Calendar overview 1747
|Battle of Lauffeldt in the War of the Austrian Succession , the French under Moritz von Sachsen defeated the Pragmatic Army with heavy losses .|
Johann Sebastian Bach composes the
Musical Offering .
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf discovers sugar
in beetroot .
|1747 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1195/96 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1739/40 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1152/53 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2290/91 (southern Buddhism); 2289/90 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1109/10 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4080/81 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1125/26 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1159/60 (turn of the year January 12th / 13th)|
|Jewish calendar||5507/08 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Coptic calendar||1463/64 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2057/58 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2058/59 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1803/04 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Austrian Succession
- January: Due to a lack of provisions in the War of the Austrian Succession, the allied Austrians and Sardinians have to break off the siege of Antibes and withdraw from Provence , which was conquered last year . Instead, they begin the siege of Genoa . A French army under Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet de Belle-Isle approaches to relieve the city, whereupon the Austrians retreat to Lombardy .
- May 14 : A superior British fleet under George Anson defeated a French squadron under Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de La Jonquière that was serving to protect a convoy to Canada in the First Sea Battle at Cape Finisterre and took all warships and a few merchant ships as prizes .
- June 2 : After the conquest of the Austrian Netherlands , the French army advances against the Netherlands under the command of Moritz von Sachsen : In the battle of Lauffeldt near Maastricht , the French defeat the allies commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland Austrians, British and Dutch , however, suffer more than twice as high losses. After three months of siege, Bergen op Zoom and Dutch Flanders also fell into the hands of the French.
- July 19 : In the battle of the Assietta near Turin, French troops under General Belle-Isle in the War of the Austrian Succession give up their attack on a mountain position held by allied units from Sardinia and Austria under Giovanni Battista Cacherano di Bricherasio after five hours and heavy losses.
- September 18 : The siege of Bergen op Zoom , which began on July 1, ends after a general attack that completely overwhelms the Dutch defenders with the conquest of the Dutch fortress by French troops under Ulrich von Löwendal . The subsequent, brutal looting of the city is condemned across Europe. The siege cost the attackers about 20,000 dead, wounded and sick people, the defenders about 8,000 dead, wounded and sick people.
- October 25 : The British also win the Second Sea Battle at Cape Finisterre over a French convoy. Under Admiral Edward Hawke , the British bring up six ships. Only the French flagship and one more ship can escape.
- October 30th : The Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa signs a treaty with Russia which provides that 37,000 Russian soldiers are to advance to the Rhine in the following year.
Further events in the empire
- March 16 : After the death of his father Christian August , Friedrich August becomes Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst at the age of 14 .
- April 7th : After the death of Leopold I , his son Leopold II becomes Maximilian Prince of Anhalt-Dessau . He tries to reduce the high national debt he has found by restricting the keeping of the court.
- The Wasung War , a military conflict between the two Ernestine Duchies of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Saxe-Meiningen begins. The reason for the war is a dispute between two ladies-in-waiting at the Meininger court as to who has priority at court. Duke Anton Ulrich intervenes in the dispute by harassing one of the women and her family with harsh arbitrary measures. The latter then calls the Reich Chamber of Commerce : however, the duke does not recognize the verdict against the duke. This in turn provides Friedrich III. von Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg a pretext to march into Saxe-Meiningen with his troops and occupy the town of Wasungen in order to enforce the decision of the Reich Chamber of Commerce. In the course of the war there were no significant fighting.
- Troops from Hessen-Darmstadt march into Hessen-Homburg . Landgrave Ludwig VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt disputes the power of government with his cousin Friedrich IV after he married Ulrike Luise zu Solms-Braunfels and a possible heir to the throne is in prospect.
- August 1 : The Dress Act , enacted as part of the Act of Proscription in response to the Jacobite Uprising, prohibits Scots from wearing kilts and plaids and tartans . However, the entry into force is initially postponed for one year to August 1, 1748.
