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(Kyffhäuser Mountains)
View from the northeast to Kyffhäuser

View from the northeast to Kyffhäuser

Highest peak Kulpenberg ( 473.6  m above sea  level )
location Kyffhäuserkreis ( Thuringia ) and district of Mansfeld-Südharz ( Saxony-Anhalt ), ( Germany )
Kyffhäuser (Kyffhäuser Mountains) (Thuringia)
Kyffhäuser (Kyffhäuser Mountains)
Coordinates 51 ° 25 '  N , 11 ° 5'  E Coordinates: 51 ° 25 '  N , 11 ° 5'  E
Type Mittelgebirge , Bruchschollengebirge
rock mainly conglomerates , arkose sandstone and plaster of paris
Age of the rock mainly Upper Carboniferous and Permian
surface 70 km²
Historical map of the Kyffhauser
View from the north to the Kyffhäuser
“The Kiffhäuser seen from Tilleda ”, early 19th century

The Kyffhäuser ( ˈkʏfˌhɔʏzɐ , more rarely and historically also called Kyffhäuser Mountains ) is a small low mountain range south of the Harz Mountains . It is mostly located in the Thuringian Kyffhäuserkreis and extends slightly into the Saxon-Anhalt district of Mansfeld-Südharz on the northern edge . The Kyffhäuser is up to 473.6  m above sea level. NN high and extends over around 70 km². Due to its proximity and some geological similarities, the Kyffhäuser is also called the "little brother of the Harz".

Its highest point is the Kulpenberg , on which the television tower has stood since the 1960s . On a mountain ledge in the northeast are the ruins of the Imperial Castle Kyffhausen , which were supplemented at the end of the 19th century by the Kyffhäuser monument in honor of Kaiser Wilhelm I.

While a large part of the Kyffhauser is covered with forest, unwooded slopes stand out on its south and west edges. The lack of forest results from a lack of shallow groundwater in the gypsum-containing , heavily karstified subsoil.

The Kyffhäuser is also the namesake of the Kyffhäuser Geopark , which includes the Kyffhäuser Mountains in addition to other areas in the west, south and east.

Origin of name

The name Kyffhäuser is derived from the word cuffese (= tip / head). Historically, the spellings Kiffhäuser and Kyfshäuser also exist . Another variant of the name interpretation "Kyff" is "war" or "dispute", so that the Kyffhäuser is a battle house, a castle. In the local North Thuringian dialect he is called "Kipphiesr"


Geographical location

The approximately 12.5 km long and 5.5 km wide Kyffhäuser extends south of the approximately 6 km wide Goldene Aue , known as the valley of the Helme , which separates it from the Lower Harz . To the southwest (and south) of the Kyffhauser are the Windleite and Hainleite ridges .

The villages in the immediate vicinity are Kelbra in the northwest, Sittendorf and Tilleda in the north, Ichstedt and Udersleben in the east, Bad Frankenhausen and Rottleben in the south, Steinthaleben in the southwest and Badra in the west. The Rathsfeld is in the center .

Mountains and elevations

The mountains and elevations in the Kyffhäuser include - sorted by height in meters above sea ​​level (NN); usually or, unless otherwise stated, loud

Kyffhauser slopes unforested due to

see also Kyffhäuser on the list of mountains and elevations in Thuringia


The Kyffhäuser Mountains lie completely in the catchment area of ​​the Unstrut and thus the Elbe (via Saale ). The northern part drains to the helmets and small helmets . The most important body of water in this regard (because it is the only one that carries water all year round) is the Wolweda Bach , which rises on the north-western slope of the Kautsberge, flows from there in a north-easterly direction through the Wolweda valley between Kyffhäuserburgberg and Gietenkopf and finally flows into the Kleine Helme at Tilleda. The Helme, which is dammed northwest of the Kyffhauser in the Helmestausee Talsperre Kelbra , flows from there to the east and passes the hills of the Sittendorf – Brückener Heide north of the Kyffhauser.

The area south of the Gietenkopf and east of the Rathsfeld is drained by the Kyffhäuserbach .

