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Drachenmühle (Turmholländermühle) and orchards near Haseloff, east of Niemegk
Nikolaikirche Jüterbog

The Fläming is a mountain range formed during the Ice Age and at the same time a historically grown cultural landscape in southwest Brandenburg and eastern Saxony-Anhalt . It extends east of Magdeburg for more than 100 kilometers to the Dahme . As a 30 to 50 kilometer wide ridge , the Fläming is part of the southern land ridge , which was formed in particular during the Saale Ice Age.

The sparsely populated area takes its name from the Flemings (Flemingen), who after the founding of the Marken in the course of the subsequent German settlement in the east, populated the ridge in large numbers. For centuries, the Fläming border area, divided between the Archdiocese of Magdeburg , the Diocese of Brandenburg , the County of Brehna and the Margraviate of Meißen, which later became the Electorate of Saxony . The Margraviate of Brandenburg had almost no part until the Reformation. With the Battle of Hagelberg and the Battle of Dennewitz , important battles took place in Fläming in 1813 in the War of Liberation against French rule. In 1815, after the French and Saxon defeats, all of Fläming was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia.

Medieval stone churches shape the image of many villages. Since the 1990s, in the agriculture and forestry-dominated hills diverse tourist infrastructure emerged, such as the Flaeming-Skate , one of the longest round trips of its kind. The Natural Park High Fläming , with the first offerings also declared in 2005 the Fläming Nature Park , make a variety of tours, hikes and bridle paths ready.

Geology and geography

The natural location of the Fläming

The natural boundaries of the Fläming can be determined quite precisely: the north and south borders form glacial valleys . In the north it is the Baruther Urstromtal , in the south the Breslau-Magdeburg-Bremer Urstromtal , through which the Elbe flows. The western border can be drawn with the Elbe valley near Magdeburg . In the east and southeast, the Dahmefiess with the town of the same name , namely Dahme, and the Schweinitzer Fliess adjoining it to the south are generally given as the border.


Naturally , the Fläming represents a main unit group and bears the two-digit code number 85. It is divided into the following main units:

Fläming in the narrower sense , consisting of the main units 851, 853 and 856 to 858, has - for example in the north, northwest of Bad Belzig and in the east, west of Golßen - sometimes very sharp boundaries to the surrounding lowlands. Where these transitions gradually take place, one speaks of pre- fläming. The transitions are fluid, however, and the Roßlau-Wittenberger Vorfläming reaches heights of 150  m above sea level even near the Elbe . NHN . The Zerbster Land, which adjoins it to the west, on the other hand, represents a fertile arable landscape and is also assigned to the “ arable plains” by the Ministry for Regional Planning, Agriculture and Environment of the State of Saxony-Anhalt as Zerbster arable land . Only the island-like Leitzkau heights have the character of a hill country here.

A common subdivision of the Fläming is also that of the Hohen Fläming in the west and the Niederen Fläming in the east. T. the tarpaulin in the north and the Zahna in the south. According to this, the Hohe Fläming would consist of units 850 to 854 as well as the west of 855 and the Niedere from the east of 855 and the units 856 to 858.

High Fläming

Hagelberg , 200 meters

The Hohe Fläming (center point coordinates: 52 ° 0 '  N , 12 ° 40'  E ) is somewhat more extensive than the Niedere Fläming. The highest elevations are:

On the northeastern edge near Ragösen there are mountain-like slopes of more than 60 m in height to the Temnitz lowland and 40 m in height to the Belziger landscape meadows .

Lower Fläming

Flaeming skate with a view of the Golmberg , 178 meters

The Niedere Fläming is bordered to the south by the Black Elster valley and to the east by the Dahme . Historically, the southern demarcation by the Schweinitzer Fließ is also in use, but this does not take the southern excerpts into account. Its highest point is the Golmberg (178 m above sea  level ) near Stülpe , followed by a 166.2 m above sea level. NHN high point (51 ° 59 ′ 54 ″ N, 13 ° 26 ′ 52 ″ E) near Merzdorf and 157.3 m above sea level. NHN (51 ° 59 ′ 26 ″ N, 13 ° 29 ′ 59 ″ E) near Groß Ziescht .


In Fläming are the cities of Ziesar , Bad Belzig , Niemegk , Treuenbrietzen , Brück , Jüterbog , Baruth / Mark , Dahme / Mark , Zahna-Elster , Lutherstadt Wittenberg , Möckern , Loburg and Zerbst / Anhalt as well as the communities of Wiesenburg / Mark , Rabenstein / Fläming , Niedergörsdorf , Niederer Fläming , Ihlow , Gräben , Linthe , Borkheide , Mühlenfließ , Planetal and Nuthe-Urstromtal as well as the administrative communities Coswig , Elbe-Ehle-Nuthe , Möckern-Loburg-Fläming . On the Saxony-Anhalt side, the districts of Wittenberg , Anhalt-Bitterfeld and Jerichower Land , on the Brandenburg side, the districts of Potsdam-Mittelmark , Teltow-Fläming and, with a small area in the north, the district of Elbe-Elster share in Fläming. The municipality of Steinreich in the west of the Dahme-Spreewald district is also located on the Fläming.

While the natural boundaries are relatively sharp, delimiting the historical cultural landscape of Fläming is associated with uncertainties. Its cultural influences (for example, the design and construction of the villages) extend into the Baruther glacial valley to the north, while the villages in the immediate vicinity of Magdeburg mostly do not feel that they belong to the Fläming. Nevertheless, the Fläming cultural landscape roughly corresponds to the natural landscape outlined.

General landscape character

The Fläming landscape ranges from undulating to hilly . In Hohen Fläming there is a large contiguous forest area with clearing islands . In the rest of the area, large fields and meadows alternate with extensive forests. Around 50% of the area is used for agriculture and 35% for forestry.

Geological and morphological structure, soils

The Fläming owes its formation to the repeated advances of the Scandinavian inland ice during the Ice Age and is therefore largely built up from Ice Age sediments.

Solid rock deposits

As a special geological feature on the southwestern edge of the Fläming near Gommern there are geologically significantly older rocks, quartzites from the carbon , on the earth's surface. They were mined there in several quarries. However, these solid rocks quickly descend to great depths immediately northeast of Gommern, at the so-called "Central German Main Abortions", which run from the northern outskirts of Magdeburg to Wittenberg, and therefore only play a subordinate role in the geological structure of the Fläming.

Impact of the cold ages

Magpie Ice Age

Even the first ice advances during the Elster Ice Age did not leave any ridge in the area of ​​today's Fläming. Conversely, between the Elster and the Saale Ice Age, the river systems of the rivers coming from the south even ran north and crossed the Fläming, which at that time did not yet exist. The Saale-Mulde system at that time ran in western Fläming; the Elbe flowed northwards from Torgau and crossed the Niedere Fläming. The mostly sandy to gravelly deposits of this Berlin Elbe run are widespread underground and today form important aquifers .

Saale ice age

Only the two main advances of the ice during the Saale Ice Age led to the formation of today's landscape. Geologically, the main part of the Fläming is built up from sediments from the older Drenthe advances , which reached far south to the northern limit of the low mountain range. The deposits of the younger Warthe advances are much less thick, but of crucial importance for the formation of today's landscape. Since the ice reached its southernmost limit on the Fläming during the Wartha stage and the edge of the ice there oscillated several times , several nearly closed terminal moraine chains run across the area from east to west . There the older sediments were often compressed (disturbed). Corresponding to the glacial series , to the south of this line there are mainly sand areas that roof towards the Wroclaw-Magdeburg-Bremen glacial valley. However, larger Drenthe Age ground moraine areas and older terminal moraine remnants protrude from the sands like islands. To the north of the terminal moraines, there are correspondingly younger ground moraine landscapes from the pre-era era. The Warta time glacial till , which usually sets up the ground moraine, but quite small powerful (a few meters) and very educated sketchy, so most sands are pending from the advance phase of the ice at the surface.

Vistula ice age

During the most recent, the Vistula Ice Age, the Fläming was no longer run over by the ice. The inland ice, however, reached its maximum extent shortly before the northern edge of the Fläming. There are indications that the ice even reached the Fläming in several places without advancing to it. Nevertheless, the Fläming belongs to the old moraine region . During the long cold phase of the Vistula Ice Age, typical periglacial forms and deposits such as dry valleys ( rumbling ) and wind edges formed . The widening of a sand loess strip , which stretches from Bad Belzig to Dahme and is the basis for the very fertile soils of this region, was of great importance .

The inland dunes formed at the end of the Vistula Ice Age are a rather rare phenomenon on the Fläming. Their occurrence is almost exclusively limited to the outskirts of the surrounding lowlands. The Golmberg area in Lower Fläming is an exception. From there, an extensive dune area stretches for around 20 kilometers to the east into the Baruther glacial valley.

The activity of the meltwater in the Baruther glacial valley, the southernmost and oldest of the three large glacial glacial valleys in Brandenburg, eroded in some places, such as on the southern edge of the Belziger landscape meadows and on the Golmberg , strongly on the northern slope of the Fläming and cut up to 60 meters of rising terrain. While the neighboring lowlands within the glacial valley already belong to the young moraine region of the Vistula Ice Age, the Hohe and Niedere Fläming are still part of the old moraine landscape of the Saale Ice Age .

Outdated views on the origin of the Fläming

In popular scientific literature and in everyday use, two theories about the origin of Fläming are still widespread, which are now considered obsolete:

  • The sentence “The Fläming is a terminal moraine” simplifies the development of the area and does not do justice to the processes that led to the development of today's landscape. Rather, the Fläming is a mountain range formed during the Ice Age, which includes ground moraines , terminal moraines and sand .
  • The thesis that is put forward now and then that the Fläming is tectonic and more like a rocky clod mountain range with a Variscan core can be considered refuted due to deep drilling. The layers of the Cretaceous and the Tertiary are located both under the Fläming and in its immediate vicinity at the same altitude and are therefore undisturbed.

Related regions

As part of the southern land ridge , the Fläming has similarities with the following landscapes, which were also formed in the Wartha stage of the Saale Ice Age :

1100 mya
Origin: Småland
2000 mya
1300 mya
Origin: Dalarna
1600 mya
Origin: Åland Islands

(Note: The adjacent pictures are from the erratic boulder garden on the Klein Briesener Bach between the villages of Klein Briesen and Ragösen , both districts of Bad Belzig.)


Due to the diversity of the Ice Age deposits in Fläming, the resulting soil associations are very heterogeneous. Their productivity ranges from extremely low in nutrients and sterile to very fertile.

The most productive and fertile soils can be found in the sand loess belt mentioned above between Bad Belzig and Dahme (city). On maps and satellite photos, this area stands out as a conspicuously woodless strip because of its arable land. Lessivés prevail there , mostly in the form of pale earth . These soils are well supplied with nutrients and easy to work with, but they can become waterlogged, especially if they are underlaid with boulder clay. There are then transition types between pale earth and pseudogley . Lessivés have also developed on the still fertile glacial till sites, although there are more transition types to brown earth .

Brown soils have developed on the surface of the meltwater sands that show more or less clear features of podsolization (acid bleaching). Real podsols are only found there very rarely. Podsols and brown earth podsols are more widespread, even if not there on large areas, only on the extremely nutrient-poor drifting sand areas.