- June 20 : The Persian ruler Nadir Shah is murdered by his own generals during a campaign. He is succeeded by his nephew Adil Shah on the peacock throne . He murders Reza Gholi Mirza and Emam Gholi Mirza, Nadir Shah's children and heirs to the throne, as well as the other descendants, but spares Nadir's grandson Shah Ruch , who is only 14 years old at the time.
- After Nadir Shah's death, Ahmad Shah Durrani was able to take control of the eastern part of the crumbling Persian Empire around the city of Kabul and founded the Durrani Empire, the first independent state of the Afghans . In the same year he invades Punjab .
- From the crumbling empire, the Ardabil Khanate , the Ganja Khanate , the Nakhichevan Khanate and the Sheki Khanate , previously vassal states of Persia, emerged as independent small empires.
- January 11 : Hofjägermeister Johann Georg von Langen founded on behalf of Duke Charles I of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel the porcelain manufacturer Fürstenberg . A little later, around 500 meters from Fürstenberg Castle, the Alte Brennhaus was built as one of the first factory buildings . The old mill , built as a windmill from 1744 onwards, already exists on a neighboring property and is converted into a laboratory for the porcelain manufactory.
- The later porcelain factory Nymphenburg is founded.
- The Landschaftliche Buchdruckerei in Hanover starts printing the Hanover Church Chant Book , Genesius' Catechism and a calendar.
- Abraham Dürninger takes over the common shop of the Moravian Brethren .
science and technology
- February 14 : The world's first engineering school , the École nationale des ponts et chaussées, is set up in Paris .
- Andreas Sigismund Marggraf discovered a particularly high sugar content in beetroot .
- The Real Universidad de San Felipe is the first university in Chile to offer a comprehensive range of subjects.
- Bernhard Siegfried Albinus publishes his main work Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani , the most important work of the 18th century on human anatomy.
- The Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam , commissioned by King Friedrich II of Prussia and built by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff , is completed after two years of construction. The inauguration of the Weinbergschloss takes place on May 1st , although not all rooms are available yet.
- Prince Friedrich III. von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg commissioned the Weimar architect Gottfried Heinrich Krohne to transform the Ordonanzgarten in the Schlosspark of Schloss Friedenstein in Gotha into an orangery based on the French model, with the aim of collecting, growing and presenting exotic plants. Krohne designs a uniform, symmetrical overall complex in tea-shape with two large cold houses and adjacent greenhouses on the north and south sides.
- Guillaume Thomas François Raynal published his first texts in the Nouvelles littéraires, which he founded .
Music and theater
- January 28 : The premiere of the opera The Abandoned Dido ( Dido abbandonata ) by Niccolò Jommelli takes place at the Teatro Apollo in Rome .
- April 1 : The oratorio Judas Maccabaeus by George Frideric Handel has its world premiere at the Theater Royal in Covent Garden . The libretto is by Thomas Morell .
- May 7. bis 7. July : Johann Sebastian Bach composed the Musical Offering .
- Spring: Douwe Mout van der Meer undertakes another tour of Europe with the rhinoceros Clara . On April 19, it will be presented to August III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland and the royal-electoral family.
- November 21 : Court and Cammer composer Leopold Mozart marries Anna Maria Pertl in Salzburg Cathedral .
- September 10th : Andreas Jakob von Dietrichstein is elected Prince Archbishop of Salzburg . He succeeds Jakob Ernst von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn , who died on June 12th .
