Calendar overview 1775
The shot heard around the world :
The skirmishes of Lexington and Concord mark the
beginning of the American Revolutionary War .
|Pope and takes the name Pius VI. at.||Daniel Boone begins building the Wilderness Road from Virginia to Kentucky.|
|1775 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1223/24 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1767/68 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1180/81 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2318/19 (southern Buddhism); 2317/18 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1137/38 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4108/09 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1153/54 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1188/89 (March 3-4)|
|Jewish calendar||5535/36 (September 24/25)|
|Coptic calendar||1491/92 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2085/86 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2086/87 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1831/32 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
American War of Independence
- February 9 : The British government declares its North American colony of Massachusetts a breakaway province. The American War of Independence , a violent clash between Great Britain and its colonists in North America , is looming.
- March 8 : The Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser published Thomas Paine's treatise African Slavery in America , the country's first printed plea for the release of slaves .
- March 23 : Rep. Patrick Henry delivers a speech at the Virginia Convention that begins with the words Give me Liberty, or give me Death! ends. The convention then votes in favor of Virginia sending troops to war with England.
- April 19 : The American Revolutionary War begins with the skirmishes of Lexington and Concord . The siege of Boston begins.
- May 10th : Second Continental Congress in the American colonies in Philadelphia . It is decided to create a common army.
- May 10 : In the Battle of Ticonderoga , the 52-man British garrison of the fort of the same name is captured by insurgent colonists. Only one shot is fired and no one is seriously injured in the fight.
- May 20 : In Charlotte in Mecklenburg County of North Carolina is supposedly the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence signed. It is very likely that this will be a fabulous event.
- May 31 : The Mecklenburg Security Committee passes the Mecklenburg Resolves , which invalidate all laws originating from the British King or Parliament.
- June 5th : The so-called palm branch petition is a final appeal of the Second Continental Congress of the 13 American colonies to the British King George III. to change the economic and tax policy of the British motherland towards these colonies under the catchphrase No taxation without representation . The roll call arrives in London on August 14th. however not noted. The behavior of the king encourages the representatives of the independence movement, while the proponents of a compromise are now lonely or change their minds in favor of the open rebellion.
- June 15 : George Washington , a Virginia plantation owner , is elected Commander in Chief of the Continental Army .
- June 17th : Battle of Boston takes place at Bunker Hill . The British Army under William Howe drives the American militia out of the fortified positions at Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill . However, it is a Pyrrhic victory for Howe. The immediate objective is achieved, but the attack demonstrates American perseverance, causes considerable British casualties, and does not alter the status of the siege.
- July 26th : Benjamin Franklin is appointed Postmaster General by the American Continental Congress and is to organize the postal system within the 13 English colonies. The United States Postal Service is founded.
- 23 August : With the Proclamation of Rebellion , the British government under King George III. states that the Thirteen Colonies are in a state of open rebellion against the Crown.
- August 28 : Generals Richard Montgomery and Philip Schuyler begin attempting an American invasion of Canada .
- November 10 : By resolution of the 2nd Continental Congress , the predecessor of the United States Marine Corps is founded with the Continental Marines .
- December 9th : American patriots defeat the British in the Battle of Great Bridge and then drive them out of Virginia .
- December 31 : The British defeat American troops in the Battle of Québec , preventing the conquest of Canada in the American War of Independence .
Other events in America
- August 5th : The Spanish navigator Juan de Ayala is the first European to cross the Golden Gate in what is now the Bay of San Francisco and anchored in front of an island that he named Isla de los Angeles .
- August 20 : Spaniards under the direction of Hugo O'Conor found the city of Tucson by building a presidium .
- January 21 : With the execution of Yemeljan Pugachev , the Russian Peasants' War , which he led and which has been ongoing since 1773, ends .
- April 4 : In Kempten , Anna Maria Schwegelin stands as a defendant in the last witch trial in what is now Germany and receives a death sentence, which, however, was due to a delay by Prince Abbot Honorius Roth von Schreckenstein under the influence of his confessor Anton Kramer on April 11 is not enforced. Anna Maria Schwegelin remained in prison until her death in 1781. She is the last victim of the witch hunt on German soil.
- June 11th : The French King Louis XVI. is crowned in Reims Cathedral.
