Calendar overview 1785
peasant uprising in Transylvania
ends with the execution of the leaders Horea and Cloşca .
|Rohan , the collar affair begins in France .||
Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier had a fatal accident while trying to cross
the English Channel in a balloon
|1785 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1233/34 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1777/78 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1190/91 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2328/29 (southern Buddhism); 2327/28 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1147/48 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4118/19 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1163/64 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1199/1200 (November 3-4)|
|Jewish calendar||5545/46 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Coptic calendar||1501/02 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2095/96 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2096/97 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1841/42 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 28th : The peasant uprising in Transylvania ends with the execution of the leaders Horea and Cloşca .
- March 7th : Sweden takes possession of the island of Saint-Barthélemy in the Lesser Antilles , which it received from French colonial possession in exchange for the granting of trading rights in Gothenburg .
- July 23 : Prussia merges with Hanover and Saxony to form the Three Elector League, which expands rapidly with the addition of 14 other imperial princes to the Prince League. Members include Hessen-Kassel and Zweibrücken , Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Saxe-Gotha and Saxe-Weimar , Mecklenburg , Baden and Brandenburg-Ansbach . Frederick the Great soon instrumentalized the federation, which largely consisted of Protestant imperial princes, as an anti-Habsburg counterweight in the empire to the Austrian expansionist efforts in southern Germany.
- August 1st : Jean-François de La Pérouse sets sail with two ships from Brest . On board is a top-class team of scientists from the fields of astronomy, mathematics, geology, mineralogy and botany. Your mission is to precisely research the geography of the Pacific and the trading opportunities there, from the far north to Australia, from Asia to America. The first stop is Tenerife , from where you continue sailing towards Patagonia .
- August 15 : With the arrest of Cardinal Rohan , the so-called collar affair begins in France . The reputation of the French monarchy suffers severely from the consequences.
- 10 September : Frederick the Great and the US sign a friendship and trade agreement , the basis of the recognition of only 13 newly independent states of the United States on the part of Prussia represents. In addition, there is a novelty for such treaties at the time: Both, as the highest chiefs of the executive branch of their states, demand and agree with their signature the special and absolutely humane detention for prisoners of war.
- December 11 : Emperor Joseph II issues the third tolerance patent , the so-called Freemason patent . This creates a grand lodge in Austria , to which those of other crown lands are subordinate. The number of lodges is limited and Freemasonry is strictly monitored by the state.
- In New York a legislative proposal to gradually abolish slavery fails . In the same year, the Quaker- dominated New York Manumission Society was established on Long Island , which will exert pressure in many areas of public life to improve the situation of slaves.
- January 1 : The Daily Universal Register is launched.
- August 23 : The first steam engine designed by James Watt is officially put into operation in Germany on the König-Friedrich-Schacht near Hettstedt .
science and technology
- February 7th : The German-British astronomer Wilhelm Herschel discovers the antenna galaxy in the constellation Raven .
- March 10 : Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy NGC 5084 in the constellation Virgo .
- March 12th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the planetary nebula NGC 2371 in the constellation Gemini, 4,300 light years from Earth .
- March 13th : Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxy NGC 4314 in the constellation Haar der Berenike .
- March 16 : Wilhelm Herschel is the first to see the galaxy NGC 5832 in the constellation Little Bear .
- April 3 : Wilhelm Herschel sees the galaxy in the constellation Great Bear, which was later cataloged as NGC 3027 .
- April 6th : In the constellation Haar der Berenike Wilhelm Herschel becomes aware of the galaxies NGC 4494 and NGC 4565 , in the constellation Leo of the galaxy NGC 3902 and in the constellation Little Lion of the galaxy NGC 3344 .
- April 10th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 3808 in the constellation Leo and the galaxy NGC 4725 in the constellation Haar der Berenike, some 300 million light years away .
- April 28th : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxy NGC 4214 in the constellation Hounds about 13 million light years away .
- May 1 : The galaxies NGC 5005 and NGC 5033 in the constellation Hunting Dogs and NGC 5533 and NGC 5557 in the constellation Bear Guardian are sighted by Wilhelm Herschel.
