Calendar overview 1781
|American War of Independence , the French-American troops defeat the British forces under Lord Cornwallis in the Battle of Yorktown .|
Mozart's opera Idomeneo
William Herschel discovers
the planet Uranus .
|1781 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1229/30 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1773/74 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1186/87 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2324/25 (southern Buddhism); 2323/24 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1143/44 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4114/15 (2-3 October)|
|Iranian calendar||1159/60 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1195/96 (December 16-17)|
|Jewish calendar||5541/42 (September 19-20)|
|Coptic calendar||1497/98 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2091/92 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2092/93 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1837/38 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 6th: The Battle of Jersey takes place in Saint Helier , the last attempt by the French to conquer the British Channel Island of Jersey since then .
- April 26th: The Corpus Juris Fridericianum , the Prussian Code of Civil Procedure , drawn up by Carl Gottlieb Svarez and Grand Chancellor Johann Heinrich Casimir von Carmer on behalf of King Frederick the Great , is announced.
- May 8: Spanish troops under the command of Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid capture the city of the same name in Florida from the British in the Battle of Pensacola during the American War of Independence .
- May 19: The French King Louis XVI. surprisingly dismisses his finance minister Jacques Necker after he publicly criticized the waste at court with his Compte rendu report of February 19.
- August 5th: Anglo-Dutch War : In the battle of the Dogger Bank, a British and a Dutch squadron fight each other. It is the final naval battle of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces .
- September 17th: The settlement permit of the Austrian ruler Joseph II , the emperor of the HRR , for the new areas of the later Austro-Hungarian monarchy in Eastern Central Europe comes into force. The so-called " Josefinic colonization " follows in the next few years, for example. B. in Galicia .
- November 1st: With the so-called serfdom revocation patent, serfdom is revoked by Joseph II in the countries of Bohemia and Moravia . It is replaced by a "moderate inheritance subordination".
American War of Independence
- January 1: In the Battle of Cowpens, American troops made up of continental soldiers and volunteer militias , consisting of supporters of the political grouping of the so-called patriots under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan, achieve a clear victory against the British colonial power and the also indigenous loyalists under the leadership of Banastre Tarleton . After this American victory, British commander Cornwallis gave up his efforts to pacify South Carolina .
- March 15: In the American War of Independence , the British commanded by Charles Cornwallis defeat the American army, which is twice as large, under the command of Nathanael Greene at the battle of Guilford Court House , with great losses .
- September 5: The naval battle off Chesapeake Bay brings the French fleet a victory over the English squadron. The hoped-for support is denied to the land troops under General Charles Cornwallis .
- October 13: In the battle of Yorktown the decisive attack of the allied American and French on the city held by the British begins. On October 18, the British, under Charles Cornwallis , decide to surrender and go into captivity the next day.
- October 19: The American Revolutionary War comes to an end with the surrender of the enclosed British units at Yorktown , Virginia , which are cut off from supplies .
- February 3: Admiral George Rodney conquers the Caribbean island of Sint Eustatius from Dutch possession with a British force in the Anglo-Dutch War without a fight .
- Suppression of the Túpac Amaru uprising in Peru , which has been going on since November, and the arrest of the leader José Gabriel Condorcanqui .
science and technology
- January 1: Traffic opens over the world's first cast iron bridge, The Iron Bridge over the English River Severn .
- February 16: Pierre Méchain notices the galaxy cataloged as Messier 108 in the constellation Great Bear .
- March 4: Pierre Méchain is the first to see the galaxy, later known as Messier 85 , when observing the sky in the constellation Haar der Berenike .
- March 12th: Pierre Méchain becomes the first astronomer to observe the galaxy later known as Messier 109 in the constellation Great Bear .
- March 13th: Wilhelm Herschel discovers the planet Uranus .
- March 15: Pierre Méchain discovers the three spiral galaxies Messier 98 , Messier 99 and Messier 100 .
- March 18: The French astronomer Charles Messier discovers several galaxies, mainly in the constellation Virgo , which he includes in his catalog as objects Messier 84 and Messier 86 to Messier 90 .