- November 2 : Through a certificate from Maria Theresa , Transylvania becomes largely autonomous and ruled by its own princes according to its own laws.
James Cook's world tour
- January 14th : On James Cook's second voyage to the South Seas , the seaman Thomas Willis discovers a group of islands in the South Atlantic that is named the Willis Islands in his honor .
- January 17th : Accompanied by the German naturalist Georg Forster , the explorer James Cook takes possession of the Antarctic island of South Georgia for the United Kingdom .
- January 18 : In the South Atlantic is of James Cook the uninhabited Cooper Island sighted.
- James Cook suspects land at the South Pole, but does not discover Antarctica .
- July 30th : The expedition returns to England via the Azores .
- From March 10 : Daniel Boone lays on behalf of the Transylvania Company , the Wilderness Road from Fort Chiswell in Virginia through the Cumberland Gap into central Kentucky to.
- April 15 : The foundation stone for the Royal Saltworks in Arc-et-Senans is laid.
- April 27 : High prices lead to looting of the grain market in Beaumont-sur-Oise, France . The unrest about bread prices, fermenting in the population, is rampant and the regional uprising is reaching as far as the suburbs of Paris . The military put down the flour war as a result. King Louis XVI later instructs the return from private to state trade.
- May 1st : The chemist Frantz Heinrich Müller founds the Royal Porcelain Manufactory in Copenhagen . The young company is initially funded by the state with the promise of a monopoly for 50 years. The queen widow Juliane Marie takes over the patronage .
- The English inventor Alexander Cumming receives a patent for his design of a water closet .
science and technology
- January 17th : Georg Forster is the first German to set foot on Antarctic soil as James Cook's companion on South Georgia .
- April 11th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies NGC 4393 and NGC 4889 in the constellation Haar der Berenike .
- Leonhard Euler formulates the law of angular momentum .
- Alessandro Volta perfects Johan Carl Wilcke's electrophoresis (influenza machine) .
- James Watt improves the steam engine to such an extent that it can be used economically.
- Founding of the Bergakademie, today Clausthal University of Technology
- The first complete edition of the 24 dynasty stories is published in China .
Music and theater
- January 13th : The dramma giocoso La finta giardiniera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is premiered in Munich .
- January 27 : World premiere of the melodrama Ariadne auf Naxos by Georg Anton Benda in Gotha
- April 23 : The opera seria Il re pastore by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart with the libretto by Pietro Metastasio has its world premiere in Salzburg.
- May 1st : The melodrama Medea by Georg Anton Benda has its world premiere in Leipzig.
- August 29 : The world premiere of the opera L'incontro improvviso (The Unexpected Gathering ) by Joseph Haydn takes place in Esterház .
- In the park of Schönbrunn in Vienna, designed by Johann Ferdinand Hetzendorf von Hohenberg , the Gloriette built.
- Gottfried August Bürger wrote Der Bauer to his sublime tyrant .
- The moral weekly published by Joseph von Sonnenfels , The Man Without Prejudice , is discontinued.
- February 15 : Giovanni Angelo Graf Braschi is elected Pope and takes the name Pius VI. at. His first act is the signing of the papal bull Editto sopra gli Ebrei .
- August 25 : The baroque Protestant Ludwig Church in Saarbrücken is inaugurated.
- A smallpox epidemic on the Pacific coast of North America kills around 30% of the population. The area around the Puget Sound is particularly badly affected.
- The eruption of the Gamalama volcano on the island of Ternate in the Dutch East Indies killed around 1,300 people.
