Calendar overview 1757
Andreas Hadik von Futak
succeeds in the
Berlin hussar coup .
Robert François Damiens
carried out an attack
on Louis XV.
Seven Years' War
the leaning order of battle was used for the last time .
|1757 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1205/06 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1749/50 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1162/1163 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2300/01 (southern Buddhism); 2299/2300 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1119/20 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4090/91 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1135/36 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1170/71 (New Year 14/15 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5517/18 (September 14/15)|
|Coptic calendar||1473/74 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2067/68 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2068/69 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1813/14 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 5th : In Paris, Robert François Damiens tries King Louis XV. to stab him, inflicting only slight wounds on him. The assassin does not try to escape and is immediately overwhelmed. He is imprisoned in the conciergerie . Here he is severely tortured over the next few weeks in order to find possible co-conspirators.
- March 28 : Damiens is executed for regicide by quartering after torture. It is the first execution of the executioner Charles Henri Sanson , who assists his uncle. After Damien's death, according to the law for king assassins, his house is torn down, the square is leveled and a building ban is imposed there. His immediate relatives have to change their names and are expelled from the kingdom on pain of death.
Seven Years War in Europe
- January 5 : The Prussians arrest 50 to 60 merchants in Leipzig and lock them up in the town hall in order to demand a sum of money.
- January 17 : Against Prussia is Reichskriegsgericht declared as King Frederick II. Had committed the attack on Saxony Empire trespassing.
- January 22 : Russia and Austria sign an alliance treaty against Prussia in the Seven Years' War .
- March 14 : In Portsmouth , British Admiral John Byng is shot dead by a peloton aboard HMS Monarch after a death sentence . The court-martial's decision that he failed to comply with the applicable fighting instructions is controversial.
- March 19 : The Prussian general Hans Karl von Winterfeldt proposes action against Königgrätz and Pardubitz .
- March 30th : A Prussian council of war is held in Schwerin by General Hans Karl von Winterfeldt and Colonel Johann Wilhelm von der Goltz .
- April 21 : In the battle near Reichenberg , the Prussians who invaded Bohemia defeat the Austrian army.
- May 1 : The second Treaty of Versailles between the allies France and Austria is a reaction to the third Silesian War triggered by Frederick the Great and aims to smash Prussia .
- May 6th : The armies of Frederick the Great and Charles Alexander of Lorraine clash in the Battle of Prague . The Prussians defeat the Austrian units.
- June 18 : An Austrian relief army defeats Prussian troops in the Battle of Kolin , which leads to the breakdown of the siege of Prague and the Prussian withdrawal from Bohemia. In connection with the victory, the Austrian regent donates the Military Maria Theresa Order .
- July 23 : The second most important Saxon city of Zittau after Leipzig is destroyed by a bombardment of the allied Austrians for several hours to over three quarters (including the main church of St. Johannis with the new organ by Gottfried Silbermann ), as part of it is inside the walls the so-called Small Prussian Army had entrenched in order to secure some supplies. Despite an unprecedented pan-European fundraising campaign, the city will never fully recover from this disaster.
- July 26th : Wilhelm August, Duke of Cumberland is defeated in the Battle of Hastenbeck and agrees to dissolve his army in the Zeven monastery .
- August 30th : In the battle of Groß-Jägersdorf the Russians defeated a small Prussian army of 30,000 men. The way to Berlin is open, but the advance fails because of the inadequate Russian logistics.
- September 7th : In the Battle of Moys , the Prussians repel an attack by the Austrians.
- September 10th : In the Convention of Zeven Monastery , the Duke of Cumberland declares his neutrality towards France in the Seven Years War.
- September 27 : French troops under Louis François Armand de Vignerot du Plessis invade the Prussian principality of Halberstadt .
- In October, on the orders of Friedrich II, the Grochwitz manor owned by his opponent Heinrich von Brühl was plundered.
- October 16 : With the so-called Berlin hussar coup , the Prussian capital is conquered for one day by the Austro-Hungarian hussar Andreas Hadik von Futak .
- November 5 : Frederick II inflicts a devastating defeat on the Imperial Army and the French in the Battle of Rossbach .
- November 22nd : The battle of Breslau wins the Austrian army with Prince Karl Alexander of Lorraine at the head. Three days later, the Prussian units surrendered under Duke August Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Bevern , with many soldiers pressed for military service fleeing.