- Construction of León Cathedral in Nicaragua begins.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 4 : Johann Kaspar Coqui , Magdeburg factory owner and local politician († 1824 )
- January 11 : Franz Georg von Keeß , Austrian lawyer († 1799 )
- January 11 : François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt , French duke, politician, social reformer and entrepreneur († 1827 )
- January 18 : Michele Di Pietro , Italian cardinal († 1821 )
- January 19 : Johann Elert Bode , German astronomer († 1826 )
- January 21 : Sophie von Coudenhoven , German noblewoman and confidante of Mainz Elector Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal († 1825 )
- February 10 : Yasuaki Aida , Japanese mathematician († 1817 )
- March 8 : Johann Peter Melchior , Prussian sculptor and porcelain designer († 1825 )
- March 25 : Nivard Schlimbach , German Cistercian abbot († 1812 )
- March 27 : Johann Bernhard Crespel , German lawyer and childhood friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe († 1813 )
- March 31 : Johann Abraham Peter Schulz , German musician and composer († 1800 )
- April 13 : Louis Philippe II. De Bourbon , Duke of Orléans, known as Philippe Égalité, member of the French royal family († 1793 )
- April 13 : Armand-Louis de Gontaut , Duke of Biron, until 1788 Duke of Lauzun, French general († 1793 )
- May 5 : Leopold II , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, Archduke of Austria and King of Bohemia, Croatia and Hungary, Grand Duke of Tuscany († 1792 )
- May 9 : Ferdinand Anton Christian von Ahlefeldt , Danish diplomat († 1815 )
- May 11 : Carl May , German confectioner and cork carver († 1822 )
- May 27 : René Levasseur , French doctor, revolutionary and politician († 1834)
- June 14 : Viktor Franz Anton Glutz-Rüchti , Swiss Catholic clergyman († 1824 )
- June 15 : Detlev von Ahlefeldt , Danish Chamberlain and District Administrator († 1796 )
- June 17 : Pierre-Antoine Antonelle , French politician, journalist and revolutionary († 1817 )
- June 26 : Leopold Koželuh , Bohemian composer and music teacher († 1818 )
Second half of the year
- July 2nd : Rose Bertin , French seamstress, hat maker and milliner († 1813 )
- July 6th : John Paul Jones , Scottish pirate, naval hero, naval pioneer and freedom fighter in the American War of Independence († 1792 )
- July 10 : Wilhelmine Karoline of Denmark , Electress of Hesse († 1820 )
- July 15 : Teresa Margareta Redi , Italian Carmelite and Catholic saint († 1770 )
- July 22nd : Ernst Ludwig Heim , German doctor († 1834 )
- July 22nd : Maria Katharina Prestel , German painter, engraver and etcher († 1794 )
- July 25 : José da Costa e Silva , Portuguese architect († 1819 )
- August 4th : Henrich Becker , East Frisian painter († 1819 )
- August 14 : August of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg , German nobleman, patron and esthete († 1806 )
- August 21 : Franz de Paula von schrank , German Jesuit, botanist and entomologist († 1835 )
- August 22nd : Andreas Stütz , Austrian geologist and mineralogist († 1806 )
- September 1 : Heinrich Adolph Grimm , German Protestant theologian and orientalist († 1813 )
- September 6 : Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, prince de Lamballe , French prince († 1768 )
- September 11th : Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel , Landgrave of Hessen-Rumpenheim († 1837 )
- September 29 : Józef Wybicki , Kashubian-Polish politician and writer († 1822 )
- September 30 : Friedrich Justin Bertuch , German publisher and patron († 1822 )
- October 6 : Jean François Reubell , French politician and member of the board of directors († 1807 )
- October 19 : Johann Wilhelm Wendt , German builder, painter and silhouette cutter († 1815 )
- October 20 : Robert Burton , American politician († 1825 )
- October 31 : Johann Karl Wezel , German poet, writer and educator († 1819 )