Due to the military use of extensive, mostly sandy areas, which led to the capping of the previously existing soils, there are now young raw soils and soils with an A / C profile. Most of the time, slight loosenessyrosemes and regosols have developed.

Bogs and low soils ( e.g. gleye ) play only a subordinate role on the Fläming. At best they can be found in the valley floors, which are rather small in terms of area.



Like the surrounding regions, the Fläming lies in the transition area from the oceanic climate of Western Europe to the continental climate of Eastern Europe. The climatic differences to the surrounding area are small, but can be clearly felt in certain weather conditions.


The warmest month is July with 17 to 18 ° C, the coldest is January with −1 to −2 ° C. Compared to the surrounding area, the Fläming is a little colder due to its altitude (around 1 ° C). This is particularly noticeable in winter at temperatures around freezing point, when there is already or still snow on the Fläming while the surrounding area is clear of it. However, the temperature distribution between Fläming and surrounding reverses in cloudless or arms radiation weather conditions around. This is especially true in the transition seasons. Then, precisely because of its relative altitude, the cold air flows off the Fläming and collects in the surrounding lowlands. These are therefore significantly more susceptible to early and late frosts.


Fläming in the October fog, view from Hagelberg to Klein-Glien

The Hohe Fläming receives around 650 mm of precipitation per year. The lower lying areas are drier with about 600 to 550 mm. To the north and east of the Hohen Fläming, a rain shadow effect is noticeable , albeit a more modest one . The Baruther glacial valley therefore receives less than 550 mm of precipitation per year. The higher areas of the Lower Fläming - almost as high as the Hohe Fläming - are comparatively dry due to the rain shadow, with around 550 to 600 mm of annual precipitation. In western Fläming near Magdeburg, the much more powerful rain shadow of the Harz is already having an effect . These regions only receive insignificantly more than 500 mm of precipitation, in isolated cases even less.

Further weather phenomena

The altitude of the Fläming affects both the wind and the fog. It is significantly windier and less foggy than the surrounding area.



The regionally important watershed runs across the Fläming from west to east between the waters that flow south or west directly into the Elbe and the tributaries of the Havel and Spree , which face north. Furthermore, the Fläming is the most important education area for groundwater in eastern Saxony-Anhalt and southern Brandenburg and is therefore of great importance for water management beyond its territory.

Little Briesener Bach

Flowing waters

The Fläming is considered to be relatively poor in running waters. In its central parts in particular, most of the valleys are dry valleys , referred to here as rumblings , which only carry water in exceptional situations (e.g. snowmelt over deep frozen ground). Only in the lower peripheral regions do more and more flowing waters appear. After all, there are numerous spring regions and wetlands on the immediate edge of the Fläming, but these are only partially included in the Fläming.

The Fläming is drained by the following natural rivers and streams to the river system of the Havel and Spree (order from west to east):

The following waters flow directly into the Elbe (order from west to east):

Some of the rivers listed have smaller tributaries or have locally different names. In addition, there are numerous man-made drainage ditches .

Nature parks

With the nature parks Hoher Fläming and Nuthe-Nieplitz in Brandenburg and Fläming in Saxony-Anhalt, three large protected areas currently have a share in the ridge. The nature parks in turn contain a large number of specially protected areas. More than 90% of the total area of ​​the Hoher Fläming Nature Park is designated as a nature or landscape protection area.

Typical flat wavy Flaming landscape between Preußnitz and Belzig
Light forest and cobblestones near Lütte
Nature park center “Alte Brennerei” in Raben
Francisceum from 1235 in Zerbst , garden

Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park and "Kleiner Fläming"

The area of ​​the Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park am Fläming is very small, because it only extends a bit into the cultural landscape of the ridge with its southernmost corner between Treuenbrietzen, Luckenwalde and Jüterbog. It is noteworthy that for a time the triangle in the far north that Nuthe and Nieplitz form between Stangenhagen / Schönhagen and their confluence at Gröben was popularly known as Kleiner Fläming . It remains unclear when and why this name for the angle that Fontane later referred to as Thümenschen Winkel was naturalized. The lowland landscape, shaped by the two rivers and the Baruther glacial valley, does not correspond to the flat, undulating, low mountain range-like characteristics of the Fläming. At most, the natural nature reserve Forst Zinna Jüterbog-Keilberg on a 7200 hectare former military training area , which contains one of the last active drift sand dunes in inland Germany, is reminiscent of the ridge in the landscape.

The majority of the European bird sanctuary Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung consists of the nature reserve Nuthe-Nieplitz-Niederung within the nature park; another smaller part includes the western bank of the Rangsdorf lake .

If the 62,300 hectare Nuthe-Nieplitz Nature Park represents the landscape of the Central Brandenburg plateaus and lowlands, the other two parks are characteristic of the Fläming ridge.

High Fläming Nature Park (Brandenburg)

The Hoher Fläming Nature Park initially covers an area of ​​around 82,700  hectares in the core area of ​​the ridge around Bad Belzig. The specially protected lowland Belziger Landschaftswiesen in the Baruther glacial valley is already outside the ridge, on the northern slope of the Fläming, but administratively belongs to the same nature park.

The landscape meadows form a flow moor, which is rare in Brandenburg, with a network of near-natural streams around the Fläming main river Plane. As SPA = Special Protection Area, they belong to the European bird sanctuary Unteres Rhinluch, Dreetzer See, Havelländisches Luch and Belziger Landschaftswiesen in the Natura 2000 protected area system . In addition to around 160 species of birds , including 110 meadow breeders, the area is one of the last German refuges for the great bustard , whose protection and development is particularly dedicated to the Baitz nature reserve .

While sparse, extensive arable landscapes are typical for the Niedere Fläming, the Hohen Fläming is characterized by a hilly and wooded landscape from which several watercourses arise with the rivers Plane and Buckau, several streams and protected source areas such as the Dippmannsdorfer Paradies. Some of the bodies of water that flow through the nature park are designated as nature reserves in some areas. These include the NSG Verlorenwasserbach, Bullenberger Bach / Klein Briesener Bach and Planetal in the upper reaches of the river. The peculiarities of the vegetation reflect, among other things, the NSG Werbiger Heide, Krahner Busch, Flämingbuchen or with a sessile oak - beech forest the NSG Spring.

Fläming Nature Park (Saxony-Anhalt)

The youngest large conservation area is the Fläming Nature Park in Saxony-Anhalt, which was declared a Nature Park on December 19, 2005. The preparation lay with the Fläming Nature Park, founded in 2003. V., whose sponsors include the districts of Wittenberg and Anhalt-Bitterfeld . The nature park center, which opened in 2006, is located in Jeber-Bergfrieden , a village on a ridge between the Rossel valley and southern Anhalter Nuthe in southwestern Hohen Fläming. The total area of ​​the park is 82,425 hectares and thus corresponds almost exactly to the area of ​​its older brother Hoher Fläming. In the east it includes the Saxony-Anhalt part of the Niedere Fläming and connects to the north on the state border with the Hoher Fläming Nature Park. The cities of Wittenberg, Coswig and Zerbst with their historic city centers are integrated into the nature park.

This nature park therefore also extends beyond the geographical area of ​​Fläming, because Wittenberg and Coswig are located on the southern edge of the Fläming, but at least with their historical town centers they are geographically more related to the Elbe region or the Elbe glacial valley . At Coswig, the park also borders the Middle Elbe Biosphere Reserve , which stretches along the river from Wittenberg to Gommern and includes the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm with the UNESCO World Heritage Site Wörlitz Park . With the opening of the nature park, a huge area with different levels of protection was created, stretching from the Belziger landscape meadows in the north over the Hohen Fläming to the southern Elbe. And just a few kilometers southeast of Oranienbaum , the biosphere reserve with the heather landscape of the Dübener Heide nature park is joined by another protected area.


About five kilometers southwest of Dahme in the Lower Fläming near the village of Mehlsdorf there is a boulder with the inscription: On March 24, 1961, a wolf was shot in the Mehlsdorfer Busch 404 m away from this stone in the direction of SSW-. The last free-living wolf ( Canis lupus ) in Fläming has been tearing sheep around Luckau , Dahme and Jüterbog since 1959, biting a dog to death and tearing a cattle in half. The speculations of the troubled population who avoid the forests about a large and voracious animal were confirmed after it was slain. The wolf weighed 70 kilograms and measured 1.85 meters from snout to tip of its tail. The isolated immigrant (the last wild animals had already disappeared in Germany around 1850) came from the High Tatras , is prepared and exhibited in the regional museum in Jüterbog.

In the meantime, the chances of a permanent natural return of the protected animal to the sparsely populated Fläming with at the same time better acceptance by the population are not bad. In 1993 the state of Brandenburg commissioned a management plan for the return of the wolves. In the Muskauer Heide on the Muskau fold arch , which continues the Fläming or the southern ridge to the east after the Lausitz border wall, there are now several native packs again.

In the spring of 2006, a wolf is said to have appeared near Baitz , which, according to an eyewitness, could also have been a large feral dog. In May 2006, a hunting director confirmed that a single animal could have made its home in the area around the Flemmingwiesen and the upstream Golmberg .

There are now several wolf packs in Fläming again, including one in the Altengrabow military training area , one south of Sperenberg and one north of Jüterbog .

Political and settlement history

The Fläming was a disputed borderland in almost all historical times. At the time of the German settlement in the east it formed the border wall between Germans and Slavs for a long time. Subsequently, it was the focus in the area of ​​interest between the Mark Brandenburg , the Archdiocese of Magdeburg and Electoral Saxony . Today's demarcation by the Fläming has essentially existed since the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

Border barrier between Slavs and Germans

With the end of the glacial period in the Vistula Late Glacial around 11,500 years ago, former hunters established their first permanent homes in Fläming. Excavations in Lutherstadt Wittenberg indicate that what is now the city area was settled around 10,000 years ago. A large stone barrow from the Stone Age , located about one kilometer southeast of today's Körbelitz , proves that the area was already inhabited 6,000 years ago. Archaeological finds at Jüterbog prove around 4000 BC The settlement of line ceramicists in the Nuthe lowlands. In the 3rd millennium BC Cultures formed with agriculture and livestock , using handcrafted ceramics and storage facilities. In the Bronze Age there was a settlement on the site of Eisenhardt Castle , a mountain spur above the then marshy valley of the Belziger Bach . During this period, between around 1700 and 700 BC BC, the Germanic peoples, who belonged to the Semnonen tribe (part of the Suebi tribe ) in Fläming , achieved a first area-wide settlement of the ridge.

Möckern Castle on the site of the former Slavic moated castle

In the course of the Great Migration left in the 4th / 5th Century AD large parts of the Germanic tribes the Fläming and migrated towards the Upper Rhine to Swabia . From the 7th century, West Slavic tribes poured into the Lausitz and a little later into the Fläming. Former Wall castles in Loburg from the 8th century or local and field names that the Slavic decline, bear witness to this time. In the 10th and 11th centuries there were several attempts to bring the Hevellers , who lived in Fläming, under German rule, each of which was only successful for a short time and repeatedly failed , for example in the great Mecklenburg-Brandenburg Slav uprising of 983 . Until the middle of the 12th century, the Fläming remained the border barrier between Germans and Slavs. The Slavic period ended with the foundation of the Mark Brandenburg in 1157 after the victory of the Ascanian Albrecht the Bear over the Slav prince Jaxa von Köpenick .