The south drains to the Kleine Wipper and the west to the Badraer Bach / Thaleber Bach . The valleys and floodplains in which these waters flow physically separate the Kyffhäuser Mountains to the west from the Windleite and to the south from the easternmost section of the Hainleite.

With the exception of the Wolweda Bach, all the mentioned brooks are left-hand direct tributaries of the Unstrut, into which they all flow east of the Kyffhauser near Artern .


The Kyffhäuser Mountains are geologically a pult , which was preferably lifted out of the subsoil along faults at its northern edges. The cause of the uplift, as for the uplift of the rest of the German low mountain range, was the long-range effect of the more recent phases of the formation of the Alps in the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods . The faults concerned are the Hercynian (NW-SE) trending Kyffhäuser (northeastern edge) fault , which forms the northwestern section of the Kyffhäuser-Crimmitschauer fault zone , and the Variscan (NE-SW) trending Kelbra fault. By raising the standard of Kyffäuser appears in the map image as an enclave of Paleozoic rocks in the north of the otherwise of rocks of Triassic embossed Thuringian basin .

In the very north of the Kyffhauser, near the intersection of the Kyffhäuser Fault and the Kelbra Fault, where the strongest uplift (approx. 1000 m) took place, crystalline basement rock is exposed in a strip barely more than 500 m wide . These are variscan, medium- grade metamorphic ( amphibolite facies ), old Paleozoic sediments and partly metamorphic, partly only tectonically deformed sub-carbonic plutonic rocks . These are essentially biotite - plagioclase gneiss (associated with amphibolites / hornblende gneiss as well as marble , lime silicate rock and metapelites ), hornblende -Meta gabbro (with " intercalations " of granodiorite gneiss) and diorite gneiss, a complex of different granitoid -Gneisen, syenite -Gneis and hornblende diorite gneiss ( Borntal complex ) as well as locally by muscovite leading pegmatite - transitions by proposed foliierter granite ( Bärenkopf granite ). The Kyffhäuser crystalline is regionally assigned to the Central German crystalline threshold, which is interpreted as a former volcanic island arc .

Towards the south, the Kyffhäuser crystalline - almost concentric in the map image - is overlaid by unmetamorphic post-variscan sedimentary rocks. First of all, this is a sequence of fluviatile - alluvial predominantly red molasses sediments of the younger Upper Carboniferous ( Stefanium ; U-Pb dating of zirconia from a tuff layer in the highest part of the sequence resulted in an age of 299 ± 3.2 million years), the one maximum thickness of 670 m. Lithostratographically , this sequence is referred to as the Kyffhäuser Formation or the Siebigerode Formation of the Mansfeld subgroup . It can be divided into a lower section, which is dominated by conglomerates , and an upper section, in which finer-grained deposits ( arkotic sandstone and silt claystone ) are at least about as common as conglomerates. As a special feature, the sequence contains silicified cordaite trunks (genus Dadoxylon ) in different horizons . This sequence is interpreted as the result of the filling of a relatively steep paleo-relief by mountain rivers with a subsequent transition to sedimentation in a rather weakly relief river landscape, in each case under semi-arid conditions . The silicified trunks are interpreted as driftwood . The deposit area was the so-called Saale-Senke , a NE-SW-striking sediment basin on the northern edge of the Variscan Mountains, which stretched from today's Fläming to today's Thuringian Forest . Elsewhere superficial upcoming testimony this valley are the rocks of Halle porphyry complex .

The layers of the Stefanium are overlaid with extensive gaps between layers of a thin (approx. 15 m) sequence of conglomerates, which is assigned to the Ober rotliegend (Eisleben formation, "Mansfeld porphyry conglomerate") and only contiguous in the southeast of Kyffhauser, near Udersleben pending. The Rotliegend is of the predominantly aquagenic (chemical) sediments of Zechstein superimposed on the south of the Kyffhäuser in a wide arc of the Badraer Switzerland in the west to the east Ichstedt streak . These are primarily the sulphatic ( anhydrite , usually swollen to gypsum near the surface ) and carbonate ( dolomite ) parts of the Werra and Staßfurt series. The comparatively easily soluble Zechstein gypsum is heavily karstified (gypsum karst) so that the area is narrowly divided into hollows and crests. The 800 m long Barbarossa Cave near Rottleben is particularly impressive testimony to the processes of subrosion. It is “ not only a special crowd puller, but also a valuable geological research and reference object. “ The copper slate (and rather the lying sand ore ) at the base of the Werra series was historically the target of mining activities from at least the 17th to the early 20th century .  

