Calendar overview 1706
Battle of Kalisch during the Great Northern War .
Eugene of Savoy
Battle of Turin .
John V becomes
King of Portugal .
|1706 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1154/55 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1698/99 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1111/12 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2249/50 (southern Buddhism); 2248/49 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1068/69 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4039/40 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1117/18 (turn of the year 14/15 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5466/67 (September 8/9)|
|Coptic Calendar||1422/23 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2016/17 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2017/18 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1762/63 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Spanish Succession
- January 8th: The last resistance of revolting Bavarian peasants against the imperial-Habsburg occupation is broken in the slaughter of Aidenbach . The imperial troops kill some of the insurgents after they have surrendered and laid down their weapons.
- January 29th: Several leaders of the Bavarian people's uprising, including Johann Georg Aberle , Johann Clanze and Johann Georg Kidler , are executed by the sword on Schrannenplatz in Munich. More executions took place in the weeks that followed.
- April 19: The imperial army under Christian Detlev von Reventlow is defeated in the battle of Calcinato by French-Spanish troops under Marshal Louis II Joseph de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme . Prince Eugene of Savoy had recently left the theater of war and left for Vienna. He returns immediately afterwards, gathers the troops and leads them to Trento .
- 29 April: Bayerische Diversion in the War of Spanish Succession : Emperor Joseph I imposed the imperial ban on the Elector of Bavaria , Maximilian II Emanuel. , And his brother Joseph Clemens of Bavaria , Archbishop and Elector of Cologne .
- May 14th: French and Spaniards under the command of Louis d'Aubusson, duc de La Feuillade , begin to besiege the city of Turin, held by Piedmontese and Austrians, in the War of the Spanish Succession .
- May 23: After their defeat in the Battle of Ramillies against the Hague Grand Alliance under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and Heinrich von Nassau-Ouwerkerk , the French and their allied Bavarians have to leave the Spanish Netherlands .
- August 30th: During the siege of Turin, the soldier Pietro Micca ignites a gunpowder barrel himself in a mine passage due to the lack of a longer fuse . He successfully prevents the penetration of French enemies into the fortress of the city, but dies in the explosion .
- September 7th: Prince Eugene of Savoy and his cousin, Duke Viktor Amadeus II of Savoy , defeat the French with their troops in the battle of Turin . This ends the greatest battle on Italian soil in the War of the Spanish Succession .
- September 9th: A French corps is victorious in the War of the Spanish Succession in the Battle of Castiglione against an imperial army. Prince Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel has to withdraw as far as Verona to regroup his troops.
- November 6th: An English squadron is driven back during the attack on Santa Cruz de Tenerife after heavy resistance by the Spaniards.
Great Northern War
- January 15th: The blockade of Grodno by the Swedish King Karl XII. begins. It ends in March with the outbreak of the Russian army .
- January 26th: August the Strong moves into Warsaw , where his opponent Stanislaus I. Leszczyński was crowned King of Poland last year .
- February 13: In the battle of Fraustadt , the Swedes under Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld succeed in the Great Northern War in a great victory over the Saxon-Russian army, which is commanded by Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg , with an entire cavalry division deserting and numerous soldiers being pressed overrun the Swedes. Due to the failures, the Saxon Secret Council calls on August II to lay down his Polish crown. The nobility and the cities rebel against the king with open threats. This then has to withdraw his order to raise new troops. But he is quietly working on the creation of a new army and the disempowerment of the Privy Council.
- March 13: The Swedish dragoons under the supreme command of Lieutenant Colonel Johan Reinhold von Trautvetter defeat the army of Poland-Lithuania and Russian Cossacks in the battle in Nyasvish .
- Mid-March: The siege of Lyachawitschy by the Swedish army under Carl Gustaf Creutz begins.
- April 27th: After the desertions in the Battle of Fraustadt, thirty Saxon dragoons are sentenced to running the gauntlet, nine are hung on stakes, three are hung from the gallows, two are beheaded and then braided on the wheel.