The Germans had already settled some southwestern regions in Fläming before the Mark was founded. The Wendish settlement “Mokrianici” (= damp place ), today's Möckern , was probably under German influence as early as the end of the 9th century. It is certain that the place at which time extensive marshland of Ehle mid-10th century, a German Burgwardei was. This time is considered to be the first phase of the establishment of rule by German feudal lords in the Old Sorbian settlement area.

Naming - German settlement and Flemings

The fact that the Fläming was named after the Flemish settlers can now be considered certain. However, it did not get the name from the Flemings, and it has by no means been called Fläming for centuries, rather the name has only become naturalized for all of today's Fläming since the middle of the 19th century. In the Middle Ages, the ridge was largely called the Saxon border wall , while the term "Fläming" was limited to the Jüterbog area and western areas around the castle and Loburg around 1500 . Geographical writings and maps contributed to the fact that the name gradually expanded from there to ever larger areas.

At the time of Slavic colonization of the Fläming was called, at least in part to today's Hagelberg , Chabua . In a written note from the year 1009, the phrase cum ... Chabua montibus , meaning Chabua mountains . For Reinhard E. Fischer the name is derived from the Slavic Chabov [... and ...] denotes mountains overgrown with undergrowth, cf. Polish chabie 'undergrowth', chabina 'rod'. The settlers from the German-speaking and Flemish regions changed the foreign word chabua to the similar-sounding bird name Habicht ( Middle Low German havek ) and later to Hagel .

Shortly after Albrecht the Bear founded the Mark Brandenburg in 1157, he and the Archbishop of Magdeburg Wichmann von Seeburg called large numbers of settlers to the new Mark. Jüterbog was granted town charter in 1174, the second oldest in today's state of Brandenburg. In this document Jüterbog is referred to as the center of the provincia Iutterbogk (Land Jüterbog), as its starting point and head ( exordium et caput ). This Jüterbog certificate is regarded as an exemplary "state expansion program" ("ad edificandem provinciam Iutterbogk").

Albrecht the Bear was able to acquire areas east of the Oder as far as the Fläming before 1157, until his territory bordered on the Zauche , which his son Otto had received as a godparent gift from Prince Heveller Pribislaw-Heinrich . As margraves, Albrecht's sons and grandsons continued the skilful settlement policy to stabilize the young march and to expand the country . The colonization of Fläming took place in several phases, with the Archdiocese of Magdeburg being the driving force in the western part and the Jüterbog area, which had already begun to attract settlers before 1157, while the Ascanians were active in the south-eastern part.

Fläming festival costume in Jüterbog , before 1900

Archbishop Adalgod von Osterburg had stated around 1107: The pagans here are bad, but their land is rich in meat, honey, flour ... birds. And if it is carefully tilled, there will be such abundance of all growth from the earth that no land can be compared to it. Say that who knows. Therefore, you Saxons, Franconians, Lorraine, you glorious Flanders, conquerors of the world, here you can save your souls and - if you want - get the best land to settle.

Around 400,000 people streamed east in the 12th and 13th centuries. The settlers came to the country in particular from the Altmark , Harz, Flanders and the Rhine regions. The influx most likely led via Magdeburg first to the Loburg and Leitzkau region, from there to Wittenberg, on to Jüterbog and, in the last phase, to Bad Belzig. The Flemings played an important role. After devastating storm surges in their own country, they gladly accepted new settlement areas and, with their experience in dike building, contributed to the dikes of the Elbe and Havel, which were tackled in the 1160s. Many Flemings settled in what is today Fläming and thus (later and indirectly) gave it its name. The Fläming costume has been preserved up to the present day, and is still occasionally worn on festive days today. It is one of two living national costumes in the Mark Brandenburg. Its distribution area also includes parts of southern Fläming in Saxony-Anhalt.

Not entirely certain, but very likely, place names such as Brück - Bruges or Euper - Ypres are based on Flemish cities. The connection from Fläming to Flanders is still alive today. In 2005, for example, an exhibition From Flanders to the Mark - The Settlement of Fläming in the Middle Ages took place in Wittenberg with a festive event by the German-Belgian Association Fläming-Flanders at the opening. A year earlier, there had been an exhibition on the same topic in Antwerp under the common title Oude en nieuwe bruggen - old and new bridges .

Apple of contention between Saxony and Brandenburg until 1815

Although the Magdeburg Archbishop Wichmann and Albrecht the Bear fought together against the Slavs in 1157 and together against the Saxon Heinrich the Lion in 1166 , competition between the Ascanians in the young Mark for the Archdiocese of Magdeburg soon developed. This competition is one of the reasons for centuries of disputes over parts of the Fläming.

Zinna Monastery - early emphasis on Magdeburg's claim to power

There were clear upsets between Magdeburg and the Ascanians as early as the 1160s. The starting point may have been the year 1160, in which, according to Partenheimer, the other German principalities and dioceses probably first became aware that the Ascanians in the east were "establishing the Mark Brandenburg as a new principality that was largely independent of the empire". The Zinna monastery foundation near Jüterbog was rated by Wichmann in 1170, in the year of Albrecht the Bear's death, as the first visible sign against the territorial aspirations of the Ascanians in strategic terms. The Flemish Jüterbog, which was the second oldest town in today's Brandenburg to receive town charter as early as 1174, was given by Albrecht to the Magdeburg diocese, together with Buckau and Görzke, as a thank you for helping with weapons in 1157. The foundation of the Lehnin monastery in the Brandenburg Zauche by Albrecht's son, the Margrave Otto I , which followed in 1180, 10 years after Zinna , is again to be interpreted as a reaction to Zinna in terms of power politics.

Kurkreis and border line through the Fläming

Approximate demarcation of Saxony-Wittenberg around 1423
Kurkreis 1554-1815
( Principality of Querfurt from 1746 in the Kurkreis)

The western part of the Fläming with Wittenberg and Belzig remained in the hands of the Ascanians until 1422. Between 1190 and 1298 they exercised the feudal sovereignty over the extensive Belzig rule of the Counts Baderich, which included around 200 villages, before this area also fell to them as a settled fiefdom. Bernhard , the youngest son of Albrecht the Bear, became Duke of Saxony after Henry the Lion was ostracized by Emperor Barbarossa . When he died in 1212, part of his inheritance as the Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg went to Albrecht I.

After the Wittenberg Ascanian branch died out in 1422, the area went to the Wettins and in 1485 to their branch line Ernestiner based in Wittenberg. In the middle of the 16th century, under the Albertine Moritz von Sachsen, the Kurkreis ( Kursachsen ) with the capital Wittenberg was formed, which existed until 1815 and included Belzig, Brück, Niemegk, Baruth and later also Jüterbog. For centuries Jüterbog, which was in the Lower Fläming and stretched east to the town of Dahme , formed an exclave between the two Ascanian possessions of Mark Brandenburg and the Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg in the 12th century. It was not until 1635, during the Thirty Years' War , that this area also came to the Saxon Kurkreis as an office of Jüterbog (with an interlude from 1656 to 1746 as part of the Duchy of Querfurt on the Sachsen-Weißenfels line ).

The Saxon border ran similarly to the Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg from the Elbe between Wittenberg and Coswig to the north, turned to the north-west in Hohen Fläming approximately at Jeserig, turned to the north-east at Reppinichen and led partly along the Klein Briesener Bach / Bullenberger Bach zur Temnitz am Golzower Busch, ran from there to the east across the Belziger landscape meadows, described the north arch around Brück, which is striking on maps, and led in a fairly straight south line past Treuenbrietzen in Brandenburg. Then the border turned to the east to the Niedere Fläming and enclosed the Baruther area, cut however by a Brandenburg triangle with Luckenwalde and also the Zinna monastery, which had belonged to Luckenwalde since 1285 by purchase. In addition, the small area (“Kleiner Fläming”) with Stangenhagen and Blankensee not far from Trebbins was included as an exclave .

With the reorganization of post-Napoleonic Europe after the Battle of Leipzig at the Congress of Vienna in 1814/1815, the central part of the High Fläming with the extensive office of Belzig and in the east Jüterbog fell to the province of Brandenburg , while most of the office was Wittenberg and the other offices of the Kurkreis went to the Province of Saxony , which largely corresponds to today's Saxony-Anhalt. Since then, the border between Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg, roughly outlined, divides the Fläming roughly in the middle lengthways.

Demarcation in Fläming 1905; from the map Province of Brandenburg

In some places in today's Brandenburg part of Fläming, for example at the Briesener Bach and in the Golzower Busch, old Saxon boundary stones remind of the Saxon past. In addition, the coat of arms of Bad Belzig still contains the Saxon shield. Electoral Saxon post mile pillars in Bad Belzig, Brück and Niemegk are other eloquent stone witnesses of a time when the farmers on both sides of the border fought hostile skirmishes , even in times of peace . Allegations of theft from the Zauche to the Flemish “stubble saxons” on the other side of the Belzig landscape meadows were the order of the day for a while, but this did not prevent the Saxon farmers from selling the wood to the Prussian villages that they themselves had stolen from the state Fläming forests.

After the Congress of Vienna and after their incorporation into Prussia, many former Saxon Flämingers defended themselves for some time as so-called New Prussians or Must Prussians with passive resistance to their unwelcome new homeland, for example by not accepting Prussian money. Some hoped that Napoleon would return, so that he would again take up the fight against the unloved "black Prussian bird", as the leaflets circulating in the exclave of "Kleiner Fläming" (Blankensee, Stangenhagen) illustrate:

The black Prussian bird

Wait, black bird, wait, soon Bonaparte will be back.
What you have stolen, he will repeat to us.

Battles near Möckern, Hagelberg and Dennewitz in 1813

Several preliminary skirmishes for the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig, which was supposed to usher in the end of Napoleonic Europe, had taken place in Fläming. On April 5, 1813 there was a battle near Möckern between the allied Prussian-Russian troops and the French army in Jerichower Land , which ended in a defeat for the French and marked the successful start of the war of liberation against Napoleon.

After the Napoleonic-Saxon troops were prevented from advancing to Berlin in the Battle of Großbeeren on August 23, 1813 , French troops advanced from Magdeburg to support the defeated main units and made quarters at Hagelberg, where they happened to be on August 27, 1813 were discovered by Prussian associations and wiped out in the Battle of Hagelberg . Two monuments and various information boards commemorate this battle on the Fläminghöhe, which also went down in history as the Kolbenschlacht or Landwehr battle . In particular, the newly created Landwehr , supported by regular Prussian associations and Russian Cossacks , was responsible for the destruction of the French corps of 10,000 mostly Saxon soldiers up to 3,000 men.