- December 5 : Frederick II defeats the main Austrian army in the battle of Leuthen , thus concluding the reconquest of Silesia. For the last time the crooked order of battle was used as a military tactic.
The war on colonial theaters
- June 23rd : In the Battle of Plassey , troops of the East India Company win against those of the ruler of Bengal. The victory is considered to be the beginning of British rule in India .
- August: During the French and Indian War , Fort William Henry is besieged by the French under Louis-Joseph de Montcalm . After the capture, there is a massacre by the Indian fighters involved, who do not agree to the generous terms of delivery.
Other events in America
- January: The Province of Pennsylvania Assembly of Representatives sends Benjamin Franklin to London as plenipotentiary to resolve tax disputes with the Penn family.
- In Georgia , a law into force, are obliged by the White formation of slave patrols first occurs. The task of these patrols is to check whether slaves they find on the street at night are lawfully staying there. The background to these regulations, which remain in force until 1865, is the fear of possible slave revolts.
- October 30 : After the death of Osman III. his cousin Mustafa III follows him . as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire . When he took office, he was girded with the sword of Caliph Omar, thus demonstrating his special interest in the legal system and justice.
Other events in Asia
- May 18 : The Burmese ruler Alaungpaya from the Konbaung dynasty conquers and destroys Hongsawadi , the capital of the Mon Kingdom of Pegu . On July 28th, he signed a contract with the British East India Company .
- Francisco da Hornay III. becomes captain general ( Capitão-mor ) of Solor and Timor and thus ruler of the Topasse ethnic group in the de jure Portuguese possessions on the Lesser Sunda Islands . He has to share his power with Domingos da Costa II .
- In Ireland, which is Whiskey Distillery Kilbeggan Distillery founded.
- The Cinzano company is founded in Turin .
- Carnival: The opera Solimano by Davide Perez has its world premiere in the Palazzo Ajuda in Lisbon. The libretto is by Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca . It is already the second version of his Solimano libretto .
- March 11 : The oratorio The Triumph of Time and Truth , Handel's last work, is premiered at the Covent Garden Theater in London . The compilation of the text is attributed to Thomas Morell .
- May 31 : The opera Anacréon by French composer Jean-Philippe Rameau is premiered at the Paris Opera as part of a revised version of the opera ballet Les surprises de l'Amour . The work, which has nothing in common with the composer's opera of the same name from 1754 , is in the form of a one-act acte de ballet and a libretto by Pierre-Joseph Bernard .
- Count Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov opens the Academy of the Three Noble Arts in Saint Petersburg , which is housed in his house until 1764 .
- The construction of the Panthéon in Paris is approved. Another seven years will pass before the foundation stone is laid.
- April 17th : Pope Benedict XIV lifts the ban of the Roman Catholic Church against works that contain a heliocentric view of the world .
- July 5th : Raymund Anton von Strasoldo is elected Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt in the sixth ballot to succeed Johann Anton II von Freyberg , who died on April 30th .
Historical maps and views
January to March
- January 3 : Johann Abraham Sixt , German composer († 1797 )
- January 6 : Albrecht Wilhelm Roth , German botanist († 1834 )
- January 9 : John Adair , American politician and governor of Kentucky († 1840 )
- January 10 : Joseph Kreutzinger , Austrian portrait painter († 1829 )
- January 11 : Alexander Hamilton , American politician († 1804 )
- January 12 : Bernhard Stöger , German Catholic theologian, philosopher and educator († 1815 )
- January 16 : Samuel McIntire , American architect and artist († 1811 )
- January 19 : Auguste Reuss zu Ebersdorf , Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld († 1831 )
- January 21 : Elijah Paine , American politician († 1842 )
- January 27 : Gomes Freire de Andrade , Portuguese general († 1817 )
- January 30th : Luise von Hessen-Darmstadt , Grand Duchess of Saxe-Weimar; Weimar's "savior" from Napoleon's troops († 1830 )
- February 3 : Constantin François Volney , French traveler and philosopher of history († 1820 )
