Calendar overview 1741
|Elisabeth becomes Empress of the Russian Empire through a coup .||Battle of Mollwitz , Prussia defeated the Austrians and thus defended the recently occupied Silesia .|
|Georg Friedrich Handel composes the oratorio Messiah .|
|1741 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1189/90 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1733/34 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1146/47 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2284/85 (southern Buddhism); 2283/84 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1103/04 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4074/75 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1119/20 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1153/54 (turn of the year 18/19 March)|
|Jewish calendar||5501/02 (September 10/11)|
|Coptic calendar||1457/58 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2051/52 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2052/53 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1797/98 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Austrian Succession
- February 16 : War of the Austrian Succession : Austria , Great Britain , Russia , Saxony and the Netherlands form a coalition against Prussia in Dresden .
- February 27 : In the battle near Baumgarten , the Prussian army wins over the Pragmatic Army .
- March 9th : First Silesian War : Leopold II. Maximilian von Anhalt-Dessau conquers the Glogau fortress for Prussia.
- March: An Austrian army marches into Silesia under Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg . At this point in time the Prussian troops are still scattered in their winter quarters.
- April 10th : In the Battle of Mollwitz , Prussia defeated the Austrians under Kurt Christoph von Schwerin after King Friedrich II left the battlefield, thus defending Silesia, which was occupied the previous year .
- May 28 : Spain and Bavaria ally themselves in the Treaty of Nymphenburg with Prussia and France against the Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa .
- June 5 : Prussia and France sign a five-year defense alliance.
- June 25th : Maria Theresa is crowned Queen of Hungary in St. Martin's Cathedral in Pressburg . The Hungarian cantons promise to support 20,000 soldiers.
- July 31 : With the capture of Passau by Bavarian troops, Elector Karl Albrecht of Bavaria intervenes in the War of the Austrian Succession .
- July 22nd : Attack at Rothschloss
- September: After Great Britain has already declared its neutrality, Electoral Saxony changes to the side of the anti-Austrian alliance. It is agreed with Bavaria that this should receive Bohemia after the division of the Habsburg hereditary lands , while Moravia should fall to Saxony.
- October 9 : With the secret convention of Klein-Schnellendorf , Austria and Prussia conclude a secret armistice in which Lower Silesia is awarded to the latter .
- November 26th : During the first Silesian war against the House of Habsburg and its allies in the War of the Austrian Succession , Prague is taken by the French, Saxons and Bavaria. Karl Albrecht of Bavaria is at the head of this army.
- December 19 : Karl Albrecht of Bavaria is crowned King of Bohemia by the Bohemian estates .
- Mid-December: Friedrich II marches under the pretext that Austria is not keeping the secrecy of the Klein-Schnellendorf Convention in Bohemia.
- December 26th : Prussia conquers Olomouc .
Russia / Sweden
- August 8 : The Swedish parliament declares war on Russia . In order for the to begin in 1743 permanent Russian-Swedish war , with the Swedish party of the hats trying to defeat the country in the Great Northern War to revise
- November 24th / 25th : In a palace revolution in Russia, the only one year old Tsar Ivan VI. and his ruling mother Anna Leopoldowna overthrown. Elizabeth Petrovna , the daughter of Peter the Great , comes to power. Prime Minister Burkhard Christoph von Münnich , of German origin , was arrested and sentenced to death in December, but pardoned on the scaffold. Anna Leopoldowna was sent into exile with her husband, and her son was held prisoner apart from her.
- December 20 : The former regent Ernst Johann von Biron , Duke of Courland , exiled to Siberia in the previous year , is brought back to the court of the tsars by the new empress and settles in Yaroslavl .
Other events in Europe
- June 17th : After the death of Alvise Pisani , Pietro Grimani is elected Doge of Venice in the first ballot . The people accepted the election of the procurator, who are considered stingy, with little enthusiasm. But although Grimani's assumption of office is not a lucky star and has been accompanied by numerous accidents, a time of peace and economic recovery begins for the Serenissima .
- July 26th : With the childless death of Duke Wilhelm Heinrich, his line of rule in the Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach expires , which then falls to the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar . Ernst August I. becomes the first duke of the new duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach .
- 23 August : With the Second Stade Settlement , an agreement is reached between the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Bremen on their claims to power.
America and the Caribbean
- January: In the War of Jenkins' Ear , a number of British infantry regiments specially transported across the Atlantic arrive in Jamaica .
- March 9th : The British besieged the port of Cartagena in the Spanish colony of New Granada . The attack was abandoned on May 9th ( Battle of Cartagena de Indias) .