The Napoleonic units experienced an even more pronounced weakening only a little later in the battle of Dennewitz on September 6, 1813. In the transition area between the Hohen and Niedere Fläming, Prussian troops (40,000 men) under Friedrich Wilhelm von Bülow and Freiherr von Bülow met southwest of Jüterbog near Dennewitz and Niedergörsdorf Bogislav Graf von Tauentzien to the French / Saxon army (70,000 men). Despite the dominance of the opposing forces, the Prussians decided the battle for themselves and here, too, various monuments and information boards remind of the historical events. The obelisk contributed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel resembles the cast iron top of the national monument, which was built according to his plans and unveiled on March 30, 1821 to commemorate the Wars of Liberation and Waterloo (Belle Alliance) on Berlin's Kreuzberg .

Above average number of devastations

Many of the villages that were created in the course of the country's expansion no longer exist today. The Fläming has an extraordinarily high desert density, which, contrary to many representations, is less due to armed conflicts than to economic factors. In the area around Bad Belzig alone, Reinhard E. Fischer lists around 75 deserted areas . Of these, around 25 were deserted by 1387 at the latest, some probably much earlier. Another 25 villages are listed as desolate in 1420/29, some of which still existed in 1387, but some were listed for the first time and may have disappeared much earlier. Another 20 villages fell into desolation in the subsequent period up to 1487 at the latest. The year numbers indicate references in historical sources and not historical events.

Church ruins in the desert of Dangelsdorf

The early devastation before or well before 1387 is due, among other things, to the fact that many settlers had taken over Slavic locations that proved unsuitable for German economic systems. Another reason was the drainage and clearing of the glacial valleys and river plains, which increasingly made it possible to move fields and villages from the barren plateau to the more fertile valleys. Since the amelioration measures stretched over centuries (in the Baruther glacial valley up to the GDR period), they were also the cause of desertification processes in the following periods.

The desolations before 1429 are often associated with the Hussite invasion or with the destruction of the robber barons of Quitzow . At least with regard to the deserted village Dangel village in nun Heide and its church ruins from the 14th century, the experts of medieval stone churches in Fläming, Engeser and Stehr, a much more likely cause in the great plague - pandemic 1347-1353, as the Black Death in history went down, or in the Magdalen flood of 1342, when floods of unprecedented proportions were reported from all German areas. In the Schleesen desert north of Stackelitz there is a very similar, less well-preserved church ruin from the 12th century. The old village well and the village pond have also been preserved in this desert.

The above data make it clear that the Thirty Years War played a comparatively minor role in the desertification processes. Although the Fläming was hard hit by the atrocities of this war and many villages were destroyed, most of them were subsequently rebuilt. Also among the above-mentioned number of 75 desert villages for the Bad Belzig area there are some that, some centuries later, have been reborn under the same name and still exist today. Some settlements fell into desolation twice, such as today's district of Wiesenburg Reppinichen . When it was first mentioned in 1418/1420, the place was already fallow, was rebuilt from 1571 and fell again desolate for a long time in the Thirty Years' War.

The Fläming in National Socialism

The National Socialist ideology fell on fertile ground in Fläming, which was hit by high unemployment after the global economic crisis . Measures carried out by the Nazis, such as the construction of the Munich-Berlin autobahn and armaments factories in Wittenberg and Treuenbrietzen , created jobs and increased approval for the NSDAP . During the Reichspogromnacht there were also riots in Belzig and Wittenberg and Jewish shops were demolished. A munitions factory built near Belzig in 1934, the Roedershof, was expanded to include a forced labor camp in 1942 and a satellite camp of the Ravensbrück women's concentration camp in 1943 . In the last weeks of the Second World War, the Fläming was part of the contested area. Belzig was spared from destruction, as level-headed citizens were able to prevail and surrender the city without a fight.

Cultural assets and cultural history

In addition to the town and village centers, castles, palaces and stone churches described in this chapter, mills and glassworks are also among the most important cultural assets of Fläming. These and other technical monuments are listed in the chapter "Economy and economic history".

Land of the Reformation

Wittenberg at the time of the Reformation with the Fläming in the background

The world-famous Reformation sites in neighboring Wittenberg to the south, the Luther House , the Melanchthon House , the town and castle church have been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site as Luther memorials since 1996 . But not only the places of activity of Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon show the Fläming as an early stage of the Reformation. Places of development were, for example, Jüterbog during the pulpit war and at the Jüterbog religious talks or the Golmberg. When attack in the Golmheide to Hans von Hake , of the castle to Stülpe sat, the papal drain dealer Johann Tetzel his cashbox ( Tetzelkasten have snatched) with the scornful remark, after he had previously ransomed with a discharge letter from this crime. Even though this event very likely belongs to the realm of legend , since Hans von Hake only bought Stülpe Castle in 1537, the Tetzeleiche still reminds us of this story, which was often told and also reproduced by Fontane and Willibald Alexis .

Tetzel's Jüterboger sentence When the money sounds in the box, the soul leaps from purgatory to heaven, Luther answered in 1517 with the 95 theses , which Tetzel then burned publicly in Jüterbog. In the “Pulpit War” of 1519, Franz Günther , the first theologian who had obtained his doctorate under Luther , was banned from speaking in Jüterbog and was replaced by Thomas Müntzer , whom the Jüterbog Franciscans referred to as “ Lutheran ” in an advertisement with the Brandenburg bishop for the first time in German . In 1547 Spanish soldiers plundered villages in the Lower Fläming as part of the Schmalkaldic War . A year later the Jüterbog Religious Discussions took place with the participation of Philipp Melanchthon. The following year advised Moritz von Sachsen , Joachim II. Von Brandenburg , Georg III. von Anhalt , Melanchthon, Agricola and others in the same place, which could be given in to the papists with a clear conscience , in order to avoid objection .

In addition to Luther and Melanchthon, many other important figures from the region were involved in the renewal movement of Christianity . The politician and Saxon Chancellor Gregor Brück, for example, the so-called Reformation Chancellor , accompanied the Wittenberg Movement of 1521, which is considered the starting point for the expansion of the Reformation and became one of the closest advisers to Luther and Melanchthon. The theologian Georg Buchholzer , born in Dahme, supported Elector Joachim II in carrying out the Reformation in Brandenburg . In addition, in 1540 he was involved in drafting the Brandenburg Church Ordinance. Another important scholar was Johannes Aepinus , born in Ziesar on the Flämingrand in 1499 , about whom Valentin Ernst Löscher judged in 1719: A great man in his day, and one of the best and most faithful tools of the Reformation .

In addition to the testimonies in Lutherstadt Wittenberg, Tetzel boxes in Jüterbog and Dahme are a reminder of the time. In Bad Belzig there is a stone above the tower portal that refers to a sermon by Luther in 1530. Luther also visited the city of Zerbst , the first Reformed city after Wittenberg, several times. Luther is said to have preached under the linden tree in front of the Marienkirche in Treuenbrietzen when the church was closed to him.

The adjacent portraits of Brück, Melanchthon and Luther were all drawn by the painter Lucas Cranach the Elder , who also lived in Wittenberg during the Reformation and was on friendly terms with Luther and Melanchthon. In his print shop in Cranachhof he had printed among other things the 95 theses, the first part of the Luther Bible , Luther's table speeches and numerous woodcuts.

The innovators of Christianity gathered in Wittenberg remained stuck with the spirit of the 16th century in many questions with all their new thinking and did not go so far as, for example, to cast off the centuries-old anti-Judaic prejudices or to prevent the pressure of the Wittenberg Jewish sow . On the contrary, Luther took up the term and, in his diatribe of 1546, mocked rabbinic exegesis of scriptures and the Jewish faith. Luther's hostility towards Jews culminated in anti-Judaistic pamphlets and sentences like If I could, where would I strike him [the Jew] down and pierce him with my sword in my anger. And even if Luther was not active as a witch hunter himself , he, like John Calvin , believed in the possibility of the devil's pact or the duel with the devil and advocated the death penalty for supposedly harmful magic.

Built culture

Cities and villages

Seyda official house from 1605

South of the Fläming is the medium- sized town of Wittenberg with around 48,000 inhabitants and numerous memorials to the Reformation.

In Fläming itself there are only small towns . The largest of these is the former university and residence town of Zerbst with 16,000 inhabitants. Jüterbog has 13,000 inhabitants, Bad Belzig around 12,000. After Bad Belzig follow Treuenbrietzen with 9000, Möckern with 7000, Dahme with 6000 and Baruth with 5000 inhabitants. Country towns like Niemegk, Ziesar and Zahna have around 3000 residents and Loburg over 2000 residents. The Fläming is extremely sparsely populated. Grimme , one of the most sparsely populated communities in Germany, is located in Fläming. There are 176 inhabitants per 28.77 km², which corresponds to a population density of 5.31 inhabitants / km².

Historic city centers such as in Bad Belzig, Dahme, Jüterbog, Treuenbrietzen, Zerbst, Zahna and Wittenberg, baroque residential areas such as in Kloster Zinna and typical Brandenburg small towns, Angerdörfer , Rundlinge , three-sided and four-sided courtyards shape the urban and rural living culture of the region. High city walls, defiant city gates and neat town halls or office buildings such as in Seyda , Niemegk and above all Dahme form stone witnesses to cultural history.

Four-tier church in Dahnsdorf , late 12th / early 13th century
Church in Hohengörsdorf

Field stone churches

Typical buildings for the Fläming and its peripheral areas are the late Romanesque field stone churches , which for the most part date from the first half of the 13th century, i.e. go back to the early settlement period and the development of the country. The building material provided the landscape shaped by the Ice Age through the field stones lying on the fields . In coordination with the field workers, the field stones were brought from the fields by wagon to the construction site, the village church, and there they were more or less carefully cut (squared). The stonemasonry costs represented the largest cost factor. The trips of the wagons were incurred as part of the tillage anyway. The Gruboer church near Wiesenburg, which is not one of the largest buildings, consists of 7800 stones. The floor plan ranged from the one-piece rectangular hall church as in the Niedergörsdorf district of Dalichow to the four-fold staggered floor plan with the ship , a tower in the form of a ship-wide, rectangular " cross bar ", the choir and the apse , such as B. in the Planetal districts Dahnsdorf and Mörz . The type and execution of the buildings depended on the amount of the harvest of the villages. The buildings in the villages and today's Belziger districts of Borne , Lübnitz and Kuhlowitz as well as in the Wiesenburg district of Grubo offer particularly beautiful and impressive examples . In Leetza between Zahna and Seyda there is a listed church made of a simple hall with a tower from the 12th century. The field stone church in Seehausen from the first half of the 13th century is also one of the oldest churches .

In addition, in the Flemish part of Saxony-Anhalt there are also some churches made of quarry stones , such as the church in Wallwitz an der Ehle, which fall in the same period of construction and have the same building structure. In addition to the village churches made of field and quarry stone, there are other architectural treasures such as the Gothic hall church from the 14th century in Jüterbog, the Zinna monastery church, the churches in Bad Belzig, Wittenberg and Zerbst, the churches of St. Laurentius and Our Lady in Loburg or the pen of the Holy Spirit in Zahna .

The church ruins in Dangelsdorf , which were already mentioned and illustrated in the chapter on the desertification processes , are made of field stones, the remains of which in their original state provide valuable clues to the early church constructions in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, as many buildings were subsequently rebuilt or expanded. In the relevant literature, the comparative church term type Dangelsdorf is occasionally found , for example in the chronological classification of the Gömnigker church.

