Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (born March 13, 1781 in Neuruppin ; † October 9, 1841 in Berlin ) was a Prussian builder , architect , town planner , painter , graphic artist , medalist and set designer who played a decisive role in shaping classicism and historicism in Prussia . As head of the Oberbaudeputation, he was responsible for an auditing department that checked almost all state building projects for the Kingdom of Prussia from an economic, functional and aesthetic point of view. Schinkel was Oberlandesbaudirektor and architect of the king. His buildings still shape the cityscape of central Berlin today . The Schinkel School , which consists of several generations of architects who were under his style-forming influence, was named after him .
Youth and Studies
Karl Friedrich came as the son of Johann Cuno Christoph and Dorothea Schinkel, geb. Rose, born in Neuruppin . He was the second of five children. His father worked as archdeacon and superintendent of the churches and schools in the district. For the first few years, Schinkel grew up in a Protestant rectory until he lost his father at the age of six, who had contracted fatal pneumonia while extinguishing a devastating fire in Neuruppin . Then the family moved to the preacher's widow's house. In 1794 they moved to Berlin. There Schinkel was a student at the Berlin Gymnasium for the Gray Monastery . He was musically and gifted in drawing, otherwise his academic achievements are not worth mentioning. In Berlin at that time, the young Friedrich Gilly was considered the rising talent among German architects. Shortly before, he had caused a stir with his draft monument for Frederick the Great . After visiting an exhibition with architectural drawings by Friedrich Gilly, Schinkel's professional goal was clear: he wanted to become a master builder and began drawing at an early age. In 1798 Schinkel left grammar school and became a pupil and close friend of Friedrich Gilly and his father David . From 1798 he attended their private building school in Berlin, where he lived like all the other architecture students. In 1799 he also enrolled as a student at the newly founded Berlin Building Academy . The training was practice-oriented. It only provided for teaching hours in winter; the students spent the summer on the construction site. In addition, Schinkel enriched his training by attending lectures at the Academy of Fine Arts. The duration of his studies is uncertain. His name no longer appears in the registers as early as 1800; his mother died that year. However, Schinkel was one of the first to take the specialist examinations for the civil service and to obtain the title of site manager or site inspector. After the early death of his friend Friedrich Gilly on August 3, 1800, he continued his building projects under the direction of David Gilly , which also included the classicist Owińska Castle . He planned the Pomona Temple on the Pfingstberg in Potsdam , it is the first building that was carried out.
Educational trip and painting
Schinkel undertook his first trip to Italy in 1803 , the importance of which for his artistic career is beyond doubt. During the trip, he recorded impressions with open eyes and recorded them in sketches, diary entries and letters. Numerous landscape drawings and watercolors outweigh pure architectural photographs. At that time, Joseph Anton Koch and other painters regarded him more as a landscape painter than an architect. The outstanding position of painting in Schinkel's entire life's work can be recognized by the fact that he continued to devote himself to painting even later, when his duties as an architect became ever greater. Ultimately, painting and architecture cannot be sharply separated in his work.
You can recognize the architect in his pictures and the painter in his buildings. On his educational trip he stayed for weeks in Dresden , Prague and Vienna as well as in Trieste and other old Adriatic cities. When he and his travel companion Johann Gottfried Steinmeyer , who later became the architect of Putbus , witnessed a piquant scene in the neighboring room in a hostel, Schinkel preached "calm and taming" as the "noblest of people". He reached Rome via Venice , Padua , Ferrara , Bologna , Florence and Siena . There he met Wilhelm von Humboldt and made him a friend. In April 1804 he traveled on to Naples and climbed Mount Vesuvius . He considered a three-month trip to Sicily to be the culmination of his trip. There, too, he made numerous drawings and sketches of landscapes or architectural impressions. The way back took him via Pisa , Livorno , Genoa , Milan , Turin and Lyon to Paris , where he arrived in December 1804 and visited the booty art of Bonaparte in the Musee Napoleon, among other places . In 1805 Schinkel returned to Berlin via Strasbourg , Frankfurt and Weimar .
After the defeat by the French in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt , it was not possible to carry out major construction projects in Prussia. Since Schinkel was not only a talented architect but also a painter, he increasingly used the space for paintings. The architecture also shaped the character of his subsequent pictures, which often focus on utopian and ideal cityscapes. From 1807 to 1815 he painted panoramas and dioramas for Wilhelm Ernst Gropius (1765–1852), who ran a café in Schinkel's house at the time and from 1806 had owned a mask factory and a puppet theater . His son Karl Wilhelm Gropius , who was a decorative painter, publisher, showman and from 1820 royal theater inspector, was also one of Schinkel's circle of friends. In 1807, in Berlin occupied by French troops, Schinkel showed the first panorama pictures, including Constantinople and Jerusalem. The panorama of Palermo was particularly successful in 1808. When the royal couple Friedrich Wilhelm III, who fled from Napoleon . and Luise returned from East Prussia in December 1809 , Schinkel's new panorama pictures were shown. On August 17, 1809, Schinkel married Susanne Berger , the daughter of a Szczecin wine merchant. The marriage took place in the St. Jacobi Church . Together they had four children: Marie (* 1810), Susanne (* 1811), Karl Raphael (* 1813) and Elisabeth (* 1822).