- March 20: Pierre Méchain is the first to observe the galaxies Messier 95 and Messier 96 in the constellation Leo .
- March 22nd: Pierre Méchain discovers the spiral galaxy known as Messier 94 . Later observations also give it the status of a starburst galaxy .
- March 24th: The galaxy Messier 105 in the constellation Leo is the first to notice the astronomer Pierre Méchain. According to knowledge gained in the meantime, it contains a black hole of around 50 million solar masses .
- April 9: Pierre Méchain sees the celestial object known as the Sombrero galaxy in the constellation Virgo .
- Jan. 29: At the Munich Residenz Theater is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Idomeneo premiered with success. The famous tenor Anton Raaff sings his last title role here. Mozart called the opera his best throughout his life.
- February 25: The opera La fedeltà premiata ( The rewarded loyalty ) by Joseph Haydn is premiered in Esterház .
- April 21: The premiere of the opera Elisa by Johann Gottlieb Naumann takes place at the Small Electoral Theater in Dresden .
- April 30th: The German-language opera Der Rauchfangkehrer or The indispensable traitors to their lords by Antonio Salieri has its world premiere at the Burgtheater in Vienna with Catarina Cavalieri and Ludwig Fischer in the leading roles. The libretto of Leopold Auenbrugger is strongly criticized, but Salieri's music is received with enthusiasm.
- Karl von Marinelli opens the first Viennese suburban theater , the Leopoldstadt Theater in Leopoldstadt designed by Jean-Baptiste Brequin , the imperial director of hydraulic engineering, and the master builder Peter Mollner . The program consists mainly of local and magic antics , parodies and singspiele from the old Viennese folk theater .
- Johann Georg Fellinger , Austrian officer and writer († 1816) January 3:
- January 17: Robert Hare , American chemist († 1858)
- January 20: Ernst Casimir I of Ysenburg and Büdingen , 1st Prince of Ysenburg and Büdingen († 1852)
- January 22: François-Antoine habeneck , French violinist and composer († 1849)
- January 25: Röttger von Veltheim , German landlord and private scholar († 1848)
- January 25: Marquard Georg Seufferheld , German businessman, founder and politician († 1848)
- January 26: Achim von Arnim , German poet († 1831)
- January 30th: Adelbert von Chamisso , German poet and botanist († 1838)
- January 30: Christian von Steven , Russian botanist († 1863)
- Martin Wilhelm Oppenheim , German banker († 1863) February 1:
- John Keane, 1st Baron Keane , British Lieutenant General († 1844) February 6:
- Wilhelmine von Sagan , Duchess of Sagan († 1839) February 8:
- Johann Baptist von Spix , German scientist († 1826) February 9:
- February 10: Franz Seraph Bedall , Bavarian General († 1851)
- February 14: Valentín Gómez Farías , Mexican politician and multiple interim President of Mexico († 1858)
- February 17th: René Laënnec , French doctor, inventor of the stethoscope († 1826)
- February 26: Abraham Williams , American politician († 1839)
- Friedrich Rühs , German historian († 1820) March 1:
- Ignaz Franz Castelli , Austrian poet and playwright († 1862) March 6:
- Karl Wilhelm Kolbe , German painter († 1853) March 7:
- March 12: Friederike Dorothea von Baden , Swedish Queen († 1826)
- March 13: Joseph Johann von Littrow , Austrian astronomer († 1840)
- March 13: Karl Friedrich Schinkel , Prussian architect and painter († 1841)
- March 18: Gustave Vogt , French oboist, music teacher and composer († 1870)
- March 22nd: Antoine Adolphe Marcelin Marbot , French general († 1844)
- March 23: Albert von Schultze , German forest official († 1851)
- March 27: Johann Claudius von Lassaulx , architect († 1848)
- Robert Lucas , American politician († 1853) April 1:
- Thomas Stockton , American politician († 1846) April 1:
- Franz Anton von Neveu , German forest master and landowner († 1837) April 3:
- Benjamin Swift , American politician († 1847) April 3:
