Calendar overview 1688
|England the Glorious Revolution of Parliament against King James II begins .||William III. of Orange lands at Brixham with the Dutch army .|
|Great Turkish War , the imperial army conquered Belgrade .|
|1688 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1136/37 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1680/81 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1093/94 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2231/32 (southern Buddhism); 2230/31 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1050/51 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4021/22 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1099/1100 (turn of the year 25/26 October)|
|Jewish calendar||5448/49 (September 24/25)|
|Coptic calendar||1404/05 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1998/99 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1999/2000 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1744/45 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- May 9 : Friedrich Wilhelm , the Great Elector, dies. A week after his death, the Secret Council meets for the first time, chaired by his son Friedrich III. Although Friedrich Wilhelm ordered the division of Brandenburg-Prussia between his five sons, in violation of the Hohenzollern house laws that had been in force since 1473 , the heir to the throne succeeds after lengthy negotiations and detailed legal opinions with the support of his teacher and minister Eberhard von Danckelman, against his siblings enforce and preserve the unity of the country.
Great Turkish War
- September 6th : Great Turkish War : Imperial troops headed by the Bavarian Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel conquer Belgrade , which is in Ottoman hands . You can hold the city until 1690.
- After the capture of Belgrade, the Tschiprowzi uprising against the Ottoman rule broke out in Bulgaria . The uprising was quickly crushed by Ottoman troops, however, and the city of Tschiprovzi burned down. Part of the population can flee and settle in the Austrian region of Banat (see Banat Bulgarian ).
Cologne diocese dispute and War of the Palatinate Succession
- Beginning of the year: Maximilian Heinrich von Bayern , who as Archbishop and Elector of Cologne followed a strictly pro-French course, appoints Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg as his coadjutor and thus his potential successor. Pope Innocent XI. who, however, is skeptical about a further expansion of power by Louis XIV , refuses to approve this survey.
- After Maximilian Heinrich's death on June 5, there was an election in which Wilhelm Egon received a majority, but not the two-thirds majority required by canon law. Innocent XI. then appoints the defeated Joseph Clemens of Bavaria as the new Archbishop of Cologne and Prince Provost of Berchtesgaden . Emperor Leopold I accepts and supports this decision. In doing so, both ignore the fact that on the one hand Joseph Clemens did not actually reach the necessary canonical age at the age of seventeen and on the other hand he also did not receive a two-thirds majority. Louis XIV does not accept the papal-imperial decision and sends von Fürstenberg, who in the meantime has militarily occupied the residential city of Bonn and all strategically important places of the archbishopric, a strong army to help. The Cologne diocese dispute ended in the Palatinate War of Succession and lasted for several years.
- September 24th : The Palatine War of Succession between France and the Augsburg League begins with a war manifesto by Louis XIV .
- October 17th : The city of Mainz is handed over to France without a fight. In the following year Mainz was besieged .
- October 30 : After 32 days of the siege of Philippsburg , the fortress garrison surrenders to French troops in the Palatinate War of Succession , commanded by General Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban .
Glorious Revolution in England
- The Glorious Revolution in England against King James II because of his absolutist aspirations and policy of tolerance against the Catholics begins.
- November 5 : Wilhelm III. of Orange lands at Brixham with the Dutch army .
- December: James II sinks the Great State Seal in the Thames and flees to France. The way for the accession to the throne of Wilhelm III. is thus leveled.
- July 11th : Narai , king of the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya , dies without leaving a legitimate descendant. This clears the way for Phetracha, who belongs to the anti-French faction at court . He marries the daughter of the late monarch to legitimize his rule and usurps the throne. One of his first acts is the expulsion of all French from the Thai kingdom .
- February 18 : The company Lloyd's of London , founded by Edward Lloyd , is mentioned for the first time in a newspaper article in the London Gazette - at that time still as a coffee house .
science and technology
- July 7 : In a letter to John Locke formulated William Molyneux as Molyneux's problem became known philosophical question.