- February 10 : Johann August Arens , German architect, landscape designer and painter († 1806 )
- February 12 : Ferdinand von Angern , German politician († 1828 )
- February 23 : Magdalena Pauli , philanthropist living in Altona († 1825 )
- March 1 : Katharina Kest , Countess of Ottweiler, Duchess of Dillingen and Princess of Nassau-Saarbrücken († 1829 )
- March 4 : Theodor Gottlieb Carl Keyßner , German Protestant clergyman and educator († 1837 )
- March 7th : Johann Friedrich Lempe , German professor of mathematics at the Bergakademie Freiberg († 1801 )
- March 11th : Felicitas Agnesia Ritz , German soprano († 1835 )
- March 16 : Bengt Lidner , Swedish poet († 1793 )
- March 21 : James Sowerby , British naturalist, zoologist and painter († 1822 )
- March 24 : James Wilkinson , American general and first governor of Louisiana († 1825 )
- March 29 : Carl Axel Arrhenius , Swedish artillery officer, amateur geologist and chemist († 1824 )
- March 30th : Sophie Piper , Swedish lady-in-waiting († 1816 )
April to June
- April 1 : Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt , Finnish-Swedish statesman, military and diplomat († 1814 )
- April 3 : French Laurence , English judge and politician († 1809 )
- April 19 : Edward Pellew , British naval officer and admiral († 1833 )
- April 22 : Josef Mathias Grassi , Austrian history and portrait painter († 1838 )
- April 23 : Alessandro Rolla , Italian violin player and composer († 1841 )
- April 25 : Johann Tobias Lowitz , German-Russian chemist and pharmacist († 1804 )
- April 27 : Carl Johan Adlercreutz , Swedish general († 1815 )
- April 28 : Claus Schall , Danish composer († 1835 )
- May 4 : Benjamin Ferdinand Herrmann , German Protestant clergyman († 1837 )
- May 6th : Veronika Gut , supporter of the Nidwalden resistance against the Helvetic († 1829 )
- May 15 : John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore , British general († 1832 )
- May 18 : Karl Christian von Langsdorf , German-Lithuanian mathematician († 1834 )
- May 25 : Louis-Sébastien Lenormand , French physicist, inventor and pioneer of parachuting († 1837 )
- May 30th : Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth , British politician and Prime Minister († 1844 )
- June 7th : Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire , English noblewoman († 1806 )
- June 9 : Johann Rudolf Czernin , Austrian administrative officer († 1845 )
- June 10 : Ferdinand Fleck , German actor († 1801 )
- June 18 : Ignaz Josef Pleyel , Austrian composer († 1831 )
- June 22nd : Andreas Schumann , German educator and author († 1828 )
- June 22nd : George Vancouver , British officer in the Royal Navy, explorer of the North American Pacific coast († 1798 )
July to September
- July 2 : Ernst Konstantin von Schubert , German lawyer and civil servant in Sweden, Swedish Pomerania and Prussia († 1835 )
- July 11 : Johann Matthäus Bechstein , German naturalist, forest scientist and ornithologist († 1822 )
- July 15 : Marianne Reussing , German novelist († 1831 )
- July 25 : Hans Jakob von Auerswald , Prussian court master († 1833 )
- August 2 : Johann Heinrich Schmidt , German painter († 1821 )
- August 4th : Wladimir Lukitsch Borowikowski , Russian portrait painter († 1825 )
- August 4 : John James Beckley , American director of the Library of Congress († 1807 )
- August 7 : Abbondio Bernasconi , Swiss politician († 1822 )
- August 12 : Louisa Stuart , British writer († 1851 )
- August 13 : James Gillray , British cartoonist († 1815 )
- August 17 : Adam von Bartsch , Austrian artist and art writer and founder of systematic-critical graphic studies († 1821 )
- August 19 : Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert du Bayet , French politician and general († 1797 )
- August 23 : Marie Magdalene Charlotte Ackermann , German actress († 1775 )
- August 25 : Carl Friedrich Leopold von Gerlach , Mayor of Berlin († 1813 )
- September 3 : Carl August , Duke and Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach († 1828 )
- September 4 : Christophine Reinwald , sister of Friedrich Schiller († 1847 )
- September 4 : Levin Winder , American politician († 1819 )
- September 6 : August Friedrich Langbein , German poet and novelist († 1835 )
- September 6 : Marie-Joseph Motier, Marquis de La Fayette , French general and politician († 1834 )
- September 12 : John Brown , American politician († 1837 )
- September 14 : Jean-Jacques Lequeu , French architect († 1826 )