In the Oberbaudeputation
On the mediation of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Schinkel got a job in 1810, first as a department head for artistic questions and then as a secret senior building assessor at the Berlin senior building deputation. For the Berlin City Palace he designed the interior of the Queen Luises rooms . Together with Clemens Brentano , with whom he had an inseparable friendship, he visited Count Hermann von Pückler-Muskau in 1811 . At that time he lived for a short time in the house with the 99 sheep's heads . He was appointed a member of the Berlin Academy of the Arts. At Christmas, Schinkel showed the panorama picture The Moscow Fire , which had only taken place in the same year. On March 13, 1813, he was asked to design the Iron Cross from a sketch by the king. According to the document of March 10, 1813, which was backdated to Queen Luise's birthday, it was to be donated solely for the wars of liberation , as the submission to Napoleon and the flight of the royal couple from Berlin was felt to be an iron time . It was the first award in Prussia that anyone could be bestowed on their bravery regardless of their rank. In 1814 Schinkel replaced the laurel wreath trophy of the Schadow Quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate with an Iron Cross wreathed with oak leaves and crowned by an eagle to celebrate the return of the sculpture that had been carried off to Paris to Berlin and the victory over Napoleonic troops. The Iron Cross was reissued again and again and it is still the emblem of the Bundeswehr today . In 1814 Schinkel moved to Friedrichstrasse. In the academy exhibition he showed the oil paintings Schloss am See and Altan with a distant view . As panoramas for Christmas he created two views of the island of Elba, where Napoleon was first exiled. After the death of Paul Ludwig Simon in 1815, he was appointed a secret senior building officer and was finally able to devote himself to his actual profession, architecture. In this position he was not only responsible for transforming Berlin into a representative capital for Prussia, but also for projects in the Prussian territories from the Rhineland in the west to Königsberg in the east. After the Napoleonic wars, there was a demand for inexpensive solutions for the masses of construction projects due to a tight budget.
“European architecture [is] synonymous with Greek architecture in its continuation. No masquerade - to make the necessary construction beautiful is a principle of Greek architecture and must remain a principle for its continuation. "
State buildings and appraisals
From 1815 onwards, Schinkel realized important state buildings such as the Königswache , the theater and the Altes Museum. He also acted as a reviewer. Together with his wife Susanne and their daughter Marie, he traveled to Weimar and visited Johann Wolfgang von Goethe there . Among other things, he prepared several reports on Cologne Cathedral , which he had met on a trip in 1816 as a ruinous torso, and which inspired him so much that he campaigned for the salvation of what had been preserved and the continued construction. How important painting was to him for his work as an architect can be seen from the fact that Schinkel wanted to design the area around Cologne Cathedral from his own painting, which he had created three years earlier. He later pleaded against the decay and demolition of historical buildings and had historical monuments created . The Royal National Theater on Gendarmenmarkt, built by Carl Gotthard Langhans , burned down almost completely on July 29, 1817. The architect Carl Ferdinand Langhans submitted building plans for the rebuilding, but they were not approved. From 1818 it was built according to Schinkel's plans. During the construction phase he worked closely with Carl von Brühl , the artistic director of the royal theater in Berlin. Together with Christian Daniel Rauch and Christian Friedrich Tieck he visited Goethe in 1820. In May 1821 the theater with Iphigenie was inaugurated by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. On June 18, 1821 celebrated Freischütz by Carl Maria von Weber its world premiere as a German opera.
“Herr Privy Rath Schinkel introduced me to the intentions of his new theater building, and at the same time presented invaluable landscape pen drawings that he had won on a trip to Tyrol. Messrs. Tieck and Rauch modeled my bust, the former also a profile of friend Knebel. A lively, even passionate, art entertainment ensued, and I could count these days among the most beautiful of the year. [...] The friends went to Weimar, where I followed them and repeatedly enjoyed the most pleasant hours. In the few days there had been so much productive, design and execution, planning and preparation, instructive and enjoyable things that the memory of them had to prove to be constantly revitalized. "
The result was the oil painting Schloss am Strom . Schinkel was appointed professor of architecture and a member of the Senate of the Berlin Academy of the Arts . However, he did not give any lectures, only held exams and judged as a juror in juries. From 1819 to 1840 he published 28 booklets of his collection of architectural drafts with a total of 174 large-format drawings engraved in copper. In these booklets you can also see the plans for his so-called architectural textbook . Schinkel did not want to write a hermetically sealed textbook, as it was wrongly reconstructed from his estate after his death, but responded dynamically and flexibly to every new building project.
Business and art trips
In the summer of 1821, Schinkel and his family traveled to Stettin for five weeks . He also spent a week on Rügen . He prepared a detailed report on Cologne Cathedral. From 1822 to 1837, Schinkel published the models for manufacturers and craftsmen together with Christian Peter Wilhelm Beuth . They found reference for these works from Aloys Hirt , the archaeologist and historian, in his 1809 book Die Baukunst nach der Grunds der Alten (panels): Fifty copper panels on architecture according to the principles of the ancients - Berlin, 1809 . This elaborate work with large-format copperplate engravings was an extensive collection of images of shapes and patterns that were mainly based on antiquity. As an aesthetic guide for trade schools and producers, it should contribute to the unity of usefulness and beauty in everyday objects and promote the beginning industrialization of Prussia. Schinkel moved into his new residence at Unter den Linden 4a. His daughter Elisabeth was born on August 17, 1822. In 1823, Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm was given Stolzenfels Castle on the Rhine for his wedding , and Schinkel drew up the first plans for the renovation. In 1824 he went on a business trip to Italy to collect information about the arrangement of works of art in museums. He had received the order from Minister Karl vom Stein zum Altenstein to place his trip in direct connection with the building of the museum and the building of the collection in Berlin. His travel companions on this second trip to Italy were Gustav Friedrich Waagen , the Chief Finance Officer August Kerll (1782–1855) and the court medalist Henri-François Brandt (1789–1845). In a letter at the end of the trip, Schinkel complained to his wife about the jokes of Brandt, who had become “trivial”. “Apart from some fun he made us, he didn't help us, but we did him.” On the way back he visited Goethe in Weimar again. In 1825 Schinkel painted his last important painting A Glance in Greece's Bloom . The youngest daughter of the king Princess Luise received it as a present for her wedding to Prince Friedrich of the Netherlands . Schinkel began designing the Charlottenhof Palace , the St. Nikolai Church in Potsdam and the town hall in Kolberg in 1826. He and his friend Beuth, the promoter of Prussian industrialization, went on a journey of several months via France to England and Scotland to discover the To study architecture and the comparatively highly developed engineering . He has documented the impressions of this trip in detail in diary entries, letters and sketches . For the 7th edition of the Brockhaus encyclopedia in 1827 he wrote the article Schinkel (Karl Friedrich) himself . It is his only autobiography.