Commons : Gallery of the Feldsteinkirchen in the Fläming Nature Park  - album with pictures, videos and audio files


Bad Belzig and Eisenhardt Castle around 1626

The castles Eisenhardt , Rabenstein and Schloss Wiesenburg are only a few kilometers apart and gave central Fläming the name "Three Castles Land". The castle of the so-called "Pearl of the High Fläming", Wiesenburg , was converted into a magnificent palace in 1730, which with the landscape-protected palace garden is one of the most visited Fläming sites. The former castle can be clearly seen at the gatehouse and the keep . Belzig Eisenhardt Castle, a typical spur castle on a mountain spur , dates back in its current form to the years 1423/1425 and dominated the Wittenberg-Belzig trade route in the Middle Ages . The extensively restored medieval Rabenstein castle complex on the 153-meter-high steep Hagen bei Raben also played an important strategic role in the Saxony-Brandenburg border region.

In addition to these three central castles, other castles guarded the country. For example, the bishop's residence Burg Ziesar on the northwestern edge of Fläming, the Wasserburg Roßlau in the Elbaue or the castle Lindau above the Anhalter Nuthe have been preserved. Another castle was in Möckern , whose keep made of field stones now belongs to Möckern Castle . The garden architect Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff was involved in the design of the palace park based on the model of English landscape gardens . In Loburg there was already a Slavic hill fort in the 8th century , which was converted into a German border castle in the 10th century and destroyed again in 983 during the Slav uprising. In the second half of the 12th century, the Burgrave of Lubborch built a new castle in the small town in West Fleming, of which the Burgward still stands today. The Loburg secured the two military and trade routes that converged from the direction of Burg and Brandenburg near the Veste on the upper reaches of the Ehle and continued to Zerbst.

From the former Castrum et opidum Grabow in the Jerichower Land , which was already documented in 946, only ruins remain on the manor house . The name of the place Hundeluft in the valley of the Rossel goes back to the fact that the lords of a later robber baron castle mentioned for the first time in 1280 allowed their dogs to run here - from "Hundelauf" became "Hundeluft". In Zahna , one of the oldest Fläming cities, there was another Slavic rampart, which gave way to a German castle, which was also not preserved. The castle was supposed to secure the important economic and administrative center at the time. A source from 1189 describes Zahna as the main town of Burgward.

Castles and mansions

Kropstädt Castle
Gut Woltersdorf 1750, drawing by Anco Wigboldus
Klein-Glien manor house
Field stone church in Lübnitz
Quarry stone
church St. Timothei

in Wallwitz

Not only the renaissance castle Wiesenburg from the second half of the 16th century, the castle Möckern or the historical ensemble in Zerbst are among the pearls of Fläming, but also facilities like the castle Wendgräben in Zeppernick , which is in the style of English country houses and the co-founder of the German Werkbund Hermann Muthesius had planned in 1910. Muthesius seemed to the client Hans Waldemar von Wulffen particularly suitable to implement his ideas of an English manor house, since Muthesius turned against historicism and Art Nouveau in his main work, The English House . The garden architect Walter von Engelhardt contributed the stylish park .

The landscape planner and later royal general gardening director Peter Joseph Lenné designed the palace garden for the baroque Baruth Palace in 1838 , which was completed in 1775 at the latest and in which the princely-counts' family of Solms-Baruth resided. Of the original palace complex, only the currently dilapidated women's shelter remained , while the so-called New Palace is based on a baroque garden house and the front building was added in 1912/13. The restored castle park has been able to retain the Lennéian character to this day.

The Kropstädt Castle , which was built in 1850 on the site of the former Liesnitz moated castle , is also located on a park . The moated castle was stormed and destroyed by the Wittenbergers in 1358 because their robber barons threatened the trade route Berlin-Leipzig. The castle houses an education center and hotel and is still surrounded by a moat today. It is picturesquely embedded in the neighboring landscape of an extensive beaver protection area on one of the source stream valleys of the Zahna. From the castle tower there is a view over the valley and the Fläming flowing into the Elbe. The Nudersdorf estate , on which the Nudersdorf Castle from the 18th century stands, wrote regional history . Because the estate on the Rischebach north of Wittenberg had very probably been built by the Saxon Chancellor and Luther confidante Gregor Brück.

From 1564 until the expropriation in 1945, the von Münchhausen family was able to keep their renaissance castle on a southwestern plateau of the Fläming in Leitzkau , which dates back to a Premonstratensian monastery from the 12th century. After reconstruction work in the 1990s, the monastery, which was transformed into a palace complex after the Reformation, forms an architectural ensemble comprising the Hobeck Castle, the Neuhaus and the Castle Church.

About two kilometers below the westernmost Fläming elevation, the 68 meter high mountain peak , was the extensive Woltersdorf estate with a spacious manor house from 1744 in Woltersdorf near Magdeburg . Only a small remainder of the von Alvensleben manor house remains. A restored and listed mansion is located below the Hagelberg in Klein-Glien on the estate of the same name. There are other manor houses or representative manor houses in Hagelberg or in the Wiesenburg district of Schmerwitz. In Loburg there are two country houses: the Wulffenschen Gutshaus from 1773 and the Barbyschen Gutshaus (after 1660).

Selected sub-regions and ensembles

Ländeken Bärwalde, Dahme and the surrounding area

Bärwalde Castle in the southeast of the Niedere Fläming was the center of the old dominion in the Ländeken Bärwalde , which today belongs to the large municipality of Niederer Fläming . The Ländeken belonged to Brandenburg as an exclave since the 15th century. The Bärwalder Schloss emerged from a converted German castle, a Slavic hill fort was in the immediate vicinity. The castle has been almost completely demolished and only the weathered 700-year-old castle tower made of lawn iron stone on a hill above the Schweinitzer Fließ remained. About three kilometers to the northwest, in a district of Schönewalde, follows the preserved baroque manor house Ahlsdorf from 1709, which was the center of Georg von Siemens' life . This is where the Siemens inherited burial site from 1879, which was restored in the 1990s, is located. The castle park in the style of English landscaped gardens is adorned with an ornate wooden tea house.

Schmerwitz Castle near Wiesenburg
Renovated farm workers' houses (activist houses) in Schmerwitz, built after 1945

The literary center of Fläming, Wiepersdorf Castle , also belongs to the Ländeken Bärwalde (for Wiepersdorf see below ). The town of Dahme on the eastern border of the Lower Fläming in the transition area to the Lusatian border wall was the center of a Burgward in the Slavic era, which gave way to a German castle, which in turn replaced a castle that has largely fallen apart today. Dahme is famous for its well-preserved city wall and the representative town hall from 1893/94 in the neo-Renaissance style (see in detail: Dahme ).

Manor house and farm workers' houses in Schmerwitz

The Schmerwitz manor house , which Carl Friedrich Brandt von Lindau had built up to 1736, is located near Wiesenburg . In 1871/73 there was an extension with partly neo-baroque shapes. The south wing has been missing since a fire in 1892 and the elaborate facade decoration on the back dates from the early 20th century. Used since 1945 as a training center for the Soviet Army, conversions and extensions followed up to the 1980s, which were not necessarily based on the historical architecture. Since the fall of the Wall, the house has been endangered by vacancies and is falling apart - an investor is urgently needed. The huge neighboring estate and the manor, however, have been preserved and, after an interim ownership of the drug self-help association Synanon , now form one of the largest organic farms in Germany with a usable area of ​​1500 hectares .

The Schmerwitz farm workers' houses are a unique testimony to GDR building culture. Since Gut Schmerwitz was preserved, the Neubauer settlement program for the refugee flows after 1945 was not applied. Rather, there was an individual Schmerwitzer solution: an ensemble of farm workers' houses, unique in form and construction, consisting of ten single and three semi-detached houses along the village green for self-sufficiency, each with an attached farm section with a garden and stable. The houses were given out for rent and occasionally in recognition of special achievements, which is why they are also called activist houses. In the 1990s, the houses were renovated, taking modern living requirements into account, but preserving the character of the complex. Thanks to the renovation measures, a cultural-historical phenomenon of German post-war building history and way of life has been preserved in its very own, simple aesthetic. The settlement is also special in that a village green was created here in the second half of the 20th century.

Population and customs

The most famous hiker through the Margraviate of Brandenburg, Theodor Fontane , brushed the Fläming on the edge at best and did not devote any section of his five-volume hikes to it . However, in the chapter on Luckenwalde Luch in the forest there are some passages on the Flämingians.

Traditional costumes in Fläming

Fontane gives a description of the historian of the Fläming (Rector Telle zu Jüterbog) from the 1870s as follows: You have a lot of good breeding, are ecclesiastical, serious and moderate in enjoyment. Debauchery and drunkenness are less common with them than anywhere else. Fontane comments on this characterization with the sentence: This is how the “real” Flämingers are.


According to Fontane, there was evidence of Vlämingers in Jüterbog until the 17th century. The Jüterbock Chronicle reports: "In this year (1693) the judge" Dümchen "passed away here on the Neuenmarkt and was the only [sic!] And last" who wore a pointed hat with downed brims "in this area, what fashion was in use here for almost 600 years, and did this hat look like the old Dutch peasants' painting. ” Fontane concludes that from then on the old Dutch costume [disappeared] in these areas, at least in the towns; but “language” and “custom” survived the costume, [...].

However, in 1881 Oskar Schwebel reported that the carnets, d. H. the stiff bonnet with the headscarves protruding like a dove's wing , which was still popular with women in his day . And the Fleming woman is still proud to wear as many skirts as possible on top of each other.

Language - Fleming

The language that, according to Fontane, survived is Flämingplatt ( Flämingisch ), which contains clear remnants of the Dutch language, is one of the Low German Mark-Brandenburg dialects and lasted well into the 20th century.

Fontane remarks in a footnote: How much the language of the “high Vlaming” differs from the usual Brandenburg Platt, the following excellent translation from the Stabat mater may show. It seems to us to be a Low German that at best holds the middle between “Dutch” and “Märkisch-Platt”. The first stanza in this translation of the Stabat mater reads:

By et Krüz met screaming eyes
Hour the mothers live
Doa de osan hung with a nail.
Un in ör cursing resin,
Umgedreyt van Wei and smärt,
Een dörchborend Schlagswärt went.

Kitchen and parties

As part of the Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt cuisine , the Fläming has a number of culinary specialties. The best-known delicacy is the klammkuchen , a dessert that the Flemish people in the 12th / 13th centuries. Century brought with them. The waffle-like cakes are today larger family gatherings and especially for Carnival baked in the traditional way in ornate terminal cake iron over an open flame. While the original dough consisted of rye flour, water, rendered bacon and salt, the ingredients are much more generous today. Butter and sugar are rarely missing from the once flat cakes, which are now often rolled into bags and filled with cream. The museum of local history in Dahme shows, along with eighty others, a clamp from 1571, which is said to be the oldest known specimen. It is also very likely that the Flemings introduced the bacon cake , which is particularly widespread in the Wittenberg area .