- September 16 : Alexander Ferdinand von Mellentin , Royal Saxon Major General († 1823 )
- September 21 : James Jackson , American politician († 1806 )
- September 22 : Cyrus-Marie-Alexandre de Timbronne de Valence , French general († 1822 )
- September 26 : Maria Amalie von Sachsen , Duchess of Pfalz-Zweibrücken and abbess of the St. Anna women's monastery in Munich († 1831 )
- September 27 : Henric Schartau , Swedish priest and preacher († 1825 )
October to December
- October 3 : Amalie Tischbein , German draftsman, miniature painter and etcher († 1839 )
- October 4 : Othneil Looker , American politician († 1845 )
- October 5 : Louise-Adélaïde de Bourbon-Condé , French princess and Benedictine founder of the monastery († 1824 )
- October 5 : Charles de Lameth , French general († 1832 )
- October 9 : Charles X , King of France († 1836 )
- October 10 : Erik Acharius , Swedish botanist and doctor († 1819 )
- October 13 : Franz Aglietti , Italian doctor († 1836 )
- October 14 : Charles Abbot, 1st Baron Colchester , British politician († 1829 )
- October 21 : Charles Pierre François Augereau , French general, Marshal of France († 1816 )
- October 25 : Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein , Prussian politician († 1831 )
- October 26 : Carl Leonhard Reinhold , Austrian reconnaissance († 1823 )
- October 26 : Asher Robbins , American politician († 1845 )
- October 27 : Seerp Gratama , Dutch legal scholar († 1837 )
- November 1 : Antonio Canova , Italian sculptor († 1822 )
- November 1 : Johann Georg Rapp , German Pietist leader († 1847 )
- November 2 : Andreas Battier , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1793 )
- November 3 : Robert Smith , US Secretary of State († 1842 )
- November 4 (or November 8 ): Francis de Rottenburg , British general and military writer († 1832 )
- November 5 : Joseph Anderson , American politician († 1837 )
- November 10 : Martin Span , Austrian teacher and author († around 1840 )
- November 15 : Jacques-René Hébert , French revolutionary († 1794 )
- November 16 : Karoline Ludecus , German writer († 1844 )
- November 28 : William Blake , English poet, nature mystic, painter and the inventor of relief etching († 1827 )
- December 7th : Dwight Foster , American politician († 1823 )
- December 11 : Charles Wesley junior , English organist and composer († 1834 )
- December 17 : Nathaniel Macon , American politician († 1837 )
- December 20 : Joseph Schubert , German violinist, violist and composer († 1837 )
- December 25th : Johann Wilhelm Christian Brühl , German physician and university professor († 1806 )
- December 25 : Benjamin Pierce , American politician († 1839 )
- December 28 : Reinhard Woltman , German hydraulic engineer († 1837 )
- December 31 : Johann Daniel Hensel , German educator, writer and composer († 1839 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Wenzel Edler von Ankerberg , German chess player, civil servant and numismatist († 1824 )
- Johann Nicolaus Apel , German author, doctor of philosophy, natural scientist, designer and politician († 1823 )
- Richard Brent , American politician († 1814 )
- William Bryant , English fisherman and convict († 1791 )
- Agnes Ibbetson , British botanist († 1823 )
- Józef Kozłowski , Polish composer († 1831 )
- Michel-Gabriel Paccard , French doctor and alpinist († 1827 )
- William S. Pennington , American politician († 1826 )
- Therese Rosenberg , Austrian actress († after 1813)
Born around 1757
First half of the year
- January 6 : Bernhard Friedrich von Ahlimb , Prussian colonel and commander of the garrison in Magdeburg (* 1699 )
- January 9 : Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle , French writer (* 1657 )
- January 23 : Joseph III. , Patriarch of the Chaldean Catholic Church
- January 25th : Octavio Piccolomini , Duke of Amalfi, imperial general, imperial prince and landlord of the East Bohemian rule Nachod (* 1698 )
- January 26 : René Louis d'Argenson , French nobleman and minister (* 1694 )
- February 2 : Beat Holzhalb , Swiss Pietist (* 1693 )
- February 8 : Bernd Siegmund von Blankensee , royal Prussian major general, holder of the Pour le Mérite (* 1693 )
- February 11 : Mauro D'Alay , Italian violinist and composer (* around 1687 )
- February 21 : Georg Franz Ebenhech , German sculptor, plasterer and ivory carver (* around 1710 )
- February 25 : Giovanni Paolo Bellinzani , Italian priest, composer and musician
- March 1 : Edward Moore , English playwright and writer (* 1712 )