- July 23 : British troops land in Guantanamo Bay in Cuba after an attack on Santiago de Cuba have ruled out because of the strong fortifications. But because of the poor road conditions, this attack also proves to be impossible.
- In Tennessee the first time enter slave laws in force. They are based on those from North Carolina .
- March 1 : The later Swiss bank Wegelin & Co. is founded in St. Gallen as a linen cloth trade and forwarding agency.
science and technology
- June 15 : Vitus Bering leaves Petropavlovsk as part of the second Kamchatka expedition by ship with the task of exploring the coast of America. Among other things, he discovers Alaska .
- July 25 : Russian captain Alexei Ilyich Tschirikow sighted land on the southeast coast of Alaska during the second Kamchatka expedition .
- December 19 : On the way back from his expedition, Vitus Bering dies presumably of cold and exhaustion on the Bering Island that was later named after him . 18 other crew members also did not survive the winter.
- January 10 : Deidamia , George Frideric Handel's last opera , premieres in London. The libretto is by Paolo Antonio Rolli .
- March 14 : In Vienna, Archduchess Maria Theresa allows the use of an empty ballroom on Michaelerplatz next to the Hofburg as a theater, from which the Burgtheater is created.
- April 10 : The tragedy Mahomet the Prophet by Voltaire premieres in Lille. Only three more performances followed in Paris at the Comédie-Française . Despite the great success with the public, the piece was removed from the repertoire after violent interventions by the church censor Prosper Jolyot Crébillon and the Jansenists .
- April 29th : The world premiere of the opera Ezio by Niccolò Jommelli with the libretto by Pietro Metastasio takes place in Bologna .
- May 27 : In Vienna, a band accompanies a military parade for the first time .
- August 22nd to September 14th : Georg Friedrich Händel composes the oratorio Messiah .
- December 26th : The opera Merope by Niccolò Jommelli is premiered at the start of the carnival season at the Teatro San Giovanni Crisostomo in Venice.
- The publisher Balthasar Schmid publishes the work Clavier Ubung consisting of an ARIA with various changes in front of the clavicimbal with 2 manuals by Johann Sebastian Bach for the first time in Nuremberg . After Bach's death, the piece became known as the Goldberg Variations .
- April 13 : The Prussian King Friedrich II has the Cologne newspaper publisher Johann Ignaz Roderique beaten up on the street for his pro- Austria reporting on the Silesian War.
- July 22nd : The rhinoceros Clara arrives on the ship Knappenhof under captain Douwe Mout van der Meer Rotterdam.
- June 30th : In the encyclical Quanta Cura , Pope Benedict XIV addresses grievances in the demand for remuneration for masses and demands proper practice from the clergy.
- August 29 : A volcanic eruption on the island of Oshima-Inselshima is accompanied by a tsunami in the Sea of Japan that kills at least 1,600 people.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
- January 6th : Sarah Trimmer , English author († 1810 )
- January 14 : Benedict Arnold , American, later British general († 1801 )
- January 20 : Carl von Linné the Younger , Swedish botanist († 1783 )
- January 27 : Hester Thrale , English author, salonière and patron of the arts († 1821 )
- January 28 : Johann August Weppen , German civil servant and writer († 1812 )
- January 31 : Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel , Prussian politician and writer († 1796 )
- January 31 : Engelhard Benjamin Schwickert , German publisher († 1825 )
- February 4 : Elizabeth Batts , English landlady, wife of James Cook († 1835 )
- February 7th : Johann Heinrich Füssli , Swiss-British painter and publicist († 1825 )
- February 8 : André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry , Flemish-French composer († 1813 )
- February 9 : Ferdinand Franz Maria Bouget , German colonel († 1818 )
- February 19 : Fyodor Grigoryevich Orlov , Russian lieutenant general, brother of Grigory Orlow († 1796 )
- February 26 : Johann Nepomuk Holzhey , south German organ builder († 1809 )
- March 12 : Ernst Jakob Danovius , German Lutheran theologian († 1782 )
- March 13 : Joseph II , Holy Roman Emperor, Archduke of Austria and King of Bohemia, Croatia and Hungary († 1790 )
- March 16 : Carlo Amoretti , Italian scholar († 1816 )