Other specialties include trout from the Fläming River and game, mushrooms and potatoes. The tourism association offers a “Culinary Potato Tour” on which the participating inns serve dishes based on innovative recipes for everything to do with potatoes. There are also the following special features in Lutherstadt:

  • Wittenberger cuckoo beer (dark beer)
  • Wittenberg quark stuff
  • "Luther bread" - a pastry specialty from Wikana

The setting up of the Whitsun Maie has a long tradition and even today you can see the high pole adorned with colorful ribbons with a slender birch tree as a crown in many villages. The Fläming wedding rituals and harvest festivals are famous . Old customs like the Easter bonfire were also preserved. There are also local festivals (examples):

  • Spring festival in Jüterbog
  • Summer linden festival on the market in Seyda
  • Belzig old town summer as a medieval knight spectacle in the old town and Eisenhardt Castle.
  • Castle festival several times a year at Rabenstein Castle
  • Mill festival in Marzahna (Treuenbrietzen)
  • Sabinchen Festival in Treuenbrietzen
  • Annual tower festival in Luckenwalde (see next chapter)
  • Reformation festival and other Luther-related celebrations in Wittenberg
  • Quirky scalding trough race on the Niendorf village pond
  • Iconic bed race in Fredersdorf

Feud Jüterbog - Luckenwalde

The Luckenwalder market tower "dropped by the Jüterbogers"

Similar to the way between the Zauche farmers and the stubble saxons across the Belzig landscape meadows (see above ), according to Fontane, there were also violent feuds between the neighboring towns of Jüterbog and Luckenwalde, which had been in the Brandenburg region since 1680: This resulted in endless arguments, most of which were tangible at church consecrations, but in the meantime have been fought out with mockery. “The Jüterbockers wanted to steal the tower from us - that's what the Luckenwalder say - but when the night watchman came, they let him fall again in shock; - Since then he has been standing apart. ”The Jüterbockers retaliated with mockery verses and sang:“ Dear the rod, Than Luckenwalde on the Nuthe ”; but those affected also knew how to make their rhyme and sang for their part: "The girl is from Jüterbock, the shirt is longer than the skirt." That was the feuds in the old Luch in the forest. The final twist alludes to the traditional Flemish costume. In the meantime (around 1880), Fontane continues, [...] the feuds have raged and only in the election battles does the old resentment rise from the grave and divide Jüterbog-Luckenwalde into right and left. Luckenwalde is on the left. Pity! Luch in the forest would have stood on the right.

Different identification with the Fläming

In the general perception, the Fläming is largely associated with the federal state of Brandenburg and only rarely associated with Saxony-Anhalt. This perception is also reflected in travel guides, which as a rule consistently omit the Saxony-Anhalter part and at most, as in one case, dedicate a section to the city of Zerbst. Even a cultural guide published in Dessau portrays himself to be Brandenburg-heavy.

Reissiger house in Bad Belzig
Comprehensive school Otto Unverdorben in Dahme

This phenomenon corresponds to the perception of the residents. While the Brandenburgers emphasize that the 200 meter high Hagelberg is not only the highest Fläming summit, but also the highest peak of the entire north German lowlands, such heights play a subordinate role in the neighboring country, where the Harz Brocken is almost six times higher . The new nature park Fläming / Saxony-Anhalt complains: The regional identity of the citizens with the Fläming is only slightly developed. The nature park administration regards one of its central tasks as one of its central tasks to increase awareness of the culture north of Wittenberg and Coswig and to make the scenic charms of Fläming in Saxony-Anhalt better known. The establishment of the large conservation area, which was not made until 2005, eight years after the neighboring park Hoher Fläming, is an expression of this country difference.


Not only the Wiesenburg poet Hermann Boßdorf, whose high identification with the region runs through his entire work, comes from Fläming, but also the composer Carl Gottlieb Reissiger (1798-1859) from Belzig, who in 1828 succeeded Carl Maria von Weber as Hofkapellmeister in Dresden . Other personalities from the region are, for example, the composer and founder of the "Singe-Academie zu Berlin" Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch (1736–1800) from Zerbst or the botanist Gottlob Ludwig Rabenhorst (1806–1881) and the Boxing Olympic champion Henry Maske (* 1964) from Treuenbrietzen. The pianist and composer Wilhelm Kempff (1895–1991) and the natural scientist and zoologist Johann Friedrich von Brandt (1802–1879), who became director of the zoological department at the Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg , came from Jüterbog . Like many theologians of the Reformation period, the Lutheran reformer Georg Buchholzer (around 1503–1566) was born in Fläming - like his son, the historian Abraham Buchholzer (1529–1584), in Dahme. The discoverer of aniline , the merchant Otto Unverdorben (1806–1873), comes from the same town . The town of Niemegk is proud that in a preserved house next to the town church St. Johannis in 1868/1869 Robert Koch practiced as a doctor for a year and commemorates this episode in the life of the Nobel Prize winner with a plaque .

Economy and economic history

The prosperity of these areas, which at first glance appear so sparsely equipped by nature [...] , was already emphasized by Schwebel in his 1881 Fläming depiction. Crafts and small industries such as mills, glassworks, hut villages (pitching shops), cloth makers, spinning mills, pottery and, above all, forestry and agriculture contributed to this. Today agriculture dominates, which is complemented by a sustainable tourist boom. The Cistercians laid the economic basis for the comparatively good standard of living in Fläming at all times shortly after the founding of the Mark Brandenburg.

Country development by the Cistercians

The two monasteries of Zinna and Lehnin, founded in 1170 and 1180, had the main task of promoting the development of the country with the advanced techniques of the Cistercians in agriculture, handicrafts and mill construction. Both monasteries achieved considerable wealth for their time. In its heyday, the Flämingkloster Zinna owned 40 villages and 1140 Hufen land.

Millstones at the pond of the Springbachmühle
Reconstructed Springbachmühle in Bad Belzig
Tower Dutchman without wings at Groß Marzehns

In an allegedly contemporary report from the 12th century, the citizen of Jüterbog, A. W. Ludwig, describes how the monks laid out the monastery and built a water mill in the barren Fläming : We were all amazed, because the monks did not look like we usually did were used to. They wore long, black and white skirts and carried ax on shoulder and spade in hand. The amazement in the city (Jüterbog) did not want to end when they said they did not go about the country preaching [...]. [...] And when the monastery was finished, they built a water mill on the river. [...] You should have seen what faces the Wends made when the mill first started, because until then they only knew hand mills.

Mills and copper hammer

For centuries the mills remained an essential economic factor in Fläming, which - given the rather dry land - followed in an astonishingly high number and at close distances along the rivers and streams. The Buckau and Nuthen drove many water wheels and there were seven mills between Raben and Gömnigk on the Fläming main river, Plane . Even the smallest bodies of water such as the Belziger Lumpenbach led its water past two mills, the Obermühle and the Kleesen Mühle, before flowing into the Belziger / Fredersdorfer Bach. At the Belziger Bach there were 5 mills, the Schlossmühle, (Engemanns) Mittelmühle , Jaegers Hintermühle (near the Mühlenhölzchen), Oelschlgers Mühle and behind the gymnasium Rieslers Mühle (today Finsterwalder). The even smaller Springbach, which flows in parallel, has had the Springbachmühle, formerly Hannemanns Mühle, since 1749, which was restored in 1998 according to the old model and today forms an ensemble with a restaurant that is well worth seeing with the restoration of the grounds and mill pond.

Eleven watermills stood on the Rossel, which also moved the wooden shaft of the Thießen hammer using a medium-sized water wheel . The technical exhibition facility, which has been restored to its original condition and protected as a historical monument, provides an insight into the craftsmanship 400 years ago.

Post windmill from 1803 in Borne , restored in 1994, on a 156 meter high mountain

Many windmills turned on the draughty Fläming Heights and especially in the Lower Fläming - many hills, as well as the second highest Fläming summit, the 191 meter high Mühlenberg near Wiesenburg, bear witness to the mill times with their names. Most of the structures still in existence today are technical monuments and some are fully functional. The Paltrockmühle in Schönewalde , the last of seven mills near the small town, has a complete range of technical equipment . The Paltrockmühle in the Baruther district of Petkus received a new winged cross in 1995 and the rare tower Dutchman in Naundorf near Seyda in 2001. The wedding mill in Dennewitz , which was previously located in Kaltenborn , still lives up to its name, because here couples can fulfill their dream of a wedding all in white in a post mill .

Smelters, pottery and brickworks

Handwerkerhof Görzke
glassworks , refurbished steelworks building from 1861, now a museum
Workers' house from the 18th century

The high clay deposits in Fläming were used as material for pottery and brickworks and the white, sandy soil was an ideal raw material for glassworks. The forests, which for example in the extensive Brandtsheide forest landscape in Hohen Fläming, produced entire hut villages for tar and charcoal production , ensured the high demand for wood of these companies . The Wiesenburg districts of Jeserigerhütten, Neuehütten, Reetzerhütten and Medewitzerhütten or also the Schweinitzerhütten are reminiscent of the churchless hut settlements with their names. In the 19th century, the purest German wax came from the Brandtsheide, and even in the GDR era, the forest covered 95% of the needs for central walls for beekeepers . The Buchal candle making factory in Reetzerhütten is the only candle manufacturer in Brandenburg today .

To the north of the hut villages, a special pottery tradition developed in Görzke , which began in 1706 when the craftsmen united to form the guild of bottle makers . There are still four potteries working in the small town and the restored pottery market with an attached craftsman's yard offers traditionally made products. Pottery wheels turned in many other Flämingorten like in Dahme. It is known that on July 20, 1563, the Niemegk pottery regulations were revised . Brick factories produced in Niemegk as well as in Reetz until 1990.

The most remarkable of the industrial plants on the eastern part of Fläming is the glassworks in the little town of Baruth on its northern slope [...]. Oskar Schwebel wrote in 1881. The Graf Solmsche Hütte in what is now the Baruther district of Glashütte started work in 1716 and enjoyed an […] unexpected boom. As early as 1844, a special furnace for milk glass with six ports could be built. Even then, around 50,000 lamp bells were made every month. The still most famous of all glass manufacturers in Fläming presented its Baruther lampshades with success at the London World Exhibition in 1851 . The contracts concluded led to milk glass exports to England and America. In just 60 years, from 1815 to 1875, the number had risen from 24 to 440 inhabitants, 218 of whom were employed in the glassworks. 1793, four years after the start of the French Revolution , 15 glassmakers were due to "passing seditious speeches" from the rule Baruth reported .

The listed hut ensemble with the almost untouched glassmaking settlement has developed into a much-visited museum village , which is considered the best preserved glassmaking place in Germany. After the closure of the glassworks in 1980, glassblowers have been working again for the show production since 1998 .

Leash weavers, small industry, garrisons

According to a Fläming report from 1900, the spinning rooms in their old form are long gone [...]. In addition, flax cultivation on the Fläming has decreased significantly. The flax markets in Wittenberg and Jüterbog, which formerly brought together the farmers from all Fläming villages and had mountains of flax to offer, are almost forgotten and are hardly visited today. Jüterbog, in particular, which flourished as a long-distance trading center as early as 1200, developed into the center of draperies and dressmakers in the Middle Ages . The linen weaving trade also flourished in Belzig and Dahme was known for its cloth - in 1813 there were 130 cloth makers in the city.