Head of the Oberbaudeputation
On New Year's Eve 1828 Schinkel was invited to a celebration in the palace of Prince Carl of Prussia , and the king also took part. From the end of July to September 1830, Schinkel traveled with his entire family via Switzerland to Milan and Venice . In September the foundation stone was laid for the Nikolaikirche in Potsdam. On October 23, the king visited the Friedrichswerder Church . On November 27, a bust of Schinkel designed by Tieck was placed in the stairwell of the Altes Museum. On December 16, he was promoted to the secret senior building director and head of the senior building deputation as successor to Johann Albert Eytelwein . The Oberbaudeputation was an auditing department that examined all state building projects for the Kingdom of Prussia that exceeded 500 thalers in economic, functional and aesthetic terms. Schinkel reserved the right to revise all drafts, which led to a stylistic optimization of the public buildings throughout Prussia. The Schinkel style became fashion. He had felt overworked for a long time and was in poor health. He went to Marienbad for the first time in 1831 , followed by numerous other spa stays. In 1834, Schinkel made a proposal for a palace on the Acropolis of Athens with extensive plans and drawings. Together with his wife Susanne he went on a business trip in the summer of 1835 that took him to Rügen . There the couple stayed in the lighthouse on Cape Arkona . In 1836 they moved into the new official apartment on the upper floor of the Berlin Building Academy . He drafted the plans for the palace and the Erdmannsdorf church , which he dealt with very intensively. He took the whole family on a business trip to Silesia , followed by a cure in the Bohemian baths and Bad Gastein . In 1838 Schinkel was appointed Oberlandesbaudirektor , so that as the king's architect he had reached the height of his master builder career. He designed the Orianda Castle in Crimea , which was never built. In the same year Franz Kugler published the first monograph on him. In September he completed his last report on the construction of Cologne Cathedral. The foundation stone for Kamenz Castle was laid on the Crown Prince's birthday on October 18, 1838 .
Sickness and death
Since the late 1830s, his health was weakened, but Schinkel hardly reduced his enormous workload. In a letter to Princess Marianne in 1839, he mentioned his poor health. When he took the train to Potsdam in the spring of 1840, he suffered paralysis in his right hand. In July he was in Bad Gastein for a cure and was shocked to find that his sense of smell was getting worse and worse and in the end it went completely out. After the king's death, he missed the coronation ceremonies of Frederick William IV, which he perceived as an offense. At one last meeting, a few sarcastic words were uttered, after which the king simply let him stand. In Berlin in September 1840, Schinkel probably suffered several strokes with hemiplegia on the right side and a visual and speech impairment. After a year of illness, he died in his official apartment at the Berlin Building Academy. The autopsy revealed severe arteriosclerosis of the cerebral vessels as the cause of his stroke. He was buried on October 12, 1841. His grave of honor in the cemetery of the Dorotheenstädtische and Friedrichswerder communities is in the department CAL G1. It wears a portrait medallion made by August Kiß as jewelry . King Friedrich Wilhelm IV bought the artistic estate for a museum in 1842. On the initiative of the king, the first Schinkel Museum was set up in his apartment on the second floor of the Berlin Bauakademie. It existed there from 1844 to 1873 and is considered the forerunner of later artist museums. Today the Friedrichswerder Church , which he built, is known as the Schinkel Museum, where, among other things, there is an exhibition on his life and work. Schinkel's style-forming work in Prussia led through his famous students Ludwig Persius and Friedrich August Stüler to a design tradition that, in retrospect, has been referred to as the Schinkel School .
Schinkel was not only the classicist star architect of the Kingdom of Prussia , he also achieved outstanding achievements in the areas of interior architecture, design and painting. He was influenced by the subtle classicism of his teacher Friedrich Gilly , which is related to the French revolutionary architecture . Its clear design language is in harmony with the Prussian Enlightenment with its departure from the concave and convex swinging, exuberant facades of the Baroque . The work The Antiquities of Athens by the architects James Stuart and Nicholas Revett , published in 1762, had a major influence on Schinkel and his contemporaries . Shape, dimensions, details and use of ancient elements are no longer solely dependent on the talent and imagination of the architect. For example, if the Doric column is still on a base in Carl Gotthard Langhans ' Brandenburg Gate from 1788 , Schinkel dispenses with it in his Neue Wache due to his knowledge of ancient sites . Its most famous buildings can be found in Berlin and Potsdam . One of the highlights of his work is the playhouse (1819–1821) on Gendarmenmarkt , which replaced an older theater that was destroyed by fire in 1817. After the partial destruction in World War II, the building was reconstructed in the 1980s. The Altes Museum is one of the most important buildings ; it was the first public museum in Berlin and completed the urban planning of the pleasure garden opposite the royal palace. This was based on a design that he had developed together with his close friend, the chief building officer and later director of the building academy Johann Carl Ludwig Schmid . In 1821 he drew a design for the building of the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin , which was approved but rejected because of the high costs in favor of a design by Carl Theodor Ottmer . As early as 1812, Schinkel - who was friends with Sing-Akademie director Carl Friedrich Zelter , was made an honorary member of the Zelterschen Liedertafel in 1813 and his wife sang in the Sing-Akademie choir - made the design for a concert hall at the Royal Academy of the Arts , which, however, was also not carried out. In Marienwerder in West Prussia , his colleague Salomo Sachs took over the construction management of church buildings based on his designs from 1816 to 1820 as building inspector for the royal government. In 1825 he designed on behalf of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. the later so-called normal church Schinkel , for which his first church building, the St. Nicolai Church in Magdeburg's Neue Neustadt , completed a year earlier, served as a model. The simple classicistic round arch building was built to save costs in villages like Lütte and small towns in Prussia. Between 1827 and 1828 he designed one of the first department stores for a location on Unter den Linden , which, like many of his great ideas, was not implemented.