- June 30th and July 10th : The earthquake in Izmir kills up to 19,000 people. The Sanjak castle is completely destroyed.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 6 : Immanuel Ignaz von Nassau-Siegen , officer in Spanish and imperial services († 1735 )
- January 29 : Emanuel Swedenborg , Swedish scientist, mystic and theologian († 1772 )
- February 4 : Pierre Carlet de Marivaux , French writer († 1763 )
- February 5 : Moritz Wilhelm , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg († 1731 )
- February 15 : Nicolas Fréret , French historian († 1749 )
- March 22 : Joachim Daniel von Jauch , German engineer officer and architect († 1754 )
- March 25 : Johann Gotthilf Ziegler , German composer and organist († 1747 )
- April 15 : Johann Friedrich Fasch , German composer († 1758 )
- April 15 : Johann Georg Bergmüller , German painter († 1762 )
- April 19 : Ernst August I , Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach († 1748 )
- April 29 : Charles-Nicolas Cochin the Elder , French draftsman, etcher and engraver († 1754 )
- May 8 : François Robichon de la Guérinière , French riding instructor, inventor of modern horsemanship († 1751 )
- May 12 : Johann Andreas Rothe , German pastor and song writer († 1758 )
- May 21 : Alexander Pope , British poet († 1744 )
Second half of the year
- August 14 : Friedrich Wilhelm I , King in Prussia and Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg († 1740 )
- August 14 : Johann Leonhard Rost , German poet and astronomer († 1727 )
- September 1 : Friedrich Ludwig , Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen († 1750 )
- September 12 : Ferdinand Maximilian Brokoff , German baroque sculptor († 1731 )
- October 5 : Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen , Hanover statesman († 1770 )
- October 8 : Johann Ulrich König , German writer († 1744 )
- October 11 : Adolf Gideon Bartholdi , German educator († 1768 )
- October 17 : Domenico Zipoli , Italian Baroque composer, organist and missionary († 1726 )
- October 19 : Antonio Corradini , Venetian sculptor († 1752 )
- October 22nd : Nadir Shah , Shah of Persia and founder of the Afsharid dynasty († 1747 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Zacharias Hildebrandt , German organ builder († 1757 )
- William Wyndham, 3rd Baronet , English nobleman and politician († 1740 )
First half of the year
- January 8 : Francesco Foggia , Italian Baroque composer (* 1604 )
- January 26th : Wolfgang Christoph Truchsess von Waldburg , Major General of Brandenburg (* 1643 )
- March 4 : Mose Gideon Abudiente , Portuguese rabbi and author (* around 1610 )
- March 10th : Johann Jakob Redinger , Swiss Protestant clergyman, philologist and headmaster (* 1619 )
- March 20 : Marie von Oranien-Nassau , Countess Palatine von Simmern (* 1642 )
- March 23 : Marcantonio Giustinian , 107th Doge of Venice (* 1619 )
- May 9 : Friedrich Wilhelm , "the Great Elector", Elector of Brandenburg (* 1620 )
- May 14 : Antoine Furetière , French writer, scholar and lexicographer (* 1619 )
- May 22 : Johann Andreas Quenstedt , German theologian, last representative of Lutheran High Orthodoxy (1600–1680) (* 1617 )
- May 27 : Anna Elisabeth , Princess of Saxony-Lauenburg and Countess of Hesse-Homburg (* 1624 )
- June 1 : Peder Hansen Resen , Danish lawyer and historian (* 1625 )
- June 3 : François Andréossy , French engineer, topographer and cartographer (* 1633 )
- June 5 : Maximilian Heinrich of Bavaria , Archbishop of Cologne, Bishop of Hildesheim and Liège and Prince Provost of Berchtesgaden Abbey (* 1621 )
Second half of the year
- July 11th : Narai , King of the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya (now Thailand)
- July 21 : James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde , Anglo-Irish statesman and soldier (* 1610 )
- August 25th : Henry Morgan , English privateer (* around 1635 )
- August 31 : Maria Magdalena von Oettingen , second wife of Margrave Wilhelm von Baden (* 1619 )
- August 31 : John Bunyan , Baptist preacher and writer from England (* 1628 )
- September 15 : Otto Wilhelm Graf von Königsmarck , Venetian generalissimo against the Turks (* 1639 )
- October 13 : Pedro de Mena y Medrano , Spanish sculptor (* around 1628 )
- October 14 : Joachim von Sandrart , German painter, engraver and art historian (* 1606 )
- October 15 : Anna Salome von Salm-Reifferscheidt , abbess of the Essen monastery (* 1622 )
- October 28 : Șerban I. Cantacuzino , voivode of Wallachia (* around 1640 )
- November 8th : Johann Caspar Schweizer , Swiss Protestant clergyman, philologist and university professor (* 1620 )
- November 18 : Matthias Wasmuth , German orientalist and Lutheran theologian (* 1625 )
- November 22nd : Brandanus Daetrius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1607 )
- November 28 or November 29 : Bohuslav Ludvík Balbín , Czech Jesuit, man of letters, historian, geographer, patriot and advocate of the Czech language, active participant in the re-Catholicization (* 1621 )
- John E. Wills : 1688: A Global History London, New York City 2001; ISBN 0-393-32278-5 ; German translation: 1688 - The world on the eve of the global age. ; 2002; ISBN 3-7857-2088-2