- January 1 : Johann Rudolph von Ahlefeldt , landlord of Ludwigsburg, Sehestedt and Saxtorff († 1848 )
- January 12 : Joseph Gist , American politician († 1836 )
- January 20 : André-Marie Ampère , French physicist and mathematician († 1836 )
- January 23 : Pietro Colletta , Neapolitan Minister of War († 1831 )
- January 27 : Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling , German philosopher († 1854 )
- January 30 : Walter Savage Landor , English writer († 1864 )
- February 3 : Maximilien Foy , French general and statesman († 1825 )
- February 7th : Johann Diederich Gries , German translator († 1842 )
- February 8 : Antonio Bertoloni , Italian botanist († 1869 )
- February 8 : Traugott Leberecht Hasse , German mining official and writer († 1853 )
- February 9 : Farkas Wolfgang Bolyai , Hungarian mathematician († 1856 )
- February 11 : William Hall , American politician († 1856 )
- February 12 : Louisa Adams , First Lady of the USA († 1852 )
- February 16 : Zalmon Wildman , American politician († 1835 )
- February 20 : Victor Guy Duperré , French baron and admiral († 1846 )
- February 21 : Karl Johann Jakob Schultheß , Swiss painter († 1855 )
- February 26 : Adolf Stieler , Saxon court official and cartographer († 1836 )
- February 27 : Thomas B. Robertson , American politician († 1828 )
- February 28 : Sophie Tieck , German poet († 1833 )
- March 9 : Constance Mayer , French painter († 1821 )
- March 17 : Ninian Edwards , American politician († 1833 )
- March 19 : Ramsay Richard Reinagle , English landscape, portrait and animal painter († 1862 )
- March 23 : Gottlieb Bertrand , German author († 1813 )
- March 24th : Pauline Auzou , French painter († 1835 )
- March 30th : Hieronymus von Colloredo-Mansfeld , Austrian general († 1822 )
- April 8 : Adam Albert von Neipperg , Austrian general and statesman († 1829 )
- April 14 : Karl Ferdinand Becker , German doctor, scientist, educator and linguist († 1849 )
- April 18 : Christian Nicolaus von Evers , German Mayor of Lübeck († 1862 )
- April 22 : Georg Hermes , German theologian and philosopher († 1831 )
- April 23 : William Turner , English painter († 1851 )
- April 24 : Jakob Salentin von Zuccalmaglio , German lawyer and politician († 1838 )
- April 25 : Charlotte Joachime , Spanish princess and Queen of Portugal († 1830 )
- April 30 : Nicolás Rodríguez Peña , Argentine politician († 1853 )
- May 5 : Alexander McNair , American politician († 1826 )
- May 9 : Heinrich Karl Ludwig Bardeleben , German lawyer and politician († 1852 )
- May 21 : Lucien Bonaparte , brother of Bonapartes († 1840 )
- May 30 : József Kopácsy , Hungarian Archbishop († 1847 )
- May 30 : Christian Kehrer , German painter († 1869 )
- June 9 : Georg Friedrich Grotefend , German linguist († 1853 )
- June 12 : Karl von Müffling , Prussian field marshal, military writer and geodesist († 1851 )
- June 13 : Anton Radziwiłł , Polish-Prussian politician, landowner and composer († 1833 )
- June 18 : Orsamus Cook Merrill , American politician († 1865 )
- June 23 : Stephen Longfellow , American politician († 1849 )
- June 23 : Louis Malus , French engineer and physicist († 1812 )
- June 26 : Johann Jakob Iven , Prussian priest and vicar general († 1853 )
- June 28 : Karl Wichmann , Prussian sculptor († 1836 )
- June 30th : Karl Meisl , Austrian civil servant and playwright († 1853 )
- July 5 : William Crotch , English composer and organist († 1847 )
- July 9 or 19 : Matthew Lewis , English writer († 1818 )
- July 11 : Johann Friedrich Christian Düffer , Professor of Pharmacology and Pharmacy († 1831 )
- July 18 : Karl von Rotteck , German historian and politician († 1840 )
- July 19 : Camillo Filippo Ludovico Borghese , Prince of Sulmona and Rossano († 1832 )
- July 19 : Pascual Liñán , Spanish officer and chamberlain († 1855 )
- July 23 : Eugène François Vidocq , French criminal († 1857 )
- August 2 : José Ángel Lamas , Venezuelan composer († 1814 )
- August 5 : Joseph Moralt , German musician and conductor († 1855 )
- August 6 : Daniel O'Connell , Irish freedom fighter († 1847 )
- August 6th : Louis-Antoine de Bourbon, duc d'Angoulême , son of King Charles X of France († 1844 )