It is true that the Rococo and the English Baroque already knew some imitations of the Gothic style. This tendency was only strengthened under the influence of Romanticism at the beginning of the 19th century. The neo-Gothic style refers back to the Middle Ages in order to transfigure this historical epoch as the golden age and to extend it into the present. In addition to his classicist buildings, Schinkel also redesigned the Gothic language of forms , thereby anticipating historicism and eclecticism . The young Schinkel recognized a connection between the Gothic and nature as a haven of freedom. The Gothic works as random and free architecture. Nature appears free because it is not at the mercy of society. The same characteristics and the same categories of works are projected onto Gothic and nature. Criteria of nature are shown in the Gothic. Landscapes and natural forms are described like Gothic forms of architecture. The young Schinkel saw an antagonism between the free Gothic and the purposeful classical style. In Gothic architecture subjective freedom is concretized, in Classicism an objective necessity and a categorical ought arising from it.
“The decoration of the Goths serves a free-acting idea, that of the ancient world a concept of experience. Both want to characterize, but the one characterizes only the expediency going towards a psychological usefulness, the other has the purpose of characterizing a free idea. "
Ehrenburg Palace in Coburg was one of his first Gothic-oriented designs in 1810. Schinkel designed the cast-iron neo-Gothic war memorial for Berlin's Kreuzberg in 1818. Schinkel had made three different designs for the Friedrichswerder Church in 1821: a classic, a Gothic and a Renaissance version. The Gothic version was then approved. Schinkel established Gothic forms and unplastered clinker as the exterior material. It is the first exposed brick sacred building since the Middle Ages. One of his most innovative buildings is the Bauakademie (1832–1836) carried out by Emil Flaminius , which had a forward-looking structural structure and a bare clinker facade with many ornate relief panels made of terracotta . With its functional simplicity, it influenced entire generations from architects to the Bauhaus . With it, Schinkel has developed an independent design language. It is considered to be Schinkel's building that most clearly points to the future and is to be regarded as the main work of his technicalism .
Drafts as independent works
Schinkel's importance lies not only in architectural designs for the buildings that were actually built, but also in his theoretical work. These include in particular the unexecuted plans for the transformation of the Athens Acropolis into a royal palace and for the construction of the Orianda Palace in Crimea . These were published in his collection of architectural designs (1820–1837) and his works of higher architecture (1840–1842; 1845–1846). Schinkel's plans for a royal palace on the Acropolis, which he made for King Otto I of Greece on behalf of the Prussian Crown Prince in 1834, would have led to a complete overbuilding of the castle hill with an antique palace architecture. The ruins of the Parthenon, Propylaea, Erechtheion and the Temple of Nikes were to be integrated into the gardens as a decorative element. The plans were severely criticized by Leo von Klenze as “Midsummer Night's Dreams” from the point of view of monument protection , and the Acropolis was declared the exclusive field of activity of archaeologists. Schinkel had received the order for Orianda Castle in 1838 from Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna, who wanted a palace in the warm Crimean climate. It was to be built on the shores of the Black Sea in the classical style.
"This task, which required a lot of perspective and architectural drawings [...] would have given me even more enjoyment, had it fallen into a very healthy period of my life, so I had to fight a lot with myself in order to stick to it one after the other. This work would have qualified for an exhibition, but the speedy dispatch prevented this company. "
With inexhaustible imagination, Schinkel has put a dream castle on paper instead of a simple summer residence: a portico with caryatids on the terrace in front reveals the sea. Ribbon-adorned columns and water features are in the courtyard. A temple-like pavilion is planned for the center of the courtyard, under which art should be placed in a mighty vault. As a thank you, Schinkel received a mother-of-pearl box from the Tsarina.
Paintings, sets and design
In addition to his numerous buildings, Schinkel also created works as a painter, set designer, interior architect and designer. In some of his pictures he developed architectural solutions that he later implemented in his buildings. In the Berlin art exhibition of 1810, where the painting The Monk by the Sea by Caspar David Friedrich was shown, Schinkel exhibited the lithograph Gothic cathedral behind trees . The Berlin Royal Prussian Academy of the Arts accepted Schinkel as a member in 1811. In 1813/14 he painted six panel paintings for the silk manufacturer Jean Paul Humbert for a room in his Berlin house at Brüderstraße 29 . It was his greatest commission as a painter. He achieved fame with his stage sets as part of a reform of the Berlin theater such as Mozart's Magic Flute in 1816 , some of which were also used in contemporary productions. Until 1832 he designed stage sets for a total of 42 pieces for the National Theater on Gendarmenmarkt. He created his masterpiece as a painter with the designs for the mural program of the Altes Museum in Berlin. In this monumental cycle of pictures he developed a synthesis of Gothic and Classical styles. Schinkel was busy with it from 1823 until his death. His last large-format painting, Glance in Greece's Bloom, from 1825 idealized ancient architecture. Schinkel designed the interior architecture and numerous pieces of furniture for royal palaces and country estates, which were often made by the Berlin court carpenter Karl Wanschaff . These works are well preserved in Charlottenhof Palace and in the New Pavilion . Cast iron garden furniture based on his designs is still made today. To his designs as chandeliers, candelabras, wall decorations and ornaments for furniture (patch leaves and rosettes) implement economically, he let the objects in Wood Bronze run. Here he made use of Carl August Mencke (1776–1841), the inventor of this material, whose company fully met his high artistic demands and wishes. The Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Berlin (“KPM”) also produces some designs, such as the “Fidibus”, “Trumpet Shape” vases, the two-part “Sugar Basket” and the “Schinkel Basket”.