- April 30th: Sweden defeats the Russian army reinforced by Cossacks in the Battle of Klezk .
- May 2: The besieged Polish-Lithuanian garrison in Ljachawitschy surrenders unconditionally to the Swedes. The 1,361-strong crew under the command of the Cossack Ivan Mirovich is taken prisoner of war.
- August 27th: The Swedish army invades Saxony .
- September 24th: With the conclusion of the Altranstadt Peace , the Saxon negotiators for August II renounce the Polish crown "forever" and dissolve his alliance with Russia . August himself only found out about this unfavorable contract conclusion in October.
- October 11th: The siege of Vyborg by Russian troops begins. It is canceled unsuccessfully at the beginning of November.
- October 29: Swedish-Polish troops are defeated by a Saxon-Russian force in the Battle of Kalisch during the Great Northern War . The victory, however, has no consequences.
- November 19: August II. Denies the peace of Altranstadt any legal force. On December 1, he meets with Charles XII. of Sweden. On the latter's adamant attitude, he ultimately has to recognize the contract.
Other events in Europe
- after April 20: Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski is appointed Grand Hetman of the Polish Crown as the successor to the late Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski .
- November 4th: A majority of the Scottish Parliament approves the amalgamation of Scotland with the Kingdom of England . The Act of Union comes into force on May 1, 1707.
- December 9th: After the death of Peter II of Portugal , the throne falls to his son John V , who introduces absolutism based on the French model in Portugal.
- Iyasu I , Negus negest of Ethiopia from the Solomon dynasty , retires to an island in Lake Tana to mourn the death of his preferred concubine . Some of the officials decided, following the case of King Ella Asbeha and supported by Queen Malakotawit , that Iyasu had resigned and crowned his son Tekle Haymanot I as emperor on March 27 in Gonder . Iyasu returns from his hermitage in response. However, he fell ill on the way and was murdered on October 13th at the behest of his son. The death of the popular ruler is widely mourned and the new emperor can never shake off the stain of parricide and is referred to as "Tekle Haymanot the Cursed".
- Thomas Twining , a former employee of English East India Company , founded the cafe Tom's Coffee House at beach , London, Devereux Court. Twinings can succeed by selling tea, a fashionable drink of the upper class , establish and for exorbitant prices demand.
- The Salzburger Zeitung Extract-Schreib or Europaeische Zeitung will cease to appear after 20 years .
- The Cosel guilder is minted in the Electorate of Saxony .
science and technology
- The English physicist Francis Hauksbee constructs a crank-driven glass ball that is electrically charged through friction . Compared to the chargeable sulfur ball , an invention of Otto von Guericke , he improves the basis for researching static electricity .
- February 18: The premiere of the opera Alcione by Marin Marais takes place at the Grand Opéra Paris .
- July 6th: The opera Endimione by Giovanni Bononcini is premiered in the Palazzo di Belfonte near Vienna.
- The opera Masaniello furioso by Reinhard Keizer based on the libretto by Barthold Feind will be premiered at the Oper am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg .
- around 1706: Johann Sebastian Bach wrote After you, Lord, demands me , one of his earliest church cantatas .
- JUNE 10: Grace Sherwood is the last person in Virginia due to a water sample as God's judgment because witchcraft is sentenced. She then spent several years in prison.
- November 28: The Prussian Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm I marries Princess Sophia-Dorothea of Hanover . Her father is the future Elector Georg Ludwig, who becomes King of England as George I in 1714 . This is the basis of the Hohenzollern kinship to the English royal family, because Georg is the brother of the late Sophie-Charlotte and the bride and groom are thus cousins.
- July 9: The German missionaries Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Plütschau set foot on Indian soil as part of the Danish-Halle Mission in the Danish colony of Tranquebar . The place thus becomes the starting point for Protestant missionary activity in Tamil Nadu .
- The Burglengenfeld Monastery in the Diocese of Regensburg is founded.
