt. These include Bernburg Castle ( Principality of Anhalt-Bernburg ), Johannbau in Dessau ( Principality of Anhalt-Dessau ), Moritzburg Castle ( Saxony-Zeitz ), Neu-Augustusburg Castle ( Saxony-Weißenfels ) and Wittenberg Castle ( Electorate of Saxony ). A third group is made up of country and summer residences such as Mosigkau Castle near Dessau or the entire Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm with several small castles. Also Oranienbaum Palace and Schloss Zerbst ( Catherine the Great ) belong to this group. An example of a hunting lodge is the Jagdschlösschen mirror mountain from 1782 near Halberstadt .
Churches and monasteries
Saxony-Anhalt is rich in high medieval churches and monasteries of Ottonian architecture, Romanesque and Gothic . The Romanesque Road contains a large number of old sacred buildings, the density of which is probably unique in Germany.
Cathedral and city churches
There are several cathedrals ( Magdeburg Cathedral , Merseburg Cathedral , Naumburg Cathedral , Zeitzer Cathedral , Halberstadt Cathedral , Hallesch Cathedral and Havelberger Cathedral ) as well as a large number of large city churches (e.g. St. Stephani in Aschersleben, St. Stephani in Calbe, St. Mary's Church and the Johanniskirche in Dessau , the Martinikirche and the Liebfrauenkirche in Halberstadt, the Marktkirche in Halle, St. Jakob in Köthen, St. Wenzel in Naumburg, the Nikolaikirche in Quedlinburg, St. Jakobi in Schönebeck, St. Marien in Stendal, St. Stephan in Tangermünde and the town church in Wittenberg).
In Magdeburg , in addition to the cathedral, the monastery of Our Lady , the Sankt-Petri-Kirche , the Sankt-Sebastian-Kirche , the Sankt-Johannis-Kirche and the Sankt-Nicolai-Kirche are still preserved from the numerous former churches.
Collegiate and monastery churches
Ottonian and Romanesque monastery churches are still preserved, such as the collegiate churches in Quedlinburg , Walbeck , Gernrode and Jerichow . The Huysburg , the Drübeck Monastery , the Gröningen Monastery , the Hadmersleben Monastery , the Hamersleben Monastery , the Hillersleben Monastery and other former monasteries are also worth seeing . The former Cistercian monastery Pforta is significant in terms of cultural history , in which the state school there has produced numerous important personalities in culture and politics since the 16th century .
Since most of the monasteries and monasteries were dissolved after the Reformation, some buildings in medieval architecture have been preserved to this day.
Drama and music
In the big cities of Halle and Magdeburg there is a large number of different theaters and theaters. There are also two theaters in Dessau-Roßlau. In addition, there are two opera houses in Saxony-Anhalt, the Halle Opera and the Magdeburg Theater .
Other, small venues are spread across the state.
Saxony-Anhalt has an extensive prehistory and early history. Numerous finds are exhibited in the State Museum for Prehistory in Halle. Among them is, for example, the Nebra Sky Disc from the 2nd millennium BC. A visitor center has also been built near the site in the Burgenland district in recent years.
The Francke Foundations in Halle, founded in 1698, are home to a large number of cultural, social and scientific institutions.
There is also an extensive collection of other museums in the major cities of Magdeburg and Halle, in Dessau and in various small towns.
There are a number of libraries with significant historical pamphlet holdings , for example
- the Marienbibliothek zu Halle an der Saale
- the library of the Francke Foundation in Halle
- the historical library of the Pforta State School
- the Francisceumsbibliothek in Zerbst
- the library of Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim and his friends in the Gleimhaus
- in the University and State Library of Saxony-Anhalt .
Saxony-Anhalt is a handball stronghold. The traditional SC Magdeburg plays in the 1st , the Dessau-Roßlauer HV in the 2nd handball Bundesliga . The second team of SC Magdeburg and SV Anhalt Bernburg also play in the third division . In the 2017/2018 season the Halle handball women "Wildcats - SV Union Halle Neustadt" achieved promotion to the 1st Bundesliga.
One of the most successful basketball clubs in Eastern Germany is located in southern Saxony-Anhalt. The Mitteldeutsche Basketball Club (MBC) from Weißenfels played for five years - from 1999 to 2004 - in the 1st basketball league BBL . In 2004 the team won the European Cup of the FIBA Europe Cup Men. After a few years in the 2nd Bundesliga Pro A and runners-up in 2006 and 2007, the MBC again achieved promotion to the 1st division in the 2008/2009 season. In the 2010/11 season, however, the club rose again, but managed to get promoted again. In 2016, the Weißenfelser had to leave the BBL for the third time, and in the following year they were promoted to the top division again.
With the SV Halle Lions, Saxony-Anhalt also has a women's basketball team in the 1st Bundesliga DBBL .
Saxony-Anhalt is home to the former European Cup winner 1. FC Magdeburg , who plays in the third division in the 2019/20 season , as does Hallesche FC . The Magdeburg FFC plays in the Regionalliga Nordost Frauen .
In Oschersleben (Bode) is the Motorsport Arena Oschersleben , where national and international car and motorcycle races take place. In Teutschenthal there is a motocross race track, on which the Motocross World Championships have already taken place several times .
In Halle, the Saale Bulls ice hockey club plays in the Oberliga Nord (2017/2018 season). The Saale Bulls have been playing in the Sparkassen-Eisdom since the 2014/15 season, as the Volksbank Arena was badly damaged by floods in 2013 and was finally demolished in spring 2016.
Saxony-Anhalt had the lowest suicide rate of all German states in 2006 and the highest rate in 2017.
In the “ Mitte Study ” from 2015, the approval of xenophobic statements in individual German federal states was examined. When comparing the federal states, the highest agreement with xenophobic statements was found in Saxony-Anhalt with 42.2% (national average: 24.3%).
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- Steffen Raßloff: Saxony-Anhalt. 55 highlights from history. Sutton, Erfurt 2020, ISBN 978-3-96303-162-5 .
- Hendrikträger, Sonja Priebus (Ed.): Politics and government in Saxony-Anhalt. Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2017, ISBN 978-3-658-13688-8 .
- Mathias Tullner (Hrsg.): Personalities of the history of Saxony-Anhalt. Fly head, Halle 1998, ISBN 3-910147-58-5 .
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- Website of the state of Saxony-Anhalt
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