Dahme was also famous for its shoe factories and especially for cigar production, which began in 1840 when Otto Unverdorben founded the first tobacco factory . In 1928 just under 40 factories were still producing cigars . After the Second World War, production fell significantly and the last factory closed in 1968. Today's small-scale industrial operations in Fläming include Fläminger Spirituosen GmbH in Zahna, which had its forerunner in a jam and fruit juice press from the last third of the 19th century .

While Luckenwalde had developed into an industrial location after the Seven Years' War , the economy collapsed in the handicraft-oriented Jüterbog. In addition to weaving, recovery brought about the development of a garrison location with large barracks in what was then the Altes Lager district . With the rearmament in 1934/1935, numerous other military buildings were built and, as a result, housing estates that were used by the Soviet Army during the GDR era . The museum of the garrison history association Altes Lager documents this time.

Alternative ways of life and economy

In Hohen Fläming there are a number of groups and individuals who try out alternative ways of life. In 1991 a group founded ZEGG GmbH and bought a site in Belzig that was used by the GDR Ministry for State Security until the fall of the Berlin Wall . The ZEGG is an esoteric collective of around 80 people trying out new forms of living together.

Also in 1991 the Berlin addiction support organization Synanon acquired Gut Schmerwitz and founded a large addiction support facility there. Due to economic difficulties in the late 1990s, Synanon sold the property in 2000. Most of the agriculture was taken over by the Schoonhoven family, who run a large organic farm there . The addiction aid association “Scarabäus Hoher Fläming e. V. ”has also taken over part of the Schmerwitz estate and operates an addiction support facility there.

In this environment, several initiatives have developed that implement alternative forms of life and business in various areas.


For tourism marketing in the state of Brandenburg, the Fläming covers a larger area than the geographic region. Places as far as the border with Berlin are marketed under the Fläming trademark, such as Teltow , which lies in its “bacon belt”, and the industrial city of Ludwigsfelde . The areas of Fläming belonging to the state of Saxony-Anhalt, on the other hand, market themselves with the "Travel Region Anhalt-Wittenberg". In addition, there has been the uniform, cross-border and cross-regional Tourismusverband Fläming e. V. based in Beelitz.

The installation of the 230 km long Flaeming-Skate skater and bicycle course was an outstanding investment to boost tourism . In addition to sporting offers, the historical sights of the region and the »Steintherme« in Bad Belzig are advertised .

Since several places in Fläming can be easily reached from Berlin by public or private transport, many visitors to the region do not appear in the overnight stay statistics.

L 121 before dog air
Country road between Medewitz and Stackelitz in central Hohen Fläming
Statistical data on the
Fläming travel region in Brandenburg
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Overnight stays 1,177,400 1,108,700 1,063,600 999.200 1,058,500 1,066,300 1,038,000 1,022,500
Bed offer 9,261 9,721 9,535 8,600 8,424 8,180 8,215 8,067
Bed occupancy 34.8% 31.5% 30.0% 31.7% 34.1% 35.1% 34.9% 34.0%

This placed Fläming in the midfield in terms of bed occupancy.

Traffic routes

There are no airports in the vicinity of the Fläming. The closest airports are Berlin-Schönefeld and Leipzig / Halle . In the extensive bus network , Bad Belzig forms a junction with a bus station . The European long-distance hiking trail E11 ( Netherlands - Masuria ) and the European cycle path R1 ( Calais - Saint Petersburg ) run through the ridge .


Two motorways touch the Fläming. The A 2 Berliner Ring - Oberhausen runs past the northwestern edge of Fläming and has three junctions on the ridge with Wollin , Ziesar and Theeßen . The A 9 Berlin - Munich cuts through the Fläming roughly in the middle from northeast to southwest and also has three junctions with Niemegk , Klein Marzehns and Köselitz . The A 13 Berliner Ring - Dresden passes a few kilometers from the eastern edge of Fläming and offers fast connections to Fläming from the Baruth and Staakow junctions.

The trapezoidal Fläming segment, which is wider in the south, between the motorways 9 and 13 is further segmented by the federal highways 2 , 101 and 96 , which also mainly run from north to south and are subsequently arranged from west to east , with the B 96 already outside Fläming runs. The B 107 runs mostly to the west of the A9 and crosses it in the south of the ridge; The B 184 runs even further to the west and is mainly directed to the south-east.

Landstrasse 95 between Görzke and Dangelsdorf

The B 246 connects Möckern and Bad Belzig, which forms part of the Deutsche Alleenstraße near Bad Belzig, “across” from west to east . The Alleenstraße goes from Bad Belzig on a country road via Wiesenburg to Wittenberg and past Rabenstein Castle, which guarded the traditional medieval trading route . The B 102 leads from Bad Belzig via Treuenbrietzen and Jüterbog to Dahme, the course of which corresponds to the old salt road to which the town owes its creation . The B 115 , which connects the capital of the Lower Fläming with Baruth and Golßen , begins in Jüterbog . The B 101 runs from the Zinna monastery south to the Elbe-Elster-Land , spread over three districts and two federal states through the Niedere Fläming. To the south of Jüterbog , the route initially runs over the main ridge of the western Lower Fläming, followed by a passage through the heavily forested southern Vorfläming. In the Sachsen-Anhalter part, the B 187a runs between Zerbst and Coswig via Hundeluft through the Hohen Fläming. Country roads and many old cobblestone avenues complete the national road network, which has been renovated and expanded since the fall of the Wall.


Train station in Bad Belzig
Decommissioned Brandenburg city railway near Preussnitz

Bad Belzig, Wiesenburg, Medewitz, Jeber-Bergfrieden and Thießen are stops on the Wetzlarer Bahn , the railway line between Berlin and Dessau . The Regional Express (RE 7) runs every hour from Berlin to Bad Belzig and every two hours to Dessau. A section of this so-called cannon line between Bad Belzig and Calbe was shut down in December 2004. The RB 33, which stops in Treuenbrietzen and Altes Lager, runs between Berlin and Jüterbog. The RE 4 connects Berlin and Jüterbog on the Anhalter Bahn route via Luckenwalde and runs as RE 5 via the Niedergörsdorf , Blönsdorf, Klebitz, Zahna and Bülzig stations on to Wittenberg. On the route of the Berlin-Dresden Railway , the RE 3 runs between Berlin and Elsterwerda partly through the Fläming and stops in Baruth.

In addition, some tracks of disused railways run through the Fläming. The Dahme-Uckroer Railway connected Dahme through the lower Fläming with Berlin since 1884. Passenger traffic has been idle since 1968 and freight traffic also ended in 1993. Between 1899 and 1965, Dahme was also connected to the rail network via the Jüterbog-Luckenwalder Kreiskleinbahnen. The Brandenburg city railway , which was closed in 2003, connected Treuenbrietzen with Neustadt (Dosse) and had various other train stations in Fläming in addition to Bad Belzig.

The Fläming in literature, music and art

In 1881, Oskar Schwebel stated in his description of the region: The Fläming landscape is monotonous, but by no means lacks a poetic charm.

Poetry, fairy tales and the song for Saxony-Anhalt

Ludwig Bechstein , creator of the blacksmith from Jüterbog
“Unter Kiefern” by Susken Rosenthal

Capturing this poetic charm was not only achieved by the above-mentioned dialect lyricist Hermann Boßdorf from Wiesenburg, but more recently also by many poets and writers in the literary center of Fläming, Wiepersdorf Castle in Ländeken Bärwalde. And even more recently, the nature park associations have been trying to find artistic impulses that put the mountain range at the center of their works. People like Der Schmied von Jüterbog were at the center of old sagas and stories . The folk tale of the same name was published in 1845 by the writer Ludwig Bechstein in his German book of fairy tales . The story, which is almost forgotten today, was still very important to Oskar Schwebel in 1881 and the cunning main character of the latter was one of the most popular characters in German fairy tales . The song for Saxony-Anhalt exudes a particularly poetic charm, which emerged victorious in a state competition in 1991 in which Saxony-Anhalt was looking for a state anthem . So far, however, the song has hardly found acceptance among the population and has no official function. The first stanza says:

This song goes to all hearts that
glow for Harz and Fläming,
the Elbe should also be home to us,
Saxony-Anhalt proud and bold.

Art Land of Hoher Fläming

Since 2004 there has been an initiative by artists and other actors from the region to carry out artistic projects in the Hoher Fläming Nature Park under the umbrella brand “kunst landhoch fläming ”. In 2004, a sculpture garden was set up in the Wiesenburg Castle Park. In 2006, artists from the region designed the Hoher Fläming Art Trail , a 2.5-kilometer circular hiking trail near Hagelberg with eight installations made from natural materials from the area such as life after the Ice Age , the trail of stones , a view of the willow trees , forest and meadow sofas or stone snakes . The Hoher Fläming art hiking trail was opened between Wiesenburg and Bad Belzig in August 2007 , in this case with ten works by artists from all over Germany, which were determined in an art competition. The winners of the competition were Susken Rosenthal from Baitz im Hohen Fläming ("Unter Kiefern"), Susanne Ruoff from Berlin ("Intermezzo") and Joerg Schlinke from Lühburg near Potsdam ("The Hunt"). Wolfgang Buntrock and Frank Schulze from Hanover received an award from the jury for their work "Waterfall for the Fläming". F.

Hamlet and Faust in Wittenberg

The Hamlethaus in Wittenberg

The cultural and historical importance of the region and the importance of Wittenberg University in the Middle Ages are reflected in the fact that two of the most famous people in literature are connected to Wittenberg, one real, the other fictional. Shakespeare had his Prince of Denmark study at the Leucorea , where Hamlet , Laertes, Rosenkranz and Güldenstern formed the world-famous four Wittenberg students of Shakespeare's tragedy. The Hamlet House in Lutherstadt is unlikely to have been a place of study for the real Hamlet, who lived around 1200, since the Leucorea was only founded in 1502.

The historical magician , astrologer and fortune teller Johann Georg Faust , whose life formed the basis for Faust literature, plays and compositions as well as for Goethe's Faust , is said to have studied theology in Wittenberg and dealt with Melanchthon there. On December 30, 2004, the premiere of Johannes Faust - Life and Death of a Wittenberger took place on the Wittenberg stage, which was staged by the Italian director Fernando Scarpa as well as the journey with Faust on historical pavement for the Wittenberg district on June 19, 2005.

Where the park sleeps with the forest - Wiepersdorf

The literary center of Fläming was and is Wiepersdorf Castle in Niedere Fläming, which is located where the park sleeps with the forest , as the poet Sarah Kirsch wrote in her 1976 Wiepersdorf cycle of eleven parts. The former residence of the romantic poet couple Bettina and Achim von Arnim served as a work and recreation home for deserving writers and artists during the GDR era. After the fall of the Wall, the castle continued the literary tradition and today, as an artist house, offers a home to scholarship holders .

Pond and Callot figures at Wiepersdorf Castle

In addition to Sarah Kirsch, other well-known GDR writers such as Anna Seghers , Christa Wolf , Peter Hacks , Arnold Zweig , Karl Mickel , Thomas Rosenlöcher and Peter Huchel were guests in Wiepersdorf . The Fläming flows into many stories and poems that bring the character of the landscape and its people to light. In 1963, Huchel dedicated the volume of poems Chausseen, Chausseen to the quiet country roads with their cobblestones and wrote about Wiepersdorf: Then it's quiet. The pond of toads, the scaly green algae glimmer only sounds plaintive and thin and hollow, a metallic hall sunk in night. Sarah Kirsch's Wiepersdorf cycle also contains the following lines:

"In Wiepersdorf I saw old women
carrying peonies across the churchyard.
The red leaves were falling off
and were lying on the stone slabs."