- March 20 : Meinard Tydeman the Elder , Dutch legal scholar and historian († 1825 )
- March 25 : Jean-Antoine Houdon , French sculptor († 1828 )
- March 25th : Daniel Schiebeler , German writer and hymn poet († 1771 )
- March 26 : Jean-Michel Moreau , French engraver and etcher († 1814 )
- March 28 : Johann André , German musician, composer and music publisher († 1799 )
- April 3 : Johann August Reichardt , German legal scholar († 1808 )
- April 5 : Johann Baptist Ambrosi , German theologian († 1796 )
- April 6 : Nicolas Chamfort , French writer († 1794 )
- April 14 : Momozono , Tennō of Japan († 1762 )
- April 15 : Charles Willson Peale , American portrait and landscape painter († 1827 )
- April 17 : Samuel Chase , one of the founding fathers of the USA († 1811 )
- April 17 : Carl Conti , Austrian engraver († 1795 )
- April 17 : Johann Gottlieb Naumann , German composer, conductor and Kapellmeister († 1801 )
- April 22nd : Urban Klieber , Austrian sculptor († 1803 )
- May 5 : John Archer , American politician († 1810 )
- May 6 : Josef Ignác Buček , Bohemian university professor, author of economic works († 1821 )
- May 11 : Johann Christian Albinus , German civil servant († 1807 )
- May 23 : Andrea Lucchesi , Italian composer, organist and conductor († 1801 )
- June 10 : Joseph Warren , American officer († 1775 )
- June 10 : Karl August Schlockwerder , German lawyer and mayor of Wittenberg († 1800 ),
- June 17 : Samuel Maclay , American politician († 1811 )
- June 26 : John Langdon , American politician, governor of New Hampshire († 1819 )
- June 27 : Marie-Madeleine Jodin , French actress, philosopher and feminist († 1790 )
- July 2 : Susanna Jacobina Jungert , German soprano († 1799 )
- July 13 : Carl Friedrich Hindenburg , German mathematician, professor of philosophy and physics († 1808 )
- August 19 : Szczepan Hołowczyc , Archbishop of Warsaw († 1823 )
- August 20 : Vincenzo Brenna , Italian-Russian architect and painter († 1820 )
- 23 August : Jean-François de La Pérouse , French navigator, circumnavigator and geographer († 1788 )
- August 28 : Johann Christian Kestner , German lawyer and archivist, husband of Charlotte Buff († 1800 )
- August 31 : Jean-Paul-Égide Martini , German-French composer († 1816 )
- September 3 : Johann Wilhelm von Archenholz , Prussian officer, writer and editor († 1812 )
- September 4 : Friedrich August Wilhelm Wenck , German historian († 1810 )
- September 22nd : Peter Simon Pallas , German naturalist, geographer and explorer († 1811 )
- September 25 : Václav Pichl , Czech violinist, composer and music director († 1805 )
- September 27 : Beda Plank , Austrian Catholic clergyman, playwright and rainbow choir in Kremsmünster Abbey († 1830 )
- October 2 : Augustin Barruel , French clergyman, conservative publicist and historian († 1820 )
- October 2 : Johann Christian von Mannlich , German painter and architect († 1822 )
- October 4 : Franciszek Karpiński , Polish poet and playwright († 1825 )
- October 10 : Charles II , Grand Prince of Mecklenburg († 1816 )
- October 18 : Pierre-Ambroise-François Choderlos de Laclos , French writer and officer († 1803 )
- November 15 : Johann Caspar Lavater , Swiss Reformed theologian, philosopher and writer († 1801 )
- November 20 : Christian Friedrich Schmidt , German philosopher and Lutheran theologian († 1778 )
- November 29 : Friedrich , Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym († 1812 )
- December 3 : Jonathan Arnold , American doctor and politician († 1793 )
- December 8 : Marie-Elisabeth Colomb , Prussian Huguenot merchant's daughter, mother of Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt († 1796 )
- December 10 : Aagje Deken , Dutch poet († 1804 )
- December 10 : Salomon Landolt , Swiss politician († 1818 )
- December 16 : Nathan ben Simeon ha-Kohen Adler , German Kabbalist and rabbi, founder of a West Jewish-Hasidic movement († 1800 )
- December 25 : Friedrich Karl , Prince von Wied and Count von Isenburg († 1809 )
- December 25 : Heinrich Zimmermann , traveler and travel writer from the Electoral Palatinate († 1805 )
- December 31 : Isabella von Bourbon-Parma , Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria, Crown Princess of Bohemia and Hungary († 1763 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Nidhu Babu , Indian composer and poet († 1839 )
- Carlo Canobbio , Italian composer and violinist († 1822 )
- Friedrich Pischelberger , Viennese double bass player († 1813 )