- November 3: In Abruzzo, an earthquake occurs in the Sulmona area , causing damage to property and more than a thousand deaths.
- The Danish slave ship Kron-Printzen sinks in a storm with 820 slaves on board.
nature and environment
- May 12th: The last total solar eclipse in Central Europe before 1999 can be seen in Switzerland and Germany southeast of the Freiburg im Breisgau - Würzburg - Leipzig - Frankfurt / Oder line .
First half of the year
- Johann Philipp von Beust , German general († 1776) January 1:
- August Georg Simpert , Margrave of Baden-Baden († 1771) January 4th:
- Johann Heinrich Zedler , bookseller and publisher in Leipzig († 1751) January 7th:
- January 17: Benjamin Franklin , North American politician, publisher, writer, scientist and natural philosopher († 1790)
- January 20: Friedrich Karl August , Count and Noble Lord zur Lippe-Biesterfeld († 1781)
- January 24th: Rudolph Chotek von Chotkow , Supreme Chancellor of the United Court Chancellery in Vienna († 1771)
- January 28: John Baskerville , English type designer, master scribe, printer († 1775)
- January 30th: Daniel Högger , Mayor of the City of St. Gallen in Switzerland († 1784)
- January 30th: Ernestine Eleonore Reuss zu Ebersdorf , German Pietist and member of the Moravian Brethren († 1766)
- February 12: Johann Joseph Christian , German sculptor and wood carver († 1777)
- Johann Leonhard Dober , missionary of the Moravian Brethren († 1766) March 7th:
- March 12: Johan Pasch , Swedish painter († 1769)
- March 19: Johann Georg Achenbach , German politician († 1776)
- March 31: Bernard Stuart , Scottish Benedictine priest, architect, mathematician and clockmaker and court architect in Salzburg († 1755)
- Christian Friedrich Boetius , German painter, draftsman and engraver († 1782) April 1:
- April 21: Giuseppe Maria Asclepi , Italian astronomer and physicist († 1776)
- April 24: Giovanni Battista Martini , Italian composer and music theorist († 1784)
- May 12: François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix , French doctor and botanist († 1767)
- May 20: Seth Pomeroy , British / American armourer and general († 1777)
- May 21: Carl Friedrich Kaltschmied , German medic († 1769)
- May 27: Joseph Bernhard , Hereditary Prince of Saxony-Meiningen († 1724)
- June 10: John Dollond , British optician and telescope maker of French origin († 1761)
- June 15: Johann Joachim KÄNDER , medalist of the Meissen porcelain manufactory († 1775)
Second half of the year
- Johann Joseph von Khevenhüller-Metsch , diplomat of the Habsburg Monarchy († 1776) July 3:
- Gianbettino Cignaroli , Italian painter († 1770) July 4th:
- Rudolph Joseph von Colloredo , Imperial Vice Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire († 1788) July 6:
- Johanne Sophie Herre , Countess of Anhalt († 1796) July 8:
- Franz Sebald Unterberger , South Tyrolean painter († 1776) August 1st:
- Friedrich Karl , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön († 1761) August 4th:
- August 11th: Marie-Auguste von Thurn und Taxis , Duchess of Württemberg († 1756)
- August 16: Florian Bahr , German Jesuit and China missionary († 1771)
- August 20: Johann Baptist von Thurn und Taxis , Imperial Count and Bishop of Lavant († 1762)
- Francesco Maria Banditi , Archbishop of Benevento († 1796) September 8:
- September 21: Jacob Wilhelm Lustig , Dutch composer, organist and music theorist († 1791)
- September 21: Polyxena of Hessen-Rotenburg , Queen of Sardinia and Duchess of Savoy († 1735)
- September 22: Barbara Regina Dietzsch , Nuremberg painter and draftsman († 1783)
- September 28: Nikolaus Friedrich Stöhr , German educator and Lutheran theologian († 1766)