Southwest and southeast of the Kyffhäuser found in Steinthaleben or Esperstedt , sunk into the red sandstone , lignite leading deposits of so-called Kyffhaeuser Tertiary ( Eozän to Pliocene ).

Natural allocation

The 72 km² natural spatial main unit 486 of the main unit group 47/48 Thuringian basin (with edge plates) is referred to as the Kyffhäuser Mountains in the handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany . It encompasses both the steeper and higher northern part , made up of crystalline and permocarbonic molasses , as well as the slope that adjoins it to the south and is characterized by carbonate and sulphate rocks of the Zechstein (see geology ).

The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) gives the area in the landscape profile for the Kyffhäuser slightly different at 81 km².

Assignment in the TLUG structure

In the purely inner- Thuringian structure The Natural Spaces of Thuringia of the Thuringian State Institute for Environment and Geology (TLUG), the Kyffhäuser area is divided into two units: Unit 1.2 Kyffhäuser covers approx. 30 km² as a sub-unit of unit 1. Low mountain range only the highlands in the north. Unit 7.2 Zechstein belt at Kyffhäuser , with approx. 50 km² as a sub-unit of unit 7. Zechstein belt on mountain edges, includes the southern slope including the western foothills (Badra Switzerland) of Kyffhäuser and a small area to the south-east on younger pre-Quaternary rocks.


The forest consists mainly of mixed forests with beeches ( Fagus sylvatica ), oaks ( Quercus petraea , Quercus robur ), hornbeams (Carpinus betulus ), birches ( Betula pendula ) and also smaller areas of planted conifers , such as spruce ( Picea abies ), red pine ( Pinus sylvestris ) and in smaller areas also black pines ( Pinus nigra ), the latter mainly on the limestone slopes on the southern slope near Rottleben and Bad Frankenhausen, but also in the Kelbraer Stadtwald on the northern slope of the Altendorfer cliffs, on the western slope of the Rothenburg, on the Hüfler near Kelbra and on the gypsum height south of the Taternlinde (brine source) near Auleben.

There are contiguous oak forests on the Kyffhäuserburgberg, the mountain of Rothenburg and the northwestern part of the Altendorfer cliffs, with many valuable old stands, but also reforestation with young oaks.

Everywhere in the Kyffhäuser Forest there are spontaneously growing larches and silver birch trees as fast-growing pioneer plants in sunny places, on clear-cuts, on the edges of paths or forests and undeveloped areas. At the edges of the forest and natural bushes of areas that are no longer used for agriculture, you can also find bushes of elder , hazelnut , locust and hawthorn , in open areas also rose hips and sloe , and sometimes blackberries . On the limestone and gypsum mountains in the south and west of the Kyffhäuser Mountains there are larger areas of dry grassland, on which the rose hip, birch and pine sometimes spread spontaneously. Around the Kyffhäuser Mountains there are extensive orchards with traditional types of cherries, apples, pears and plums , especially near the villages on slopes . Often the trees are not harvested, so there is a lot of food available for the game. On wetter sites open one finds rowan , viburnum (Viburnum opulus) and also larger in undisturbed places ash , elm ( Ulmus glabra ) and Linden .

Nature reserves

The following nature reserves are located within the Kyffhäuser Mountains and in the immediate vicinity.