- Maria Rønning , Norwegian immigrant to the Faroe Islands and weaver († 1807 )
- Scipione de 'Ricci , Italian Catholic clergyman († 1810 )
- Phraya Phichai , Siamese nobleman in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya († 1782 )
Born around 1741
First half of the year
- January 15 : Ramon Despuig , Grand Master of the Order of Malta (* 1670 )
- January 25 : Maria Karolina of Austria , Austrian princess (* 1740 )
- January 31 : Heinrich von Hessen-Darmstadt , German prince, imperial general (* 1674)
- February 13 : Johann Joseph Fux , Austrian composer and music theorist (* 1660 )
- February 15 : Georg Raphael Donner , Austrian sculptor and medalist (* 1693 )
- February 19 : Andrea Locatelli , Italian landscape painter (* 1695 )
- February 21 : Jethro Tull , British agricultural pioneer (* 1674 )
- February 22nd : Peter Solderer , Mayor of Timisoara (* 1690 )
- March 13 : Renier Roidkin , Walloon painter (* 1684 )
- March 16 : Jean-Baptiste Rousseau , French writer (* 1671 )
- April 2 : Christoph Hackner , Silesian architect (* 1663 )
- April 4 : Froben Ferdinand , Prince von Fürstenberg, Imperial Principal Commissioner at the Reichstag in Regensburg (* 1664 )
- April 7th : Georg Sigismund Caspari , German organ builder (* 1693 )
- April 10 : Celia Fiennes , English travel writer (* 1662 )
- May 3 : Joseph Munggenast , Austrian baroque master builder (* 1680 )
- May 5th : Eleonore Elisabeth Amalia Magdalena von Lobkowitz , Princess of Schwarzenberg (* 1682 )
- May 9 : José de Santiago Concha , Spanish lawyer and governor of Chile (* 1667 )
- May 15 : Jakob Christoph Le Blon , German painter, engraver and inventor (* 1667 )
- May 19 : Valentin Ulrich Grotian , East Frisian organ builder (* 1663 )
- May 25 : Adrian Bernhard von Borcke , Prussian General Field Marshal and Minister (* 1668 )
- May 27 : Christoph Ernst Steinbach , German doctor and lexicographer (* 1698 )
- June 15 : Urban Gottfried Siber , German Protestant theologian (* 1669 )
- June 17th : Alvise Pisani , Doge of Venice (* 1664 )
Second half of the year
- July 3 : Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine , Queen of Sardinia (* 1711 )
- July 26 : Jakob Maximilian von Thun and Hohenstein , Bishop of Gurk (* 1681 )
- July 26 : Wilhelm Heinrich , Duke of Saxony-Eisenach (* 1691 )
- July 28th : Antonio Vivaldi , Venetian composer (* 1678 )
- July 30th : Wirich Philipp von und zu Daun , Prince of Teano and Imperial Field Marshal (* 1669 )
- August 22nd : Pedro de Castro y Figueroa , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, viceroy of New Spain (* 1678 )
- August 26th : Maria Elisabeth of Austria , governor of the Austrian Netherlands (* 1680 )
- September 2 : Andreas Charitius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1690 )
- September 7th : Henry Desmarest , French composer (* 1661 )
- September 9 : Pauline Félicité de Mailly-Nesle , French nobleman and mistress of Louis XV. (* 1712 )
- September 11th : Johann Jacob Schübler , Nuremberg Baroque master builder, architectural theorist and writer and mathematician (* 1689 )
- October 8 : Charles Campbell , British military and politician (* around 1695 )
- October 9 : Domenico Lalli , Neapolitan librettist (* 1679 )
- October 11 : Joseph Talcott , British governor of the Colony of Connecticut (* 1669 )
- October 15 : Anna Maria Franziska von Sachsen-Lauenburg , Countess Palatinate of Neuburg and Grand Duchess of Tuscany (* 1672 )
- October 21 : Louis De l'Isle de la Croyère , French astronomer (* 1690 )
- November 2 : Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini , Venetian painter (* 1675 )
- November 20 : Melchior de Polignac , French cardinal, diplomat and poet (* 1661 )
- November 20 : Anna Barbara Walch-Künkelin , Schorndorfer citizen and leader of the "Schorndorfer Women" (* 1651 )
- November 24th : Eleonore Batthyány-Strattmann , Viennese court lady (* 1672 )
- November 28 : Louis-François Duplessis de Mornay , French Capuchin and Bishop of Québec in New France (* 1663 )
- December 5th : Ulrike Eleonore , Queen of Sweden and Duchess of Bremen-Verden (* 1688 )
- December 19 : Vitus Bering , Danish-Russian naval officer and explorer (* 1681 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Matthäus des Angles , French sculptor, painter and draftsman (* 1667 )
- Françoise Prévost , French prima ballerina (* around 1680 )
- Henriette Wolters , Dutch mini choir painter (* 1682 or 1692 )