- September 26th : Wilhelm Herschel tracks down the galaxies with the catalog numbers NGC 7619 and NGC 7626 in the constellation Pegasus .
- September 28 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxy NGC 7606 in the constellation Aquarius .
- October 1 : Wilhelm Herschel observes the galaxy later called NGC 279 in the constellation Whale .
- October 3rd : The galaxy NGC 720 in the constellation Whale and the galaxy NGC 1309 in the constellation Eridanus are observed for the first time by Wilhelm Herschel.
- October 5 : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxy later called NGC 1700 in the constellation Eridanus .
- October 6th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies NGC 1114 and NGC 1407 in the constellation Eridanus .
- October 8 : Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy later known as NGC 533 in the constellation Whale .
- October 9 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies NGC 1073 and NGC 1087 in the constellation Whale .
- Oct. 25 : William Herschel observed first in the constellation Pisces the galaxies NGC 36 and NGC 7562 and in the constellation Cetus the galaxy NGC 864 .
- October 26th : Wilhelm Herschel sees the galaxy NGC 7252 in the constellation Aquarius .
- November 22nd : Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy NGC 268 in the constellation Whale .
- November 23rd : Wilhelm Herschel discovered the galaxy NGC 137 in the constellation Pisces.
- November 27 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies NGC 7723 and NGC 7727 in the constellation Aquarius, the galaxies NGC 154 and NGC 255 in the constellation Whale and the galaxy NGC 1200 in the constellation Eridanus .
- November 28 : Wilhelm Herschel succeeds in discovering the galaxy NGC 7371 in the constellation Aquarius and the galaxies NGC 217 and NGC 835 in the constellation Whale .
- December 5 : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxies NGC 160 and NGC 280 in the constellation Andromeda .
- December 6th : Wilhelm Herschel's observations of the sky lead to the discovery of the galaxy NGC 2964 in the constellation Leo .
- December 7th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the two barred spiral galaxies NGC 3003 and NGC 3395 in the constellation Little Lion .
- January 7th : Jean-Pierre Blanchard and John Jeffries cross the English Channel for the first time in a hydrogen- filled gas balloon from Dover to Calais. The journey takes you 2 hours 25 minutes and you have to shed all ballast except for your underpants.
- June 15 : Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and his passenger Pierre Romain become the first aviation casualties when attempting to cross the English Channel when the hydrogen in their Rozière ignites and the balloon gondola crashes.
Teaching and Research
- January 27 : The University of Georgia , the first state university in the United States, is founded in Athens . Abraham Baldwin becomes the first president . Lectures don't start until years later.
- November 7th : The Imperial Medical and Surgical Joseph's Academy, founded by Emperor Joseph II on the initiative of his personal physician Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla , opens in Vienna.
- The University of New Brunswick ( University of New Brunswick ) is in Fredericton ( Canada established).
- The English priest Edmond Cartwright invents the Power Loom , the first steam-powered loom and the first automatic loom for wide fabrics.
- Immanuel Kant publishes the foundation for the metaphysics of morals .
Music and theater
- February 11 : The 20th Piano Concerto by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is the Vienna Casino to Mehlgrube premiered, with the composer himself takes the solo part.
- April 2nd : World premiere of the opera La finta principessa by Luigi Cherubini at King's Theater in London
- October 12 : World premiere of the opera La grotta di Trofonio by Antonio Salieri at the Burgtheater in Vienna
- February 26 : Barbara Erni , convicted of theft, is the last to be executed in the Principality of Liechtenstein .