- November 17 : Carsten Anker , Norwegian businessman and politician († 1824 )
- November 17 : Franz Samuel Karpe , philosopher and university professor († 1806 )
- November 28 : Franz Andreas Holly , Bohemian composer († 1783 )
- December 18 : Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer , French general and Minister of War of France († 1804 )
- December 27 : Richard Luke Concanen , Roman Catholic Bishop of New York († 1810 )
- December 31 : Gottfried August Bürger , German poet († 1794 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ahmad ibn 'Ajiba , poet, scholar and Wali from Morocco, Sufi from the Darqawiyya-Tariqa, a branch of the Shadhiliyya († 1809 )
- Ignacio de la Carrera , Chilean aristocrat and politician († 1819 )
- Ivan Chandoschkin , Russian composer († 1804 )
- Tomás de Figueroa , Spanish officer and putschist in Chile († 1811 )
- Elisabetha Gaßner ( Schwarze Lies ), German thief and prostitute († 1788 )
- Namiki Gohei I. , Japanese Kabuki actor and author († 1808 )
- José de Rezabal y Ugarte , Spanish judge and colonial administrator, governor in the General Capitanate of Chile († 1800 )
- Shiba Kōkan , Japanese painter († 1818 )
- Raynor Taylor , English composer, organist and music teacher († 1825 )
- Augustin Zippe , Bohemian Rector and Dean of the General Seminary in Prague († 1816 )
January to April
- January 2 : Jean-Féry Rebel , French violinist and composer (* 1666 )
- January 16 : Barthold Heinrich Brockes , German writer and poet (* 1680 )
- January 18 : Antonio de Literes , Spanish composer and cellist (* 1673 )
- January 25th : Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta , Spanish bishop and colonial administrator, viceroy of New Spain (* 1682 )
- January 27 : Gottlieb Siegmund Corvinus , German poet, editor and lawyer (* 1677 )
- February 22nd : Peter Conrad Monath , German publisher (* around 1683 )
- February 23 : Johann Adolph Wedel , German medic (* 1675 )
- February 27 : Johann Jacob von Wasmer , Royal Danish Vice Chancellor (* 1671 )
- March 12th : Samuel Crell , German Unitarian preacher, theologian and writer (* 1660 )
- March 12th : Miwang Pholhane Sönam Tobgye , Tibetan general and politician, ruler of Tibet (* 1689 )
- March 14th : Matthias Johann von der Schulenburg , Prussian imperial count, heir to Emden and field marshal in the service of the Republic of Venice (* 1661 )
- March 16 : Christian August , Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, Prussian field marshal and father of Catherine the Great (* 1690 )
- March 19 : Katharina Opalińska , Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania and Duchess of Lorraine and Bar (* 1680 )
- March 23 : Claude Alexandre de Bonneval , French adventurer (* 1675 )
- April 2 : Johann Jacob Dillen , German botanist (* 1684 )
- April 3 : Francesco Solimena , Neapolitan painter (* 1657 )
- April 7 : Leopold I , Prince of Anhalt-Dessau as well as Prussian military leader and military reformer (* 1676 )
- April 9th : Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat , Scottish clan leader (* around 1667 )
- April 10 : Johann Werner von Broich , aldermen and mayor of the imperial city of Aachen (* 1675 )
- April 14 : Jean Frédéric Ostervald , Swiss Reformed theologian (* 1663 )
- April 24th : Johann Georg Fischer , German stonemason and master builder (* 1673 )
May to August
- May 6 : Jacob-Sigisbert Adam , French sculptor (* 1670 )
- May 9 : John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair , Scottish soldier and diplomat (* 1673 )
- May 18 : Bernardino Zendrini , Venetian hydraulic engineer, doctor, astronomer and mathematician (* 1679 )
- May 19 : Johann Friedrich Crell , German anatomist and physiologist (* 1707 )
- May 21 : Giovanni Baratta , Italian sculptor (* 1670 )
- May 24th : Ernst August Charbonnier , German horticultural artist, probably of French descent (* 1677 )
- May 28 : Luc de Clapiers, Marquis de Vauvenargues , French philosopher, moralist and writer (* 1715 )