- October 16: Giuseppe Ignazio Appiani , Italian painter († 1785)
- October 18: Baldassare Galuppi , Italian composer († 1785)
- October 28: Louise Marie Madeleine Fontaine , French salonière († 1799)
- October 29: Wacław Rzewuski , Polish military leader and statesman († 1779)
- Johann Ulrich von Cramer , German lawyer and philosopher († 1772) November 8:
- November 11: Friedrich Wilhelm II , Prince of Nassau-Siegen († 1734)
- November 22nd: Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough , British nobleman and politician († 1758)
- November 26: Karl August von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck († 1727)
- Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt , German theologian († 1775) December 7th:
- December 17th: Émilie du Châtelet , French mathematician, physicist, philosopher, translator and salonière († 1749)
- December 31: Johanna Magdalena von Gersdorf , German hymn poet († 1744)
Exact date of birth unknown
- James Abercrombie , British general († 1781)
- Ludwig von Aulack , Prussian lieutenant colonel († 1763)
- George Ballard , English antiquarian and biographer († 1755)
- Antoni Fiter i Rossell , Andorran Doctor of Law († 1748)
- Hagop II. Nalyan Zmmarazi , Armenian Archbishop and Patriarch of Constantinople († 1764)
- Mateus Vicente de Oliveira , Portuguese architect († 1786)
- Hyacinth de La Pegna , French painter († 1772)
- Joseph Wagner , German engraver († 1780)
- Thomas Mansel , Welsh politician (* 1678) January 7th:
- after January 8th: Johann Hoffmann , leader of the Bavarian people's uprising
- January 16: Philipp Ludwig Hanneken , German Lutheran theologian (* 1637)
- January 17th: Philipp Peter Roos , German painter (* 1657)
- January 26th: Guillaume Poitevin , French serpent wind player, conductor and composer (* 1646)
- January 29th: Johann Georg Aberle , Bavarian soldier and leader of the Bavarian People's Uprising (* unknown)
- January 29: Johann Clanze , Bavarian officer and leader of the Bavarian People's Uprising (* around 1667)
- January 29th: Johann Georg Kidler , Munich wine host and leader of the Bavarian People's Uprising (* 1674)
- Johann Nikolaus Pechlin , German-Dutch physician and educator of Karl Friedrich von Holstein-Gottorf (* 1646) February 4th:
- February 12: Fortunatus Hueber , German Franciscan, historian and theologian (* 1639)
- February 12: Balthasar Kindermann , German poet (* 1636)
- February 19: Hanns Georg Fux , Tyrolean sculptor (* 1661)
- February 27: John Evelyn , English author, architect and gardener (* 1620)
- February: François Choye , Savoyard sculptor (* 1658)
- Heino Heinrich von Flemming , Saxon and Brandenburg military leader, field marshal and governor of Berlin (* 1632) March 1:
- Johann Pachelbel , German composer (* 1653) March 3:
- March 17th: Johann Jäger , Munich wine host and leader of the Bavarian people's uprising (* 1667)
- March 17th: Matthias Kraus , Bavarian butcher and leader of the so-called Kraus uprising (* 1671)
- Christoph Egedacher , south German organ builder (* 1641) April 6th:
- Caspar Schamberger , German surgeon and diplomat in Japan (* 1623) April 8:
- April 19: Galenus Abraham de Haen , Dutch doctor and Mennonite preacher (* 1622)
- April 20: Hieronim Augustyn Lubomirski , Polish magnate, politician and grand hetman of the Polish crown (* around 1647)
- April 23: Wilhelmine Ernestine of Denmark , Countess Palatinate and Electress of the Palatinate (* 1650)
- April 25th: Thomas Hinckley , Governor of the English Plymouth Colony (* 1618)
- April 27: Bernhard I , Duke of Saxony-Meiningen (* 1649)