- August 9 : Hans Caspar Escher , Swiss architect and industrial pioneer († 1859 )
- August 15 : Karl Franz Anton von Schreibers , Austrian scientist († 1852 )
- August 17th : Johann Baptist Türk , Austrian freedom fighter († 1841 )
- August 20 : Franz Dinnendahl , German designer of the first steam engine in the Ruhr area († 1826 )
- August 26 : Wilhelm Joseph Behr , German lawyer, politician and writer († 1851 )
- September 1 : Honoré-Charles Reille , French general, marshal and peer of France († 1860 )
- September 8 : Moissei Ivanovich Karpenko , Russian Lieutenant General († 1854 )
- September 13 : Laura Secord , Canadian national heroine of the War of 1812 († 1868 )
- September 14 : Johann David Naumann , Prussian lawyer († 1824 )
- September 23 : Elisabeth von Adlerflycht , German painter and inventor of the Rhine panorama († 1846 )
- September 23 : Jens Christian Berg , Norwegian lawyer and historian († 1852 )
- September 25 : Ernst Georg Julius Hecht , German lawyer († 1840 )
- September 28 : Johann Adam von Itzstein , German politician († 1855 )
- September 30 : Rudolf Abraham von Schiferli , Swiss surgeon and professor († 1837 )
- October 1 : Georg von Stengel , German civil servant († 1824 )
- October 3 : Isaac von Sinclair , German diplomat and writer († 1815 )
- October 5 : Anton Klein , German politician († 1853 )
- October 6 : Johann Anton André , German composer and music publisher († 1842 )
- October 10 : Franz Raffl , traitor to the Tyrolean freedom fighter Andreas Hofer († 1830 )
- October 19 : Kamma Rahbek , Danish Salonnière († 1829 )
- October 24 : Peter Heinrich Althöfer , German clergyman († 1841 )
- October 26 : Hans Moritz Hauke , German professional soldier in Napoleon's army, then in the Russian army († 1830 )
- October 27 : Traugott Maximilian Eberwein , German composer and conductor († 1831 )
- October 28 : José de Palafox y Melci , Spanish nobleman and general († 1847 )
- October 30 : Catterino Cavos , Russian composer of Italian origin († 1840 )
- October 30 : Wilhelm Ludwig Viktor Henckel von Donnersmarck , Prussian lieutenant general († 1849 )
- October 31 : Antonín Machek , Czech painter († 1844 )
- November 1 : Andreas Kretzschmer , German lawyer and folk song researcher († 1839 )
- November 6th : Joseph Leonhard Knoll , Bohemian educator († 1841 )
- November 11th : Jean-Guillaume Audinet-Serville , French entomologist († 1858 )
- November 13 : Rémy-Isidore Exelmans , French marshal († 1852 )
- November 13 : Friedrich Karl Ludwig Textor , German lawyer and dialect writer († 1851 )
- November 14 : Paul Johann Anselm von Feuerbach , Saxon lawyer, founder of modern German criminal law († 1833 )
- November 16 : Friedrich von Klinckowström , Prussian landowner and politician († 1856 )
- November 17 : Daniel Amadeus Neander , German Protestant theologian and Bishop of Berlin († 1869 )
- November 18 : Friedrich von Motz , Prussian statesman, finance minister, district president († 1830 )
- November 19 : Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger , German zoologist and entomologist († 1813 )
- November 20 : Gustav Anton von Seckendorff , German poet and writer († 1823 )
- November 21 : Johann Georg Christian Apel , German organist and composer († 1841 )
- November 23 : Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray , German architect and senior construction director († 1845 )
- November 27 : Johann-Conrad Appenzeller , Swiss pastor and folk writer († 1850 )
- December 4 : Francisco Xavier de Garaycoa , Ecuadorian Archbishop († 1859 )
- December 6 : Nicolas Isouard , Maltese composer († 1818 )
- December 11th : Tommaso Rima , Swiss military doctor († 1843 )
- December 14th : Thomas Cochrane , British politician and freedom fighter († 1860 )
- December 15 : Phineas Riall , British general († 1850 )
- December 16 : François-Adrien Boieldieu , French opera composer († 1834 )
- December 16 : Jane Austen , English writer († 1817 )
- December 17 : François-Marius Granet , French painter († 1849 )
- December 25 : Wilhelm Ernst Schwabe , German lawyer († 1851 )