- May 31 : Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann , Russian diplomat and statesman of German origin (* 1687 )
- June 6th : Jean-Baptiste Barrière , French cellist and composer (* 1707 )
- June 12 : Jakob Ernst von Liechtenstein-Kastelkorn , Bishop of Seckau, Prince-Bishop of Olmütz and Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg (* 1690 )
- June 19 : Jakob Benzelius , Swedish Lutheran theologian and Archbishop of Uppsala (* 1683 )
- June 19 : Alessandro Marcello , Italian poet, composer and philosopher (* 1673 )
- June 20 : Nadir Shah , Shah of Persia and founder of the Afsharid dynasty (* 1688 )
- June 23 : Hedwig Maximiliane von Dyhrn , Silesian aristocrat, lady of the Star Cross and lady-in-waiting at the imperial court in Vienna (* 1699 )
- June 25 : Bonaventura Stapf , Allgäu painter and gilder (* 1665 )
- July 2 : Emmanuel-François-Joseph de Bavière , French officer and politician, governor in Péronne (* 1695 )
- July 9 : Giovanni Battista Bononcini , Italian cellist and composer (* 1670 )
- July 10 : Ogawa Haritsu , called Ritsuō , Japanese artist (* 1663 )
- July 16 : Giuseppe Maria Crespi , Italian painter and etcher (* 1665 )
- July 24th : Kaspar Ignaz von Künigl , Prince-Bishop of Brixen (* 1671 )
- August 21 : Johann Georg Beckhof , German lawyer (* 1661 )
- August 24th : Johann Georg Schröter , German organ builder (* 1683 )
September to December
- September 9 : Ivan Kuzmitsch Korobow , Russian architect (* around 1700 )
- September 13th : Johann Christoph Egedacher , Salzburg organ builder (* 1666 )
- September 15 : Anton Erhard Martinelli , Austrian architect (* 1684 )
- September 15 : Johann Gotthilf Ziegler , German composer and organist (* 1688 )
- September 27 : Sigismund Andreas Cuno , German pedagogue and local researcher (* 1675 )
- September 28 : Philipp Ludwig von Sinzendorf , Bishop of Raab and Prince-Bishop of Breslau (* 1699 )
- October 3 : Johann Grimm , Bernese painter (* 1675 )
- October 5 : Paul Friedrich Opitz , German theologian and orientalist (* 1684 )
- October 9 : David Brainerd , British-American missionary among the North American Indians (* 1718 )
- October 10 : John Potter , Archbishop of Canterbury (* around 1674 )
- October 14 : Amaro Pargo , Spanish corsair (* 1678 )
- October 24 : Philipp Becker , German legal scholar (* 1702 )
- October 25 : Ignaz Rohrbach , Bohemian-German painter (* 1691 )
- November 10 : Philipp Schwartz , tobacco dealer and mayor of the Palatinate Colony in Magdeburg (* around 1680 )
- November 12 : Christine Luise von Oettingen-Oettingen , Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg, Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Princess von Blankenburg (* 1671 )
- November 14 : Wigand Kahler , German Protestant theologian and mathematician (* 1699 )
- November 17 : Alain-René Lesage , French writer (* 1668 )
- November 27th : Guillem Mesquida i Munar , Mallorcan painter (* 1675 )
- November 28 : Karl Leopold , Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (* 1678 )
- November: Johann Jakob Keller , Basel cabinet maker and sculptor (* 1665 )
- December 6th : Johann Engelhard Steuber , German Lutheran theologian (* 1693 )
- December 15 : Anselm Reichlin von Meldegg , prince abbot in the prince monastery Kempten (* 1679 )
- December 19 : Johann Zacharias Platner , Saxon medic (* 1694 )
- December 26th : Christian Löber , German Protestant clergyman (* 1683 )
- December 28 : Gundacker von Althan , Austrian general, diplomat and court building director (* 1665 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pierre de Gayette , Prussian architect of French origin (* 1688 )
- Isaac Lawson , Scottish physician and mineralogist (* 1704 )
- Fevzi Mostarac , Bosnian writer
- Takeda Izumo I. , Japanese puppet theater director and author (* in the 17th century)
- Francesc Valls , Spanish composer and conductor (* 1665 / 1671 )