nature and environment
- January 4 : Jacob Grimm , German linguist and literary scholar and lawyer († 1863 )
- January 6 : Karl Friedrich von Rumohr , German art historian, writer and gastrosoph († 1843 )
- January 8 : Jan Baptiste de Jonghe , Flemish-Belgian painter († 1844 )
- January 9 : Christian Moritz Pauli , German pedagogue and linguist († 1825 )
- January 13 : Ernst Carl von Ahlefeldt , Lord of the Oehe and Rögen estates († 1877 )
- January 15 : William Prout , British medic and chemist († 1850 )
- January 20 : Theodor Grotthuss , Latvian physicist and chemist († 1822 )
- January 23 : Carl Adolph Agardh , Swedish botanist († 1859 )
- January 26 : Ernst Siegfried Mittler , German publisher († 1870 )
- January 30 : Alexandre Abel de Pujol , French history painter († 1861 )
- January 31 : Charles Green (balloonist) , English aeronautical engineer († 1870 )
- February 2 : Isabella Colbran , Spanish opera singer († 1845 )
- February 7 : Frédéric-Auguste Quesnel , Canadian politician († 1866 )
- February 7 : Theophilus Friedrich Rothe , German lawyer († 1837 )
- February 8 : Heinrich Anschütz , German actor († 1865 )
- February 8 : Martín Miguel de Güemes , Argentine general of the War of Independence († 1821 )
- February 10 : Claude Louis Marie Henri Navier , French mathematician and physicist († 1836 )
- February 12 : Pierre Louis Dulong , French physicist and chemist († 1838 )
- February 13 : Johann Baptist Pflug , German painter († 1866 )
- February 20 : Karl von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , German nobleman († 1853 )
- February 21 : Karl August Varnhagen von Ense , German writer and biographer († 1858 )
- February 22nd : Jean Peltier , French physicist († 1845 )
- March 6 : Gesche Gottfried , German serial killer († 1831 )
- March 6 : Karol Kurpiński , Polish composer († 1857 )
- March 7th : Alessandro Manzoni , Italian writer († 1873 )
- March 11 : Eleonore Prochaska , German soldier († 1813 )
- March 11 : James Thomas , American politician († 1845 )
- March 14 : August Wilhelm Francke , Lord Mayor of Magdeburg († 1851 )
- March 19 : Pierre Zimmermann , French piano teacher and composer († 1853 )
- March 22nd : Adam Sedgwick , British founder of modern geology († 1873 )
- March 27th : Louis XVII. , French Dauphin († 1795 )
- March 28 : Ferdinand von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld-Koháry , German Lieutenant Field Marshal in Austrian service († 1851 )
- March 30 : Tomás Bobadilla , Dominican politician and lawyer and the first president of the Junta Central Gubernativa Definitiva of the Dominican Republic († 1871 )
- April 4 : Bettina von Arnim , German writer († 1859 )
- April 6 : Ludwig Snell , Swiss politician, constitutional lawyer, publicist and educator († 1854 )
- April 9 : Meinrad Amann , Austrian abbot of St. Paul Abbey († 1839 )
- April 14 : Thomas Butler , American politician († 1847 )
- April 21 : Charles-Joseph de Flahaut , French general and politician († 1870 )
- April 26 : John James Audubon , American ornithologist († 1851 )
- April 28 : Prosper Ludwig von Arenberg , Duke of Arenberg, Aarschot and Meppen, Prince of Recklinghausen, Count von der Marck († 1861 )
- May 1 : Antonie van Goudoever , Dutch literary scholar and classical philologist († 1857 )
- May 6 : Arvid August Afzelius , Swedish folk song collector († 1871 )
- May 9 : James Pollard Espy , American meteorologist († 1860 )
- May 13 : Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann , German historian and statesman († 1860 )
- May 13 : Hans Karl von Diebitsch-Sabalkanski , Russian field marshal († 1831 )
- May 16 : Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis , German doctor and professor († 1880 )
- May 19 : Gottfried Duden , German writer († 1855 )
- May 19 : Alois Vock , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman, educator and historian († 1857 )
- May 21 : Immanuel Bekker , German classical philologist († 1871 )
- May 30 : Johannes Scharrer , German entrepreneur and politician († 1844 )
- June 4 : Luman Reed , American entrepreneur and art patron († 1836 )