- Friedrich Christian von Plettenberg , Prince-Bishop of Münster (* 1644) May 5th:
- May 10: Johann Jakob Hofmann , Swiss theologian, classical philologist, historian and lexicographer (* 1635)
- May 10: Simon Rettenpacher , German-speaking and neo-Latin dramatist, poet and chronicler (* 1634)
- May 16: Christian Röhrensee , German ethicist and political scientist (* 1641)
- May 18: Wolfgang Dientzenhofer , German builder (* 1648)
- May 29: Caspar March , German medic (* 1654)
- June 15: Ferdinand Bonaventura I von Harrach , Austrian diplomat and statesman (* 1637)
- June 22nd: Johann Jacob Baur , Mayor of Tübingen (* 1621)
- June 28: Leopold Joseph von Lamberg , Austrian diplomat (* 1654)
- June 29: Michał Frencel , Sorbian pastor and Bible translator (* 1628)
- June 30th: Jacques Boyvin , French organist and composer (* around 1653)
- Kimpa Vita , Congolese prophetess and founder of the Antonians (* 1684) July 2:
- Catharina Priggen , abbess of the Heidekloster Medingen near Bevensen (* 1631) July 3:
- Leonard Plukenet , English botanist (* 1642) July 6th:
- Adrian Virginius , Baltic German theologian and Bible translator (* 1663) July 8:
- Probably July 9th: Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville , French nobleman and founder of the Louisiana colony (* 1661)
- July 13: Johann Franz Peickhardt , Austrian politician (* around 1647)
- July 31: Anna Spiekermann , last victim of the witch persecution in Vest Recklinghausen (* around 1670)
- Jean-Baptiste Du Hamel , French philosopher and theologian (* 1624) August 6:
- August 10: Fyodor Alexejewitsch Golowin , Russian politician and diplomat (* 1650)
- August 12: Johann Deutschmann , German Lutheran theologian (* 1625)
- August 14th: Christoph Donat , Saxon organ builder (* 1625)
- August 26: Michael Willmann , German baroque painter (* 1630)
- August 30th: Pietro Micca , Piedmontese soldier (* 1677)
- September 12th: Eugenio Casparini , German organ builder (* 1623)
- September 16: Matthias Petersen , North Frisian captain and whaler (* 1632)
- September 26: Onofrio Gabrielli , Italian painter (* 1619)
- September 27: August Adolph von Haugwitz , German poet and playwright (* 1647)
- September: Pontiaan van Hattem , Dutch theologian and religious philosopher (* 1641)
- Elisabeth Albertine von Anhalt-Dessau , Duchess of Saxony-Weißenfels-Barby (* 1665) October 5th:
- October 13: Iyasu I. , Negus negest of Ethiopia (* before 1682)
- October 26: Andreas Werckmeister , German musician and music theorist (* 1645)
- James Moore , Irish politician, governor of the English Province of Carolina (* around 1650) November 6th:
- November 15: Tshangyang Gyatsho , sixth Dalai Lama (* 1683)
- November 16: Cornelis Evertsen , Dutch admiral and privateer (* 1642)
- November 16: Godefridus Schalcken , Dutch painter (* 1643)
- November 14 or 17: Edward Mansel , Welsh nobleman and politician (* around 1637)
- Johann Georg Ahle , German composer, organist, poet and Protestant church musician (* 1651) December 2:
- Æmilie Juliane von Barby-Mühlingen , Imperial Countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, poet of sacred songs (* 1637) December 3:
- Peter II , regent and king of Portugal (* 1648) December 9:
- December 24th: Oswald Onghers , Flemish painter (* 1628)
- December 28th: Pierre Bayle , French philosopher and scholar (* 1647)
Exact date of death unknown
- Jakob Auer , Tyrolean sculptor (* around 1645)
- Jeanne Dumée , French astronomer, author and women's rights activist (* around 1680 to 1685)
- Toda Mosui , Japanese poet (* 1629)
- Johann Weidner , German painter and draftsman (* around 1628)
- Frederik de Wit , Dutch publisher (* 1630)