- March 10 : Johann Joseph von Trautson , Austrian Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Vienna and Cardinal (* 1707 )
- March 12 : Giuseppe Galli da Bibiena , Italian architect and stage designer (* 1696 )
- March 14th : John Byng , English admiral (* 1704 )
- March 20 : Johann Paul Kunzen , German composer and organist (* 1696 )
- March 27th : Johann Stamitz , Bohemian violinist, conductor and composer (* 1717 )
- March 28 : Robert François Damiens , French assassin (* 1715 )
- April 4 : Maurus Xaverius Herbst , Benedictine and abbot of the Plankstetten Monastery (* 1701 )
- April 15 : Franz Joseph Spiegler , German painter (* 1691 )
- April 15 : Rosalba Carriera , Italian painter (* 1675 )
- April 16 : Daniel Gran , Austrian painter (* 1694 )
- April 30th : Johann Anton II. Von Freyberg , Prince-Bishop of the Eichstätt Monastery (* 1674 )
- May 6 : Georg Friedrich von Amstel , Prussian major general and commanding officer (* 1690 )
- May 6 : Friedrich Wilhelm III. , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (* 1723 )
- May 6 : Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin , Prussian Field Marshal General (* 1684 )
- June 5 : Bernhardine Christiane Sophie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach , Princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (* 1724 )
- June 10 : Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , landlord of the Holstein estates of Jersbek and Stegen (* 1678 )
- June 11 : Martin Aumüller , Bohemian sculptor and wood carver (* 1697 )
- June 15 : Johann Caspar Bagnato , Palatine builder (* 1696 )
- June 26 : Maximilian Ulysses Browne , Irish-Austrian field marshal (* 1705 )
- June 27 : Christoph Hermann von Manstein , Prussian general (* 1711 )
- June 28th : Sophie Dorothea of Hanover , Queen of Prussia, wife of the soldier king Friedrich Wilhelm I (* 1687 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Johanna Elisabeth von Baden-Durlach , Duchess of Württemberg (* 1680 )
- July 5 : Jean-Joseph Vadé , French composer and writer (* 1719 )
- July 23 : Domenico Scarlatti , Italian composer (* 1685 )
- August 3 : Karl Wilhelm Friedrich , Prince of Brandenburg-Ansbach (* 1712 )
- August 5th : Antoine Pesne , French court painter in Prussia (* 1683 )
- August 28 : David Hartley , English philosopher and psychologist (* 1705 )
- August : Johann Heinrich Müslin , Swiss Pietist (* 1682 )
- September 3 : Anna Catharina von Passow , Danish actress and author (* 1731 )
- September 8 : Just Wiedewelt , Danish sculptor (* 1677 )
- September 8 : Hans Karl von Winterfeldt , Prussian general (* 1707 )
- September 21 : Amarsanaa , prince of the jungle (* 1720 )
- September 18 : Isabelle Charlotte von Nassau-Dietz , Princess of Nassau-Dillenburg (* 1692 )
- September 25 : Johann Christoph Sauer , first German book printer in North America (* 1695 )
- October 2 : Luigi Centurioni , Italian order general (* 1686 )
- October 2 : Johann Adam Groß the Elder , German builder (* 1697 )
- October 3 : Georg Abbt , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1716 )
- October 11 : Zacharias Hildebrandt , German organ builder (* 1688 )
- October 17th : René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur , French scientist and entomologist (* 1683 )
- October 25 : Anton Sturm , German sculptor (* 1690 )
- October 28 : Giovanna Astrua , Italian opera singer (soprano) (* 1720 )
- October 30 : Osman III. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1699 )
- November 5 : Catharina Elisabeth Heinecken , German painter, craftsperson and alchemist (* 1683 )
- November 8 : Pierre Prowo , German composer and organist (* 1697 )
- November 11th : Deep Singh , Indian martyr of the Sikh religion (* 1682 )
- November 12th : Colley Cibber , British theater director, impresario, playwright and poet (* 1671 )
- November 17 : Maria Josepha of Austria , Austrian Archduchess, Electress of Saxony and Queen of Poland (* 1699 )
- December 1 : Johann Leonhard Prey , German architect and stonemason (* around 1700 )
- December 30th : Andreas Faulhaber , German chaplain and martyr of the County of Glatz (* 1713 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Alphonse Marie Louis de Saint-Sévérin d'Aragon , French diplomat and minister (* 1705 )
- Robert Balfour, 5th Lord Balfour of Burleigh , Scottish nobleman, Jacobite and murderer
- Kelsang Gyatsho , seventh Dalai Lama (* 1708 )
- Johannes Kohlhaas the Elder , German organ builder (* 1691 )
- François Martin , French composer and cellist (* 1727 )