- June 12 : Konrad Melsbach , Prussian district administrator († 1840 )
- June 17 : Charles Ashe à Court-Repington , British general († 1861 )
- June 24 : Karl Friedrich Bachmann , German philosopher and mineralogist († 1855 )
- June 24 : Alexander Porter , American politician († 1844 )
- July 2 : Christian Friedrich Heinrich Sachse , German Protestant clergyman and hymn poet († 1860 )
- July 6 : William Jackson Hooker , British botanist († 1865 )
- July 7 : Domenico Gilardi , Swiss architect of neoclassicism in Moscow († 1845 )
- July 13 : Heinrich Ludwig Smalian , German chief forestry officer († 1848 )
- July 14th : Gottlob Christian Crusius , German philologist, educator and author († 1848 )
- July 20 : Mahmud II , Ottoman Sultan († 1839 )
- July 23 : Francisco Antonio Pinto , Chilean President († 1858 )
- July 25 : Reinhard Christian Wilhelm Aurelius Steimmig , German physician († 1840 )
- August 6 : Johann Andreas Schmeller , Bavarian Germanist and linguist († 1852 )
- August 9 : Carl August Schwerdgeburth , German engraver and painter († 1878 )
- August 13 : Otto von Arnim , German government official († 1820 )
- August 15 : Thomas De Quincey , British writer († 1859 )
- August 18 : Friedrich Wieck , German musician and music teacher († 1873 )
- August 23 : Friedrich Ammensdörfer , Franconian beer brewer, innkeeper and politician († 1850 )
- August 23 : Oliver Hazard Perry , American naval officer († 1819 )
- August 25 : Adam Wilhelm Moltke , Danish politician and the first democratically elected President of the Council († 1864 )
- August 27 : Agustín Gamarra , Peruvian President († 1841 )
- August 30 : Lin Zexu , Chinese civil servant († 1850 )
- September 1 : Philip Allen , American politician († 1865 )
- September 11th : Presley Spruance , American politician († 1863 )
- September 16 : Christian Friedrich Illgen , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1844 )
- September 25 : George Frederick Pinto , English composer († 1806 )
- September 30th : Ange Hyacinthe Maxence de Damas , French general († 1862 )
- October 6 : Albert Methfessel , German composer and conductor († 1869 )
- October 10 : Florestan I , Prince of Monaco († 1856 )
- October 13 : Maria Anna Amalie von Hessen-Homburg , wife of Wilhelm von Prussia († 1846 )
- October 13 : Jean-Charles Persil , French politician and lawyer († 1870 )
- October 15 : José Miguel Carrera , Chilean national hero and first president († 1821 )
- October 21 : Ebenezer Herrick , American politician († 1839 )
- October 22 : Adam von Faßmann , German pharmacist and politician († 1840 )
- October 22 : Georg Friedrich Kersting , German Romantic painter († 1847 )
- October 23 : Anton zu Stolberg-Wernigerode , Prussian Minister of State († 1854 )
- October 24 : Heinrich Hentzi von Arthurm , Austrian major general († 1849 )
- October 24 : William Burleigh , American politician († 1827 )
- October 25 : Enrico Acerbi , Italian medic († 1827 )
- October 25 : Thomas Brown , American politician († 1867 )
- October 30 : Hermann von Pückler-Muskau , German park designer and writer († 1871 )
- November 7th : Friedrich von Warnstedt , Danish civil servant († 1836 )
- November 11 : Diponegoro , Javanese freedom fighter († 1855 )
- November 11 : Christoph Gottlob Müller , German Methodist theologian († 1858 )
- November 18 : David Wilkie , British painter († 1841 )
- November 23 : Joannes Philippus Roothaan , Dutch order general († 1853 )
- November 24th : August Boeckh , German classical philologist and antiquarian († 1867 )
- November 27 : Henry Wheaton , American politician, diplomat and writer († 1848 )
- November 29 : Franz-Ludwig Mersy , German theologian († 1843 )
- December 1 : Achille-Charles-Léonce-Victor de Broglie , French statesman and diplomat († 1870 )
- December 4 : James Whitley Deans Dundas , British Admiral († 1862 )
- December 16 : James Noble , American politician († 1831 )
- December 19 : Joseph Johnson , American politician († 1877 )
- December 23 : Alfred Cuthbert , American politician († 1856 )