Natura 2000 FFH (Flora and Fauna Habitat) - protected area: "Kyffhäuser- Badraer Schweiz- Solwiesen" (DE- 4632-302) with an area of ​​33.82 km 2 . The following nature reserves are located within this protected area:

  • Badra Switzerland- Schlossberg- Solwiesen: with 5.415 km 2 ; CDDA 165 431
  • Badraer Lehde- Grosse Eller, with 0.819 km 2 , CDDA 162 322
  • Rothenburg: with 4.023 km 2 , CDDA 14 472
  • Southwest Kyffhäuser, with 8.317 km 2 , with CDDA 319 180
  • Southeast Kyffhäuser, with 4.429 km 2 , with CDDA 319 179
  • also areas in between, such as the Altendorfer Lips, the Gipsberge east and north of Steinthaleben and the slopes north of Udersleben, which do not yet have nature reserve status. A uniform polygon is formed.

Bird sanctuaries

  • Helmestausee Berga- Kelbra, with 7.84 km 2 , CDDA 4531-401 (corresponds to the Ramsar protected area 176 on the territory of Saxony Anhalt)
  • Kyffhäuser- Badraer Schweiz- Helmestausee, with 37.81 km 2 , corresponds to the Ramsar protected area 176 on the territory of Thuringia, as well as the FFH area "Kyffhäuser- Badraer Schweiz- Solwiesen" with all its nature reserves
  • Dickkopf- Bendeleber Forst- Gatterberge, with 12.26 km 2 , in the east wind deflector west of Bendeleben and the nature reserve Gatterberge (0.444 ha, CDDA 318 426)

Natural park

  • Kyffhäuser Nature Park, with 8.317 km 2 , with the entire Kyffhäuser Mountains , the northwestern Windleite (north of the Badra-Sondershausen road), the Esperstädter Wiesen, the entire districts of the villages of Badra, Steinthaleben, Bendeleben, Rottleben, Göllingen, Hachelbich, Günseode and Udersleben; the entire wooded area of ​​the Hainleite between Grossfurra-Immenrode to the Thuringian Gate (without the MSR16 military training area ).

Landscape protection areas

  • LSG Helmestausee Berga- Kelbra, with 10.97 km 2 ; CDDA 321 537; only on the territory of Saxony Anhalt. This landscape protection area contains the corresponding Ramsar area, as well as everything that is to the west of the Berga-Kelbra road and south of the Kelbra-Tilleda road and also south of the Ramsar area of ​​the reservoir up to the national border. This also includes the orchards and forests south of Kelbras, Sittendorf and Tilledas.
  • LSG Kyffhäuser: with 54.75 km 2 , CDDA 322 381, only on the territory of Thuringia: in the area of ​​the Golden Aue it contains the corresponding Ramsar area, extended to the villages of Heringen and Hamma, in the mountainous area it includes the entire Thuringian part of the Kyffhäuser Mountains, including the Numburg Mountains.

Both landscape protection areas form one unit, a common polygon of 65.72 km 2 .

Ramsar Sanctuary 176

Berga- Kelbra reservoir. This protected area has existed since 1978 and is under the Ramsar Convention . It contains the entire Kelbra reservoir with the designated floodplain to the west. The total area is 14.53 km 2 . Parts of this protected area coincide with the above mentioned protected areas.

Historical buildings and monuments

Kyffhäuser Monument around 1900

On the Kyffhäuser Castle Hill was above the 972 first mentioned in 1890-1896 Tilleda that too Barbarossa monument called Kyffhäuserdenkmal on the ruins of Kyffhausen Castle built. The 81 m high monument was designed by Bruno Schmitz , who later also built the Völkerschlachtdenkmal in Leipzig. In addition to the monument, the remains of the Reichsburg Kyffhausen with the deepest castle well in the world with a depth of 176 m can be seen. This well was sunk without the aid of a plumb bob; the drive drifted slightly to the north. The term "Kyffhäuser" is often used as a synonym for the Kyffhäuser monument.

Also worth seeing is the Barbarossa Cave near Rottleben . The Rothenburg castle ruins with a Bismarck column erected in 1906 are also located on a steep mountain ledge on the northern edge of the Kyffhäuser Mountains . The Rathsfeld hunting lodge was built for Count Anton von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt between 1697 and 1698 . But there was a previous building at this point. The hunting lodge is a three-wing building with a corps de logis and has a living space and additional usable area of ​​around 5000 m², 168 windows and 80 doors.