- 1800, Temple of Pomona on the Pfingstberg in Potsdam
- 1801, hexagonal courtyard with barns, stables, manager and whey house on the Bärwinkel Vorwerk near Neuhardenberg
- 1802, Buckow Castle (reconstruction)
- 1806, Owinsk Castle , Posen Province (together with Ludwig Catel )
- 1806, Rosenau Castle (Coburg) (including preserved interior architecture)
- 1809, Schinkel Church Neuhardenberg
- 1810, burial place for Queen Luise
- 1810, Ehrenburg Castle , Coburg (complete reconstruction)
- 1815, church in Glienicke (Ostprignitz)
- 1815, Petruskapelle Alexisbad , built as a ducal tea pavilion
- 1815, parish church St. Martini in Nienhagen (Schwanebeck)
- 1816, Evangelical Church in Stuhm ( Polish: Sztum ; West Prussia ), based on plans by Schinkel, construction management 1816–1818 Salomo Sachs.
- 1817, Kreuzkirche in Joachimsthal (Barnim)
- 1817, Lehr-Escadron-Kaserne - former military detention center
- 1818, Evangelical Church in Mewe ( Polish: Gniew ; West Prussia), based on plans by Schinkel, construction management 1818–1823 Salomo Sachs.
- 1818, Neue Wache in Berlin, according to recognized draft plans that were worked out by Schinkel's colleague, Salomo Sachs, as early as 1806.
- 1818, Schauspielhaus in Berlin on Gendarmenmarkt
- 1818, National Monument for the Wars of Liberation in Berlin
- 1819, Schloßbrücke (Berlin-Mitte)
- 1819 to 1821 Evangelical Church (Ozimek) , German Malapane
- around 1819 to 1822 Seifersdorf Castle - reconstruction of the former Renaissance castle according to plans by Schinkel in the neo-Gothic style
- 1821, Tegel Palace , Berlin (complete redesign for Wilhelm von Humboldt )
- 1822, Neuhardenberg Castle (complete reconstruction for Karl August von Hardenberg )
- 1823, Luisenkirche in Berlin-Charlottenburg
- 1823, Stadthaus (Düsseldorf) (facade) in the old town of Düsseldorf
- 1824, Antonin Hunting Lodge , Poznan Province
- 1824, Altes Museum in Berlin am Lustgarten, originally referred to as "New Museum"
- 1824, Evangelical Church in Bischmisheim , today a district of Saarbrücken ( octagonal floor plan and octagonal nave)
- 1824, Friedrichswerder Church in Berlin (today Schinkel Museum in Werderstrasse) and Schöneberg Church
- 1824, Potsdamer Tor in Berlin
- 1824, Parish Church of St. Maria Magdalena in Voigtsdorf near Habelschwerdt
- 1825, new pavilion in Berlin-Charlottenburg (including reconstructed interior architecture)
- 1825, Glienicke Palace , Berlin (complete redesign)
- 1825, Theater Aachen , in Aachen (revision of a design by Johann Peter Cremer)
- 1826, old lighthouse , Cape Arkona on Rügen, assignment doubtful
- 1826, Straupitz village church
- 1827, Elisenbrunnen in Aachen
- 1828, Society House at the Klosterbergegarten in Magdeburg , executed by Friedrich Wilhelm Wolff based on designs by Schinkel
- 1829, Feilner's house in Berlin
- 1829, Charlottenhof Palace in Potsdam (including preserved interior architecture)
- 1830, Nikolaikirche in Potsdam
- 1831, Old Town Main Guard in Dresden
- 1831, Alexander Newski Chapel in Peterhof
- 1831, Building Academy in Berlin , originally referred to as "General Building School"
- 1832, town hall in Kolberg
- 1832, prison in Insterburg , East Prussia ; today Chernyakhovsk , Kaliningrad Oblast , Russian Federation
- 1832, Johanniskirche in Berlin
- 1833, Roman baths in Potsdam
- 1833, Palais Redern on Pariser Platz in Berlin ( demolished in 1906 for the construction of the Hotel Adlon )
- 1833, western front of the St. Johanniskirche in Zittau (no classical transformation, but integration of two existing towers)
- 1834, Babelsberg Palace in Potsdam
- 1834, the so-called Berlin suburban churches , including the Elisabeth Church
- 1834, plans for the Jenisch House in Hamburg , the implementation considerably modified by Franz Gustav Forsmann . The changes are so serious that the existing building can no longer be called Schinkelbau.