Geographic statistics

According to the natural structure in the Handbook of Natural Structure in Germany, the Fläming represents the main natural unit group 85 and is divided into 9 main units.


Geology, hydrography and onomatology

  • Werner Stackebrandt, Volker Manhenke (Ed.): Atlas for the geology of Brandenburg. 2nd Edition. State Office for Geosciences and Raw Materials Brandenburg (today State Office for Mining, Geology and Raw Materials Brandenburg, LBGR), 2002, ISBN 3-9808157-0-6 .
  • Reinhard E. Fischer , Jürgen Neuendorf, Joachim Reso: Around Belzig. Place and field names, boulders and trees, streams and ponds. (= Anniversary series on the history of Belzig. Book 4). Publisher: Förderkreis Museum Burg Eisenhardt Belzig e. V., the foreword is from 1997. DNB 964455366 . Zum Hagelberg, p. 19 f.
  • Reinhard E. Fischer: The place names of the states of Brandenburg and Berlin. (= Brandenburg historical studies. Volume 13). be.bra Wissenschaft verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-937233-30-X , Zum Hagelberg p. 73.
  • L. Lippstreu, N. Hermsdorf, A. Sonntag: Geological overview map of the state of Brandenburg 1: 300,000 - explanations. Potsdam 1997, ISBN 3-7490-4576-3 .

Historical literature and historical presentations

  • Theodor Fontane : Walks through the Mark Brandenburg . Part 4: Spreeland . Quotations from the Ullstein edition, Frankfurt am Main / Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-548-24381-9 . The information can be found in the chapter: Luch im Wald (Luckenwalde) pp. 527-534, which is not included in the first edition in 1882 and various later editions and in the Ullstein edition used as an appendix under the heading of essays from the thematic environment of “walks “ Is reproduced.
  • A. Mariaschk: The Fläming. In: Pestalozzi Association of the Province of Brandenburg (ed.): The Province of Brandenburg in words and pictures. Julius Klinkhardt, Berlin 1900, pp. 421-425.
  • A. Mariaschk: Zinna Monastery. In: Pestalozzi Association of the Province of Brandenburg (ed.): The Province of Brandenburg in words and pictures. Julius Klinkhardt, Berlin 1900, pp. 433-436.
  • Lutz Partenheimer : Albrecht the Bear. 2nd Edition. Böhlau, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-412-16302-3 .
  • Lutz Partenheimer: German rule formation in Fläming during the 12th and 13th centuries. Dissertation . University of Potsdam, 1988. (full text)
  • Lutz Partenheimer: The emergence of the Mark Brandenburg . With a Latin-German source attachment. 1st and 2nd edition, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2007.
  • Oskar Schwebel: Hikes in the Mark Brandenburg. The southern ridge of the lowlands with the Fläming. In: Ernst Friedel , Oskar Schwebel: Pictures from the Mark Brandenburg . Otto Spamer, Leipzig 1881, pp. 415-446.
  • Stephan Warnatsch, History of the Lehnin Monastery 1180–1542. (= Studies on the history, art and culture of the Cistercians. Volume 12.1). Lukas, Berlin 2000 (also: Berlin, Freie Universität, dissertation, 1999), ISBN 3-931836-45-2 .
  • Heinrich Glöß: Tour of the Titans - How the Fläming is always rediscovered. In: The Mark Brandenburg. Issue 75, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-910134-11-9 .

Travel and culture guide

  • Jan Feustel : Between watermills and swamp forests, a travel and adventure guide to the Baruther glacial valley. Hendrik Bäßler Verlag, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-930388-11-1 .
  • Hillert Ibbeken: The medieval field and quarry stone churches of Fläming. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-8305-0039-4 .
  • Christa and Johannes Jankowiak: On the way to Nuthe and Nieplitz. Portrait of a Brandenburg landscape. On old tracks and new paths. Stapp Verlag, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-87776-061-9 .
  • Heinz G. Nitschke, Jan Feustel: Discoveries in Fläming. Hendrik Bäßler Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-930388-35-9 .
  • Viola Pfeifer: Feldsteinkirchen in Fläming. An art history guide. Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-930541-18-1 .
  • Carsten Rasmus, Bettina Rasmus: Der Fläming, adventure guide. KlaRas Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-933135-14-1 .
  • Bernd G. Ulbrich : The Fläming. A guide through his culture. edition RK, Dessau 2002, ISBN 3-934388-02-7 .

Web links

Commons : Naturpark Hoher Fläming  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Commons : Fläming Nature Park  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Fläming  - travel guide

Individual references (footnotes)

  1. ^ Emil Meynen , Josef Schmithüsen u. a .: Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960).
  2. The Fläming. State Farmers' Association Brandenburg e. V., archived from the original on December 13, 2009 ; Retrieved August 13, 2013 .
  3. On the thesis that goes back to Friedrich Solger , supported by Dieter Noeske, see for example: Gut Schmerwitz, Landschaftsästhetisches Hofportrait, chapter "Landschaftliche Eigenart" (online) ( Memento from April 23, 2010 in the Internet Archive ); on icing etc. see literature atlas for the geology of Brandenburg
  4. Information on the soil associations is available on the website of the State Office for Mining, Geology and Raw Materials of the State of Brandenburg (online)
  5. Climate data from M. Hendl (1994): The climate of the North German lowlands. In: H. Liedtke, J. Marcinek (Ed.): Physical geography of Germany. 559 pp., Gotha, ISBN 3-623-00840-0 .
  6. Jankowiak, p. 10. The name Kleiner Fläming is possibly related to the fact that the villages Blankensee and Stangenhagen formed a Saxon exclave in this corner for centuries until 1815, see chapter "Kurkreis und Grenzkurs ...". In addition, the Glauer Berge in the center of the corner - atypical for the lowlands - are reminiscent of a hilly landscape like in Fläming.
  7. Fläming Nature Park e. V. ("Fläming Nature Park / Saxony-Anhalt") (online)
  8. Rasmus ..., p. 138.
  9. ^ State of Brandenburg, Project Management Plan for Wolves in Brandenburg. brandenburg.de ( Memento from November 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF).
  10. Report on the sighting at Baitz: Märkische Allgemeine, January 2nd, 2006 Page no longer available , search in web archives: online  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; The author of the section received the information about the Flemmingwiesen from a hunting guide on site.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.maerkischeallgemeine.de@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.maerkischeallgemeine.de  
  11. Distribution area of ​​wolves in Germany and western Poland ( Memento from April 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Fischer, Neuendorf, Reso ... p. 20.
  13. Quoted from Winfried Schich : City development in the area between the Elbe and Oder in the transition from the Slavic to the German period. Observations on the relationship between law, economy and topography using the example of cities in the Mark Brandenburg. In: Wolfgang H. Fritze (Ed.): Germania Slavica I. (= Berlin historical studies. Volume 1). Berlin 1980, p. 209, note 87.
  14. Helmut Assing: The beginnings of Ascanian rule in the areas east of the Elbe. In: Friedrich Beck, Klaus Neitmann (Hrsg.): Brandenburg State History and Archive Studies. Festschrift for Lieselott Enders on her 70th birthday, 1997, pp. 21–35.
  15. Quoted from Carsten Rasmus ..., p. 151.
  16. ^ Euper - district of Wittenberg
  17. Mitteldeutsche Kirchenstraße, exhibition Wittenberg 2005 online ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  18. Partenheimer S. 152, the idea is Partenheimer by Helmut Assing again
  19. Compare Warnatsch p. 26f, Partenheimer p. 154, 191.
  20. Jan Feustel : Between watermills and swamp forests ... 1999, p. 164. “Stubble Saxons”, because the Brandenburgers like to assume that the Saxons should shave once a week at best.
  21. quoted from Jankowiak, p. 73.
  22. The number of desertions is called "desert density" and is calculated with the help of a "desert ratio" . The desolation quotient indicates the percentage of the original settlements that have fallen desolately.
  23. a b Fischer, Neuendorf, Reso… pp. 9–43.
  24. Theo Engeser and Konstanze Stehr, Dangelsdorf (ruin) (former village church) (online)
  25. Brandenburg State Environment Agency, Hoher Fläming Nature Park, section “Landscape, Cultural Landscape, 20th Century”. (on-line)
  26. Martin Luther , see also Judensau
  27. Rasmus ..., p. 22.
  28. Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Zahna informs, p. 4 img.wekacityline.de ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF).
  29. Quotation and representation from the information boards on the village green in Schmerwitz, as of October 2006.
  30. ^ Theodor Fontane, Wanderings ..., p. 530.
  31. ^ A b Theodor Fontane: Wanderings…. P. 529 f.
  32. a b Schwebel ..., p. 417.
  33. ^ Theodor Fontane, Wanderings ..., p. 534.
  34. Fläming Nature Park e. V., page We introduce ourselves , subpage Weaknesses (online)
  35. For more information on the development of the country by the Cistercians and on the motivation of the Ascanians in the development of the country, see Lehnin Monastery in detail
  36. A. Mariaschk quotes in 1900 in Die Provinz Brandenburg from the “Städtebild” Die Fläminger from the 12th century the apparently Jüterbog citizen A. W. Ludwig; s. Lit. A. Mariaschk: Kloster Zinna ..., p. 434.
  37. ^ Heinz G. Nitschke: Of pitch burners, brick burners and hardworking craftsmen. In: Heinz G. Nitschke, Jan Feustel: Discoveries in Fläming. 2006, p. 37.
  38. Schwebel ..., p. 429.
  39. Feustel ..., p. 27 f.
  40. A. Mariaschk ..., Der Fläming , ... p. 424.
  41. Article on alternative development in Hohen Fläming, magazine, "Sein"
  42. Tourism Barometer Annual Report 2009, Ostdeutscher Sparkassen- und Giroverband
  43. Nitschke, Feustel ..., p. 123.
  44. Schwebel ..., p. 418.
  45. For Schwebel see p. 421; Schwebel also attributes the fairy tale Der Schmied von Jüterbog to the Brothers Grimm. The fairy tale is reproduced in the reprint of Ludwig Bechstein's German Fairy Tale Book (1845), published in 2003 by Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, ISBN 3-487-11991-9 . The fairy tale is also available online.
  46. Website of the sponsoring association Naturparkverein Fläming e. V.
  47. a b Sarah Kirsch: Wiepersdorf. Cycle of poems. First in the volume of poetry Rückwind , Aufbau-Verlag , Berlin 1976. Now included in various volumes of poetry by Sarah Kirsch.
  48. Peter Huchel: Collected works in two volumes . Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1984; see therein also the poem Wiepersdorf the Arminian graves .
  49. List of all natural spatial main units in Germany according to the manual of the natural spatial structure of Germany
  50. The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) lists the Fläming with identical demarcation under D11 .

Coordinates: 52 ° 0 ′  N , 12 ° 45 ′  E