- Francis Leggatt Chantrey , British sculptor, painter and draftsman († 1841) April 7:
- April 22: José de Madrazo y Agudo , Spanish painter († 1859)
- April 22: Hermann Uber , German composer and Kreuzkantor († 1822)
- April 25: Ferdinand Karl von Österreich-Este , Austrian field marshal and governor general († 1850)
- Karl Christian Friedrich Krause , German philosopher († 1832) May 6:
- Pedro de Sousa Holstein , Portuguese politician and military man († 1850) May 8:
- Friedrich Adolph August Struve , Saxon doctor and pharmacist († 1840) May 9:
- May 14: Friedrich von Raumer , German politician and historian († 1873)
- May 18: David Hazzard , American politician († 1864)
- May 22: Newton Cannon , American politician († 1841)
- May 24th: Louis François Dauprat , French horn player, composer and professor of horn († 1868)
- May 24: Christian Wilhelm August Königsdörffer , German civil servant († 1851)
- May 29: John Walker , English inventor of the match († 1859)
- Cornelius de Greiff , German silk manufacturer († 1863) June 8:
- George Stephenson , British engineer († 1848) June 9:
- June 17: Frederick Adam , British general and governor of Madras († 1853)
- June 18: Benjamin W. Leigh , American politician († 1849)
- June 21: Matthew Harvey , American politician († 1866)
- June 21: Siméon Denis Poisson , French physicist and mathematician († 1840)
- June 25: Friedrich Schmalz , German agricultural scientist († 1847)
- Karl Maximilian Andree , German physician and gynecologist († 1827) July 4th:
- Thomas Stamford Raffles , English founder of Singapore († 1826) July 6th:
- John Drake Sloat , American politician († 1867) July 6:
- July 11th: Bartolomeo Borghesi , Italian inscription researcher († 1860)
- July 25: Laurent-Théodore Biett , Swiss-French medic († 1840)
- July 27: Mauro Giuliani , Italian guitarist and composer († 1829)
- August 12: Robert Mills , American architect and cartographer († 1855)
- August 22: Juliana Blasius , German robber bride of Johannes Bückler († 1851)
- August 23: Friedrich Tiedemann , German anatomist and physiologist († 1861)
- August 26: Johann Christian Josef Abs , German educator († 1823)
- Eugène de Beauharnais , French general, duke and stepson of Napoleon († 1824) September 3:
- Anton Diabelli , Austrian composer († 1858) September 5:
- Joseph Maull , American politician († 1846) September 6:
- Vincent Novello , English musician († 1861) September 6:
- Georg Franz August , son of Leopold Albert de Longueval († 1851) September 7:
- Ferdinand Maria Chotek von Chotkow , Archbishop of Olomouc († 1836) September 8:
- September 12: William A. Palmer , American politician († 1860)
- September 27: Wilhelm I , King of Württemberg († 1864)
- September 30: Ludwig von Wirschinger , Bavarian Minister of Finance († 1840)
- Bernard Bolzano , Czech philosopher, theologian and mathematician († 1848) October 5:
- October 15: Johan Cesar Godeffroy , German businessman († 1845)
- October 31: Georg Friedrich von Kall , Prussian officer († 1813)
- Christian Wilhelm Schweitzer , German lawyer, Minister of State in the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach († 1856) November 1:
- Joseph Karl Stieler , German painter († 1858) November 1:
- William Butterworth Bayley , British interim Governor General of Fort William in British India († 1860) November 3:
- Karl Godulla , German industrialist († 1848) November 8:
- Karl Borromäus von Miltitz , German poet and composer († 1845) November 9:
- November 11: Ludwig Gustav von Thile , Prussian general and head of the military cabinet († 1852)
- November 20: Karl Friedrich Eichhorn , German lawyer and professor († 1854)
- November 25: John Miller , American politician († 1846)
- Ferdinand Wedel-Jarlsberg , Norwegian officer († 1857) December 1:
- Charlotte Elisabeth Sophie Louise Wilhelmine von Ahlefeld , German writer († 1849) December 6:
- December 11th: David Brewster , Scottish physicist, inventor of the kaleidoscope († 1868)