- December 25 : Christian Gottlob Wild , German pastor and founder of the dialect poetry of the Ore Mountains († 1839 )
- December 26 : Laurent Clerc , French deaf educator († 1869 )
- December 28 : Dorothea von Lieven , wife of the Russian general Christoph von Lieven († 1857 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Agriolidis , Ottoman leader of the Janissaries († 1828 )
- Christian von Appel , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal († 1854 )
- Alexander Buckner , American politician († 1833 )
- Robert Henry Dick , British major general († 1846 )
- Giovanni Ricordi , Italian music publisher († 1853 )
- Abram M. Scott , American politician († 1833 )
First half of the year
- January 3 : Baldassare Galuppi , Italian composer (* 1706 )
- January 23 : Caroline von Satzenhofen , abbess of the noble women's monastery Vilich and lover of the Electorate of Cologne's First Minister Caspar Anton von Belderbusch (* 1728 )
- January 28 : Johann Gottfried Clemen , German plantation owner (* 1728 )
- February 8 : Josias Lorck , German pastor (* 1723)
- March 3 : Balthasar Ferdinand Moll , Austrian sculptor (* 1717 )
- March 5 : Joseph Reed , American politician (* 1741 )
- March 14 : Christian Heinrich Wilhelm von Arnstedt , Prussian colonel and commander (* 1713 )
- March 14th : Friedrich Christoph von Saldern , Prussian general and war theorist (* 1719 )
- March 19 : Hugh Reinagle , English cellist and composer (* 1758 or 1759)
- April 6 : Johann Augustin Dietelmair , German Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1717 )
- April 24th : Friedrich , Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (* 1717 )
- April 26 : Karl Siegmund von Seckendorff , German poet (* 1744 )
- April 27 : Johann Seivert , Transylvanian-Saxon poet, historian and lexicographer (* 1735 )
- May 5th : Franz Xaver Schnizer , German composer and organist (* 1740 )
- May 8 : Étienne-François de Choiseul , French statesman (* 1719 )
- May 8 : Pietro Longhi , Venetian painter (* 1702 )
- May 15 : Karel Blažej Kopřiva , Czech composer (* 1756 )
- June 2 : Jean Paul de Gua de Malves , French clergyman and mathematician (* 1713 )
- June 2 : Gottfried August Homilius , German composer, cantor and organist (* 1714 )
- June 15 : Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier , French physicist and one of the first aviation pioneers (* 1754 )
Second half of the year
- July 6 : Friedrich August , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck and Duke of Oldenburg (* 1711 )
- July 12 : Louis-René de Caradeuc de La Chalotais , French lawyer (* 1701 )
- July 17th : Margaret Cavendish Bentinck , British botanist (* 1715 )
- July 18 : Stanislaw Czerniewicz , Polish order general (* 1728 )
- July 20 : Johann Bücher , German Protestant theologian (* 1721 )
- August 10 : Ephraim Paine , American politician (* 1730 )
- August 17th : Jonathan Trumbull , American politician (* 1740 )
- August 19 : Giuseppe Ignazio Appiani , Italian painter (* 1706 )
- August 20 : Jean-Baptiste Pigalle , French sculptor (* 1714 )
- August 26 : George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville , British soldier and politician (* 1716 )
- September 30 : Johann Jacob Moser , German constitutional law teacher (* 1701 )
- October 31 : Friedrich II , Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (* 1720 )
- November 16 : Honorius Roth von Schreckenstein , Prince Abbot of Kempten (* 1726 )
- November 16 : Johan Gottschalk Wallerius , Swedish chemist and mineralogist (* 1709 )
- November 18 : Louis-Philippe I de Bourbon , Duke of Orléans (* 1725 )
- December 3 : Joseph Brown , American astronomer and professor at Brown University (* 1733 )
- December 6th : Kitty Clive , English actress, soprano and author (* 1711 )
- December 8 : Johann Philipp Du Roi , German doctor and botanist (* 1741 )
- December 19 : Gian Pietro Riva , Swiss headmaster and translator (* 1696 )
- December 22nd : Jan de Witte , Polish architect and lieutenant general of the Crown Army (* 1709 )
- December 26th : Ignatz Anton von Weiser , playwright, dialect poet and mayor of Salzburg (* 1701 )