- December 25 : Antun Sorkočević , Croatian composer, writer and diplomat († 1841 )
- December 26 : Anton Carl Ludwig von Tabouillot , Franco-German landowner, Prussian captain and mayor of Essen († 1813 )
- December 28 : João Domingos Bomtempo , Portuguese composer, pianist, conductor and music organizer († 1842 )
- December 29 : Carlo Rossi , Italian-Russian architect († 1849 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Manuel de Arzú y Delgado de Nájera , Nicaraguan politician († 1835 )
- William CC Claiborne , American politician († 1817 )
- Samuel Daniell , British painter († 1811 )
- William Kennedy , American politician († 1826 )
- Jeanne Labrosse , French balloonist and parachutist († 1847 )
- Allan B. Magruder , American politician († 1822 )
- József Ruzitska , Hungarian composer († after 1823 )
- James J. Wilson , American politician († 1824 )
First half of the year
- January 1st : Ahmad Shah , emperor of the north Indian Mughal empire (* 1725 )
- January 3 : Heinrich Gottfried Koch , German actor and theater entrepreneur (* 1703 )
- January 8 : John Baskerville , English type designer, master scribe, printer (* 1706 )
- January 13 : Johann Georg Walch , Thuringian Protestant theologian (* 1693 )
- January 15 : Giovanni Battista Sammartini , Italian composer (* 1700 or 1701 )
- January 19 : Johann Adam Löw , German Protestant clergyman (* 1710 )
- January 21 : Jemeljan Pugachev , Russian Don Cossack and leader of the peasant uprising (* around 1742 )
- January 21 : Johann Jakob Joseph Sündermahler , German legal scholar and university professor (* 1712 )
- January 25 : Georg Friedrich Schmidt , German engraver, etcher and painter (* 1712 )
- January 26 : Domingo de Boenechea , Spanish navigator and explorer (* 1713 )
- February 5 : Eusebius Amort , Bavarian Catholic theologian (* 1692 )
- February 25 : William Small , British enlightener and co-founder of the Lunar Society (* 1734 )
- April 1 : Johann Friedrich Funk , Swiss sculptor (* 1706 )
- April 24th : John Rutty , English medic, chemist and naturalist (* 1697 )
- May 5th : Karl Joseph Riepp , German organ builder (* 1710 )
- May 9 : Vittoria Tesi , Italian opera singer (* 1701 )
- May 10 : Charlotte Ackermann , German actress (* 1757 )
- May 10 : Caroline Mathilde of Great Britain , Queen of Denmark (* 1751 )
- May 17th : Carlo Carlone , Italian painter (* 1686 )
- May 17th : Johann Joachim KÄNDER , medalist of the Meissen porcelain manufactory (* 1706 )
- May 22nd : Emanuel Filibert von Waldstein , Bohemian nobleman (* 1731 )
- June 15 : Johann Anton Aigner , Austrian prince-bishop clergyman and pastor (* 1702 )
- June 17 : John Pitcairn , British naval officer, stationed in Boston (* 1722 )
- June 17 : Joseph Warren , first American soldier to die in the American Revolutionary War (* 1741 )
- June 23 : James Abercrombie junior , British officer in the French and Indian War (* 1732 )
- June 27th : Ignaz Günther , German sculptor (* 1725 )
Second half of the year
- July 20 : Anna Maria Strada del Pò, Italian opera singer and Handel interpreter (* around 1703 )
- July 30th : Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt , German Protestant theologian (* 1706 )
- July 30th : Christian Reichart , German founder of horticulture (* 1685 )
- August 9 : Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky , Prussian merchant (* 1710 )
- August 16 : Jacob Langebek , Danish historian (* 1710 )
- October 21 : Maria Wilhelmina von Auersperg , Austrian nobleman and lady-in-waiting Maria Theresa (* 1738 )
- October 21 : Peyton Randolph , American politician (* 1721 )
- November 3 : Juan José Pérez Hernández , Spanish navigator and explorer (* around 1725 )
- November 21 : John Hill , English writer and botanist (* around 1705 )
- November 24th : Lorenzo Ricci , Italian Order General (* 1703 )
- December 1 : Thomas von Fritsch , Saxon statesman (* 1700 )
- December 7th : Charles Saunders , British Admiral of the Royal Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty (* 1715 )
- December 15 : Jelisaweta Alexejewna Tarakanowa , Russian pretender to the throne (* around 1750 )