On the southern edge of the Kyffhäuser near Bad Frankenhausen , the monumental painting Early Bourgeois Revolution in Germany (also called the Peasant War Panorama), housed in a rotunda, commemorates the decisive battle in the German Peasants' War , which took place on May 15, 1525. The picture was painted from 1983 to 1987 by the Leipzig artist Werner Tübke together with numerous helpers. At 123 m wide and 14 m high, it is one of the largest panel paintings in the world. Also here at the same height, but a little closer to the city, is the old Hausmannsturm .

Other buildings in Bad Frankenhausen include the leaning upper church (Our Lady of the Mountain) in Bad Frankenhausen, with a 4.6 m overhang more leaning than the Leaning Tower of Pisa ; also the residential palace of the Counts of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt subordinate Bad Frankenhausen.

In Kelbra there is the Sankt Georgi church of the former Cistercian monastery Kelbra with its 1000 year old linden tree on the church square, as well as the half-timbered town hall from 1777; the old parish with the local history museum, which is also the oldest house in Kelbra; the ruins of Kelbra Castle with a keep from the 12th century, in which the Counts of Hohnstein-Kelbra once resided, with remains of the old city wall. The church of St. Martini in the Altendorf district from the 11th century with renovation from 1357; as a Romanesque fortified church, it is probably one of the oldest churches in the Goldene Aue. A renovation took place in 1357, as well as the large half-timbered house of the Schmidt Foundation.

In Tilleda is on the Pfingstberg the Tilleda , very close to the orchard center Tilledas is housed in an old half-timbered house. In the village is the Romanesque Gothic church of San Salvator and the old inn "Zur Gabel", in which Johann Wolfgang von Goethe already settled.

The villages Sittendorf, Ichstedt, Udersleben, Rottleben, Bendeleben, Steinthaleben and Badra, not directly mentioned here, with their half-timbered houses, old barns and small village churches. represent in their entirety a building ensemble which blends harmoniously into the landscape of the Kyffhäuser Mountains, and yet each represents an unrepeatable peculiarity.

Kyffhauser legend

Barbarossa awakes - the ravens fly away : mural by Hermann Wislicenus in the picture cycle of the Kaiserpfalz Goslar (around 1880), which relates the Kyffhauser legend to the founding of the
empire in 1871

The Kyffhäuser is the central point of a legend of the Rapture of the Mountains , in which the popular belief in the return of an emperor of peace , which has been popular for centuries, is expressed. According to this legend, Emperor Friedrich I, known as Barbarossa , and his followers sleep in a cave on the Kyffhäuserberg, only to wake up one day, save the empire and lead it back to new glory.

While he sleeps, his beard grows around a stone table. So far it reaches around twice and when the third round is over, the end of the world begins. The emperor wakes up every hundred years, and if ravens are still circling the mountain, he sleeps for another century. As soon as he wakes up, he rides to the Walserfeld, where the dried up Walser pear tree , on which the Elector of Bavaria hangs his coat of arms, blossoms again. There he fights the final battle between good and bad, which (hopefully) wins the good. But if “evil” wins, according to legend, it will rain fire, and the riders of hell will rise from the ground and collect the souls of all.

In the Barbarossa Cave , visitors should be able to see the emperor with a lot of imagination as he sits and sleeps on a bench. His red beard had already grown through the stone table. Up to the 16th century it was not Barbarossa but Emperor Friedrich II who took the role of the sleeping emperor in the legend, later also Charlemagne . Especially in the Middle Ages there were always impostors who pretended to be the resurrected emperor and thus deceived many. Perhaps the best-known example of this is Tile Kolup .

Johannes Praetorius and Johann Georg Leuckfeld mentioned the legend of Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa in the Kyffhäuser Mountains at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century in some of their books. However, the legend found further supraregional distribution in the first half of the 18th century through the writings of the two local writers Georg Henning Behrens and Johann Gottfried Gregorii alias Melissantes. These detailed versions were well known to the Brothers Grimm for their collection of German sagas in 1816, as well as to some romantic poets.