- 1835, new Berlin observatory
- 1835, castle in Sittnow near Vandsberg, today Sypniewo
- 1835, Stolzenfels Castle on the Rhine (near Koblenz)
- 1836, facade for the main building of Leipzig University
- 1836, central tower of the Granitz hunting lodge , Rügen
- 1836, Church of the Redeemer in Kunnerwitz
- 1837, Academic Gymnasium Danzig am Winterplatz (previously: Buttermarkt, today: targ maslany )
- 1838, old town church in Königsberg
- 1838, Kamenz Castle , Province of Silesia
- 1840, Salzburg Church in Gumbinnen, East Prussia ; today Gusew , Kaliningrad Oblast , Russian Federation
- 1810 Luisendenkmal in Gransee , in cast iron by the Royal Prussian iron foundry performed
- 1816, memorial to those who died in the Wars of Liberation in Spandau
- 1817, Prussian monument to the battle of Kulm in Bohemia
- 1821, national monument for the victories in the wars of liberation on Berlin's Kreuzberg
- 1821 Canopy of the Luther memorial in Wittenberg by Johann Gottfried Schadow
- 1831, Klopstock monument (with Tieck) in the Brühl park in Quedlinburg
- 1832, Joseph's Cross on the Auersberg in Stolberg in the Harz Mountains
- 1835, Klausenkapelle for the blind King John of Bohemia in Kastel-Staadt
- 1837, canopy for the memorial stone of the Gustav-Adolf-Monument in Lützen
- 1838, fountain with the portrait of the blind king John of Bohemia , a gift to Jean-François Boch
- 1841, mausoleum for Field Marshal August Neidhardt von Gneisenau in Sommerschenburg
Lifetime Achievement Series
- Karl Friedrich Schinkel Lifetime Achievement by Paul Ortwin Rave, ed. by Helmut Börsch-Supan and Gottfried Riemann. 22 volumes. German Kunstverlag, Berlin and Munich 1939–2014
Honors and memberships
- Full member of the Royal Prussian Academy of the Arts (1811)
- Member of the German Table Society (1811)
- Honorary member of the Zelterschen Liedertafel (1813)
- Honorary member of the Royal Bavarian Polytechnic Association, Munich (1819)
- Order of the Red Eagle III. Class (1821)
- Foreign member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts , Paris (1823)
- Honorary member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen (1824)
- Honorary member of the Accademia di San Luca, Rome (1825)
- Order of the Red Eagle III. Class with a bow (1833)
- Honorary member of the German Society for the Study of Patriotic Antiquities, Leipzig (1834)
- Honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, stage decoration (1834)
- Honorary Member of the National Academy , New York (1834)
- Honorary Member and Corresponding Member of the Royal Institute of British Architects, London (1835)
- Commander's Cross of the Royal Greek Order of the Redeemer (1836)
- Red Eagle Order II Class with Oak Leaves (1836)
- Honorary Member of the Academy of United Fine Arts, Vienna (March 26, 1836)
- Honorary member of the Academy of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg (1838)
- Knight's Cross of the House Order of the White Falcon
- Knight's Cross of the Royal Swedish North Star Order (1839)
- Honorary member of the Academy of Arts, Stockholm (1840)
- Commander's Cross of the Royal Danish Order of Danebrog (1840)
- Since 1852 the Berlin Architects and Engineers Association has annually announced the Schinkel competition with a prize for young architects, engineers and artists in honor of Schinkel.
- His portrait was selected for a Reichsbanknote of 1000 marks (1936)
- One of the three categories of the German Prize for Monument Protection , the Karl-Friedrich-Schinkel-Ring, is named after him and has been awarded since 1978.
- His memorial - created by Friedrich Drake - has been standing on Schinkelplatz in Berlin-Mitte again since 1996 .
- In 1966, the GDR issued a 10-mark commemorative coin as the first commemorative coin .
- For his 200th birthday in 1981, the GDR issued a Karl Friedrich Schinkel 10 and 25 pfennig special stamp. The Berlin Schauspielhaus and the Old Museum Berlin are shown on the stamps .
- For his 225th birthday in 2006, the Federal Ministry of Finance issued a 10 euro silver commemorative coin and a special stamp was issued in memory of Schinkel. The Old Museum Berlin was shown on it.
- In his birthplace Neuruppin, the Karl-Friedrich-Schinkel-Gymnasium was named after him
- 2012/2013: Karl Friedrich Schinkel. History and Poetry , Kulturforum Berlin , Berlin.
- 2013 Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Architect - Painter - Designer . Kunsthalle der Hypo-Kulturstiftung , Munich
- Maria Teresa Arfini: Musical Landscape: The Correspondence Between Music and Painting in Early-Nineteenth-Century Germany . In: Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography . 39, No. 1-2, 2014, , pp. 125-144.
- Barry Bergdoll: Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Prussia's most famous builder . Klinkhardt & Biermann, Munich 1994.
- Helmut Börsch-Supan : Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Image inventions (Karl Friedrich Schinkel's life's work, edited by Helmut Börsch-Supan and Gottfried Riemann, Volume 20) . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-422-06672-4
- Wolfgang Büchel: Karl Friedrich Schinkel . 2nd edition Rowohlt, Hamburg 1998.
- Annette Dorgerloh , Michael Niedermeier , Horst Bredekamp (with the assistance of Axel Klausmeier) (eds.): Classicism - Gothic. Karl Friedrich Schinkel and the patriotic architecture . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-422-06686-1 .
- Schinkel in Berlin and Potsdam. 26 buildings in color photographs. Photos: Gerrit Engel. With an introduction by Barry Bergdoll and architectural-historical texts by Detlef Jessen-Klingenberg . Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-8296-0427-7 .
- Joachim Fest : Architect of a transition period. Karl Friedrich Schinkel . In: Past canceled. Portraits and reflections . dtv, Munich 1993, pp. 172-193.
- Theodor Fontane : Karl Friedrich Schinkel . In: Walks through the Mark Brandenburg - Part One: The County of Ruppin. Berlin 1892. ( Gutenberg project ).
- Hannelore Gärtner (ed.): Schinkel studies . (= Seaman's contributions to art history). EA Seemann , Leipzig 1984. OCLC 12149418 .
- Andreas Haus: Karl Friedrich Schinkel as an artist. Approach and comment . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-422-06317-X .
- Andreas house: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 22, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-428-11203-2 , pp. 795-798 ( version ). In:
- Peter Kränzle: Karl Friedrich Schinkel. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 9, Bautz, Herzberg 1995, ISBN 3-88309-058-1 , Sp. 215-226.
- Franz Kugler : Karl Friedrich Schinkel. A characteristic of his artistic effectiveness. Gropius, Berlin 1842 ( MDZ Munich , Heidelberg University Library ), Central and State Library Berlin .