- December 19: Rudolph Suhrlandt , German portrait painter († 1862)
- December 24th: Georg Jakob Strunz , German musician and composer († 1852)
- December 28: Christian Peter Wilhelm Beuth , Prussian pioneer of industrialization in Prussia, politician († 1853)
- December 28: Heinrich Martius , German doctor, scientist, writer, chronicler († 1831)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Albert Androt , French composer († 1804)
First half of the year
- Johann Gottlob Werner , German Protestant theologian (* 1719) January 6th:
- January 15: Maria Anna Viktoria of Spain , Princess of Spain and Queen of Portugal (* 1718)
- Josef Mysliveček , Czech composer (* 1737) February 4:
- February 15: Gotthold Ephraim Lessing , German poet of the Enlightenment (* 1729)
- February 22nd: Giovanni Maria Morlaiter , Italian sculptor (* 1700)
- Michael Schüppach , Swiss surgeon, physician, pharmacist and spa doctor (* 1707) March 2:
- Nicolas Dupont , organ builder from Lorraine (* 1714) March 3rd:
- March 16: Jean Esprit Isnard , French Dominican and organ builder (* 1707)
- March 18: Anne Robert Jacques Turgot , French statesman and pre-classical economist (* 1727)
- March 20: Vincent Rumpff , Mayor of Hamburg (* 1701)
- March 27: Eberhard Heinrich Daniel Stosch , German Reformed theologian (* 1716)
- April 11: Joseph Gregor Winck , German painter and plasterer (* 1710)
- April 21: Alexei Nikititsch Volkonsky , Russian general (* 1720)
- April 28: James Abercrombie , British general in the French and Indian War (* 1706)
- May 13: William Phillips , American major general in the British Army (* 1731)
- May 16: Giacomo Puccini , Italian composer and organist, great-great-grandfather of the composer of the same name (* 1712)
- May 18: Túpac Amaru II , Peruvian cacique and rebel leader (* 1738)
- May 20: Christian Gottlob Frege , German banker and merchant (* 1715)
- May 26: Andreas Weber , German philosopher and Lutheran theologian (* 1718)
- Giovanni Octavio Manciforti Sperelli , Italian Catholic Cardinal (* 1730) June 5:
Second half of the year
- Johann Georg Beer , German architect and builder (* 1701) July 7:
- July 11: Adolf Karl Kunzen , German composer and organist (* 1720)
- July 30th: Carl August von Veltheim , German Lieutenant General and Inspector General of the Hanoverian Cavalry (* 1718)
- August Wilhelm , Prussian infantry general of the Frederician era (* 1715) August 2nd:
- Johann Peter Schwartz , German Protestant theologian (* 1721) August 8:
- August 16: Charles-François de Broglie , French diplomat (* 1719)
- August 29: Dorothea Widmer , Swiss spouse murderer (* 1758)
- September 11th: Johann August Ernesti , German theologian and philologist (* 1707)
- September 15: Heinrich Otto Duysing , German Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1719)
- September 19: Tobias Furneaux , British explorer (* 1735)
- September 30th: Jean Baptiste Leprince , French painter (* 1734)
- Ferdinand Eugen von Franken-Siersdorf , German priest and canon in Cologne (* 1714) October 1:
- October 22: Johann August Nahl the Elder , German sculptor and plasterer (* 1710)
- Faustina Bordoni , Italian singer (* 1697) November 4th:
- Johann Nikolaus Götz , German clergyman, writer and translator (* 1721) November 4:
- November 13th: Rochus Friedrich zu Lynar , German diplomat in the Danish service (* 1708)
- November 15: Julián Apaza , Indian rebel (* 1750)
- November 21: Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux , French statesman (* 1701)
- December 14th: Johann Friedrich Adolf von der Marwitz , Prussian general (* 1723)
- December 21: Johan Henrik Scheffel , Swedish portrait and miniature painter (* 1690)
- December 23: Karl David Schuchardt , Saxon Evangelical Lutheran theologian and pastor, Magister (* 1717)
- December 30th: John Turberville Needham , English priest and naturalist (* 1713)
Exact date of death unknown
- Ablay Abilmansur Khan , Kazakh Khan (* 1711)
- Johann Christian Wäser , German actor and theater director (* 1743)