In the 19th century in particular, current political demands were associated with the legend. Before German unification in 1871, many Germans cherished the desire for a nation-state like the one that existed at the time of Frederick I.

One of the most famous literary adaptations of this legend is the poem Barbarossa , written by Friedrich Rückert in 1817 :


The old Barbarossa,
The Emperor Friederich,
In the underground castle he
holds himself under a spell.

He never died,
He still lives in it now;
He has hidden in the castle
and sat down to sleep.

He has taken down the
glory of the kingdom,
And will come again
with her in due time.

The chair is ivory, on
which the emperor sits;
The table is marble stone, on
which he rests his head.

His beard is not of flax,
It is of fire embers,
Has grown through the table, on
which his head rests.

He nods as if, as in a dream,
his eyes are half open;
And depending on the long space
He beckons to a boy.

In his sleep he said to the boy:
Go to the castle, oh dwarf,
and see whether the ravens are
still flying around the mountain.

And if the old ravens are
still flying,
I must still sleep
Enchanted a hundred years.

The legend was taken up in literature many times, for example in the folk tale Der Schmied von Jüterbog by Ludwig Bechstein . Heinrich Heine satirized the Barbarossa longing in Germany. A winter fairy tale . After 1871, the Kyffhäuser myth was no longer related to national unification, but rather to the German Empire's striving for world power under Wilhelm II (see imperialism ). During this time the Kyffhäuser monument was built , which not only shows Friedrich Barbarossa, but also presents Wilhelm I , the first emperor of the Hohenzollern Empire , in the form of an equestrian statue as the heir of the Hohenstaufen .

According to other versions of the legend, the emperor sleeps in Trifels , Untersberg or Etna (in Sicily).

Sports around the Kyffhäuser

One attraction is the Kyffhäuser discharged annually touring car - mountain race in which a 3.8 km long stretch on the northern slope between Kelbra is busy and the Kulpenberg from Forsthaus maiden Fountain.

Another sporting event is the Kyffhäuser mountain run . Since 1979, participants have been meeting in Bad Frankenhausen in April. There is a marathon, a half marathon, a fourteen-kilometer run and a six-kilometer run. The Kyffhäuser mountain triathlon has also established itself. You swim in the Kelbra reservoir and then climb to Kyffhäuser while cycling. Then we run again at the reservoir campground. The Kyffhäuser is also a destination for motorcyclists. During the season, when the weather is nice, many bikers come to the mountain especially to ski 36 curves to the summit.

The Kyffhäuser is a well-known hiking area. The following hiking trails lead over the Kyffhäuser or have their start or end point here:

Another sporting highlight is the tower staircase run over the 366 steps of the Kyffhäuser monument, which has been held annually in May since 2000.


Many public institutions in the area are named after the Kyffhäuser, for example the Kyffhäuser Gymnasium Bad Frankenhausen and the Kyffhäusertherme . In 1994 the Kyffhäuserkreis was formed from the Artern and Sondershausen districts. Furthermore, the intercity train pair Frankfurt am Main-Sangerhausen-Halle-Leipzig (Fr.) and Leipzig-Halle-Sangerhausen-Frankfurt am Main (Sun.) running between December 2009 and December 2014 was called "Kyffhäuser".

In February 2008, a citizens' initiative Kyffhäuserwald was formed in Bad Frankenhausen to take action against the increased and large-scale deforestation on the Kyffhäuser. She did this first with a list of signatures, which was handed over to the then Thuringian Prime Minister Dieter Althaus on February 21, 2008, together with children's drawings and a collection of materials documenting the deforestation in various places .