- Hans-Joachim Kunst: Gothic reception with Kaspar David Friedrich and Karl Friedrich Schinkel . In: Melanie Ehler, Matthias Müller (ed.): Schinkel and his students . Helms, Schwerin 2004, ISBN 978-3-935749-34-3 .
- Heinz Ohff : Karl Friedrich Schinkel . Edition Jaron, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-89773-122-3 .
- Heinz Ohff : Karl Friedrich Schinkel or Beauty in Prussia . Piper, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-492-22965-4 .
- Goerd Peschken: The architectural textbook . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Berlin 1979; 2nd edition 2001, ISBN 978-3-422-06329-7 (habilitation thesis TU Berlin 1974, 184 pages).
- Christian Raabe: A corner of the Bauakademie. For the reconstruction of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's 'General Building School' . Edition Imorde, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-942810-04-3 .
- Lena Rebekka Rehberger: Iron Memoria: Karl Friedrich Schinkel's cast iron tombs . In: Susanne Kähler / Wolfgang Krogel (ed.): The Bear of Berlin. Yearbook of the Association for the History of Berlin . 65th year, Berlin 2016, pp. 23–40.
- Martin Steffens: KF Schinkel, 1781–1841. A builder in the service of beauty . Taschen, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-8228-2443-7 .
- Reinhart route: Schinkel or the economy of the aesthetic. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-86732-295-9 .
- Jörg Trempler: The mural program by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Altes Museum Berlin . Mann Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-7861-2333-0 .
- Jörg Trempler: Schinkel's motives . Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-88221-866-4 (review on H-ArtHist (H-Net) ).
- Jörg Trempler: Karl Friedrich Schinkel. A biography . CH Beck, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-406-63830-5 .
- Franz Vallentin: Schinkel, Friedrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 54, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1908, pp. 17-28.
- Christoph Werner: Castle on the river. The story of the life and death of the builder Karl Friedrich Schinkel . Bertuch-Verlag, Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-937601-11-2 .
- Elke Katharina Wittich: Karl Friedrich Schinkel, for example. Knowledge and methods in the architectural discourse of the early 19th century . Berlin 2008, Horst Bredekamp , Ulrich Reinisch full text online PDF, free of charge, 427 pages, 99.3 MB). (Dissertation Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philosophical Faculty III, 2008, 427 pages, reviewers:
- Christoph von Wolzüge : Karl Friedrich Schinkel - Under the starry sky. Biography. Volume 1: Textband, 483 p., Volume 2: Commentary and Register, 392 p. Edition Fichter, Frankfurt 2016, ISBN 978-3-943856-33-0 .
- Mario A. Zadow: Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Life and work . Edition Axel Menges , Stuttgart 2001, 3rd edition 2003 ISBN 3-932565-29-0 .
- Mario A. Zadow: Karl Friedrich Schinkel - a son of the late Enlightenment. The basics of his upbringing and education. Stuttgart 2001 ISBN 3-932565-23-1 .
- Hermann Ziller : Schinkel . Knackfuß artist monographs XXVIII. Velhagen & Klasing, Bielefeld and Leipzig 1897.
- Karl Friedrich Schinkel - architect, painter, furniture designer, set designer and art philosopher , U. Michas: Every free moment is a blessed one , RG Scharmann: ... Schinkel and the Prussian royal house , E. Börsch-Supan : Churches as 'monuments' of the wars of liberation , J. Feustel : pointing to the higher world , R. Schmook: Schinkel's rural buildings in the Oderland In: The Mark Brandenburg . Issue 61, Marika Großer Verlag Berlin, 2006 ISBN 978-3-910134-24-9 .
- Kurt W. Forster: Schinkel: a meander through work and life , Basel: Birkhäuser, , ISBN 978-3-0356-0778-9 .
- Werner Lorenz : "Architecture is Construction". Schinkel and Borsig as building designers . In: Technikgeschichte, Vol. 61 (1994), H. 4, pp. 313-328.
- Andreas Beyer: Karl Friedrich Schinkel in Paris. In: Interferences / Interférences. Germany France. Architecture 1800-2000. Edited by Jean-Louis Cohen and Hartmut Frank, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag Tübingen-Berlin, 2013, ISBN 978-3-8030-0770-4 , pp. 104–111.
- Literature by and about Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the German Digital Library
- Works by Karl Friedrich Schinkel at Zeno.org .
- goethezeitportal.de: Schinkel's drafts for applied arts and design
- Holdings on Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the Architecture Museum of the Technical University of Berlin
- Online catalog of the graphic works in the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin
- Schinkel's first major work as a museum
- Schinkel Society
- Schinkel Gallery
- Karl Friedrich Schinkel. In: arch INFORM .
- From Schinkel's estate II Critical Edition In: academia.edu
- Barry Bergdoll, Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Prussia's most famous master builder , Munich 1994, p. 15.
- Letter to Carl Gotthard Graß, in: Gottfried Riemann (ed.), Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Reisen nach Italien. Diaries, letters, drawings, watercolors , Berlin 1979, p. 165.
- Letter to Friedrich Moser, in: Gottfried Riemann (Ed.), Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Reisen nach Italien. Diaries, letters, drawings, watercolors , Berlin 1979, p. 167.
- Heinz Ohff : Karl Friedrich Schinkel or Beauty in Prussia . Piper, Munich 1997, p. 82.
- Go. Senior Building Assessor Schinkel, Alexanderplatz 45 . In: S. Sachs: General street and apartment indicator for the residential city of Berlin, Berlin, 1812, 11th issue, p. 207.
- Paul Ortwin Rave : Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Life's work. Berlin III . Berlin 1962, p. 259 f.