Web links

Commons : Kyffhäuser  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Kyffhäuser  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b Saxony-Anhalt Viewer
  2. To the origin of the name on the page about Castle Kyffhausen at
  3. Kiffhäuser . In: Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon 1894–1896, Volume 10, p. 333.
  4. ^ Thomas Zunkel: Castles in Kyffhäuserland. Dingsda-Verlag, Querfurt 2004, ISBN 3-928498-93-2 , p. 18.
  5. Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
  6. a b c d e keywords Kyffhäuser Aufbruch and the following in: Dietrich Franke: Regionalgeologie Ost. Geological online reference work for East Germany with around 2500-page encyclopedia (PDF; 19 MB) and separately downloadable maps and tables, including a map on the distribution of Kyffhäuser crystalline (PDF; 345 kB).
  7. Armin Zeh, Axel Gerdes, Thomas M. Will, Ian L. Millar: Provenance and Magmatic-Metamorphic Evolution of a Variscan Island-Arc Complex: Constraints from U-Pb Dating, Petrology, and Geospeedometry of the Kyffhäuser Crystalline Complex, Central Germany . Journal of Petrology. Vol. 46, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1393–1420, doi: 10.1093 / petrology / egi020 (Open Access)
  8. a b Steffen Trümper, Birgit Gaitzsch, Jörg W. Schneider, Bodo-Carlo Ehling, Ronny Rößler: The petrified trees of the Kyffhauser (Upper Carboniferous, Thuringia): Research history, deposit area and age. Publications of the Museum für Naturkunde Chemnitz. Vol. 42, 2019, pp. 5-44 ( ResearchGate )
  9. ^ Rudolf Mirsch: Copper slate mining at Kyffhäuser. Mansfeld Miners and Huts Association (e.V.) Announcement. No. 52, 2004, pp. 4–6 ( PDF complete issue; 2.6 MB)
  10. ^ E. Meynen and J. Schmithüsen : Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany (6th delivery 1959) - Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960)
  11. Landscape profile 48600 Kyffhäuser. Internet presence of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), accessed on July 1, 2020 (version from March 1, 2012)
  12. ^ Walter Hiekel, Frank Fritzlar, Andreas Nöllert and Werner Westhus: The natural spaces of Thuringia . Ed .: Thuringian State Institute for Environment and Geology (TLUG), Thuringian Ministry for Agriculture, Nature Conservation and Environment . 2004, ISSN  0863-2448 . → Natural area map of Thuringia (TLUG) - PDF; 260 kB → Maps by district (TLUG)

  13. Protected areas of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, accessed on June 24, 2020 .
  14. Helmestausee Berga- Kelbra. In: Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved June 24, 2020 .
  15. Kyffhausen Castle in Kyffnet
  16. August Witzschel: The Emperor sleeping in the mountains . In: Legends and stories from German districts . 3. Edition. Loewes Verlag ( web document in the Gutenberg-DE project ).
  17. Jump up ↑ Johannes Praetorius: Alectryomantia, Seu Divinatio Magica cum Gallis Gallinaceis peracta: Heic secundum varias suas species producta & una cum Curiositate, (cui obiter insperguntur multiplices motus, praestigiarum praetextus, cucuritio pullorum, latiónum pri, cucuritio pullorum, hyinarum praulum, hyinarumqes Cueulumqes Fridericus Caesar, Longidormius, Püsterus Sondershusanus, Blocksberga, Sagaeportium, Pallio-vectura, & amp ...). Frankfurt and Leipzig 1680, p. 69.
  18. Georg Henning Behrens: HERCYNIA CURIOSA or Curiöser Hartz-Wald . Nordhausen 1703, pp. 149-153.
  19. MELISSANTES: Das Erneuerte Alterthum, Oder Curieuse Description of some previously famous, partly devastated and destroyed, but partly rebuilt mountain castles in Germany… Frankfurt, Leipzig [and Erfurt] 1713, pp. 548–555.
  20. Melissantes: Curieuse OROGRAPHIA or accurate description of the most famous mountains / In Europe / Asia / Africa and America: With the most exquisite theological / political / physical / moral and other notable comments and histories / as well as all memorable antiqvities that occurred; Illustrated in alphabetical order / with a complete real register / by Johann Gottfried Gregorii / alias MELISSANTES , Frankfurt, Leipzig and [Erfurt] 1715, pp. 531-538.
  21. Hans-Jörg Uther: Deutsche Sagen / Brüder Grimm , Munich 1993, Vol. 1 and 2, pp. 606/607.
  22. ^ Wikisource: Barbarossa (Friedrich Rückert) .