- Foreword to the planned publication The Architectural Textbook . Munich 1979, reprint 2000, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Lebenswerk, p. 114.
- Jörg Trempler: Schinkel's motifs . Berlin 2007, pp. 159-160.
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Goethe's entire works. Complete, reorganized edition , JG Cotta, Stuttgart and Tübingen 1850-51, vol. 21, p. 267.
- Kurt W. Forster: Why Schinkel did not write an architectural textbook , as an introduction to: Jörg Trempler, Schinkel's Motive . Berlin 2007, pp. 7–31.
- Architecture according to the principles of the elderly (panels): Fifty copper plates on architecture according to the principles of the elderly - Berlin, 1809 ( citation link from Heidelberg University Library )
- Letter from the Minister, in: Gottfried Riemann (Ed.), Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Reisen nach Italien. Diaries, letters, drawings, watercolors . Berlin 1979, pp. 639-641.
- Letter to Susanne Schinkel , in: Gottfried Riemann (Ed.), Karl Friedrich Schinkel: Reisen nach Italien. Diaries, letters, drawings, watercolors . Berlin 1979, p. 378.
- Schinkel (Karl Friedrich) . In: General German Real Encyclopedia for the educated classes (Conversations Lexicon) . 7th edition. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1827. 9th volume: R - Schu, pp. 769–771. Online (3rd reprint 1831) in the Google book search
- The manuscript of the article can be found in Schinkel's written estate, see Karl Friedrich Schinkel's exhibition catalog . History and poetry . Munich 2012. ISBN 978-3-7774-5421-4 , cat. No. 14 (p. 44): Schinkel's curriculum vitae (written by hand), 1825/27
- Christine Löser: Karl Friedrich Schinkel at the Oberbaudeputation . Berlin 1994, p. 48.
- Franz Kugler : KF Schinkel - a characteristic of his artistic effectiveness , 1838.
- Heinz Ohff : Karl Friedrich Schinkel or Beauty in Prussia . Piper, Munich 1997, p. 241.
- On the medical history and the terrifying treatment methods, Dr. A. Pätsch: Schinkel's last illness and corpse findings . In: Wochenschrift für die Gesamt Heilkunde 49, December 4, 1841, p. 793 ff .; critical remarks on this from a medical point of view with Roland Schiffter: "... I always acted smarter ... than the Philistine doctors ..." romantic medicine in Bettina von Arnim's everyday life - and elsewhere . Würzburg 2006, p. 120 ff.
- Hans-Joachim Kunst : Gothic reception with Kaspar David Friedrich and Karl Friedrich Schinkel . In: Melanie Ehler, Matthias Müller (ed.): Schinkel and his students . Helms, Schwerin 2004, p. 28.
- Hans-Joachim Kunst : Gothic reception with Kaspar David Friedrich and Karl Friedrich Schinkel . In: Melanie Ehler, Matthias Müller (ed.): Schinkel and his students . Helms, Schwerin 2004, p. 29.
- Goerd Peschken : The architectural textbook . 1979, p. 36.
- Wolfgang Büchel: Karl Friedrich Schinkel , 1998, p. 116.
- Klaus Jan Philipp: Midsummer Night's Dreams - Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Leo von Klenze's designs for a castle in Athens . In: Susan M. Peik (Ed.): Karl Friedrich Schinkel . Stuttgart 2001, p. 100 ff.
- Letter to Weyer dated April 17, 1839.
- Mario Zadow: Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Life and work . Berlin 1980, p. 194.
- Wolfgang Büchel: Karl Friedrich Schinkel , Rowohlt, Reinbek 1994, p. 68
- For example, slightly modified in the Berlin State Opera Unter den Linden in August Everding's Magic Flute production .
- Oberbaurat Günther had the idea of planning the building on a square floor plan and integrating the guard's apartment; the execution was entrusted to Oberbaurat Michaelis and JM Lübke. Lübke revised the drafts in 1826 and completed the work by 1829. See Andreas Bernhard: Cape Arkona, lighthouse . in: Andreas Bernhard, House of Brandenburg-Prussian History (Hrsg.): Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Guide to his buildings . Volume II, 2006, p. 65 f. Fundamental to the doubts about Schinkel's authorship were the source-analytical studies by Reinhart Fahrt: Schinkel and the lighthouse on Cape Arcona . Jahrbuch Prussischer Kulturbesitz 32, Berlin 1995. A co-authorship of Schinkel, who signed the plans, cannot be completely ruled out.
- August Grisebach : Carl Friedrich Schinkel - architect urban planner painter . Piper, Munich 1981.
- Andreas Bernhard (Ed.): Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Guide to his buildings. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2006, p. 230
- Villeroy & Boch: All about the old abbey V&B Group. Retrieved November 7, 2019 .
- History of the German Table Society Study of the German Literature History Volume 115 by Stefan Nienhaus Max Niemeyer Verlag GmbH, Tübingen 2003 p. 369
- Georg Stanitzek: Strong social history. (Review on: Stefan Nienhaus: History of the German Table Society. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer 2003.) In: IASLonline [11/14/2006] URL: < http://www.iaslonline.de/index.php?vorgang_id=877 > Date des Access: 02/18/2020 paragraphs 3 and 4
- Nationalacademy.org: Past Academicians "S" ( Memento of March 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Membership election and price distribution at the k. k. Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. : Allgemeine Bauzeitung , year 1836, p. 120 (online at ANNO ).
- awarded on June 6, 1838, see State Handbook of the Grand Duchy of Saxony Weimar-Eisenach for the year 1840 , Weimar 1840, p. 17
- Image of the banknote (accessed on May 7, 2015)
|SURNAME||Schinkel, Karl Friedrich|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Schinkel, Carl Friedrich|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Prussian architect and painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 13, 1781|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Neuruppin|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 9, 1841|
|Place of death||Berlin|