|Narai , king of the Thai empire Ayutthaya , arrives at the court of Louis XIV .|
|1686 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1134/35 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1678/79 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1091/1092 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2229/30 (southern Buddhism); 2228/29 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1048/49 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4019/20 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1097/98 (turn of the year 16/17 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5446/47 (September 18-19)|
|Coptic calendar||1402/03 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1996/97 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1997/98 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1742/43 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Augsburg Alliance / France
- March 22nd : Emperor Leopold I concludes an assistance pact with the Brandenburg Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm , which is directed against the expansion plans of King Louis XIV of France.
- July 9th : With the Augsburg Alliance , a defensive imperial alliance against France is forged.
Great Turkish War
- Mid-June: In the Great Turkish War , after a first unsuccessful attempt in 1684, the second siege of Ofen begins . An imperial army of 75,000 to 80,000 men under Charles of Lorraine includes the city of Ofen , which is held by a 7,000-man Ottoman garrison under Abdurrahman Abdi Pascha .
- July 27th : The first major attack on the fortifications is repulsed by the Ottomans.
- August: An Ottoman relief army arrives in front of Ofen, but shies away from the open field battle against the siege army and only gives it several small skirmishes.
- September 2nd : Charles V of Lorraine and his troops recaptured the city in a general storm after 143 years of Ottoman rule. In the massacre that followed the conquest, around 3,000 Turks were murdered and numerous women were raped. The anger of the conquerors is also directed against the Jewish community of Oven, which is almost wiped out.
Poland-Lithuania / Russia
With the Treaty of Moscow on May 6th, the eternal peace between Tsarist Russia and Poland-Lithuania is concluded. He formally ended the Russo-Polish War 1654–1667 and confirmed the agreements made in the 1667 Andrussowo armistice . The Rzeczpospolita is by the Poznań voivode Krzysztof Grzymułtowski represented the Russian side by Knyaz Vasily Golitsyn . Both sides undertake not to enter into a separate peace with the Ottoman Empire . By signing the treaty, Russia also joins the anti-Ottoman Holy League .
- December 12 : The Deccan sultanate of Bijapur is conquered after a long siege and incorporated into the Mughal Empire by Aurangzeb .
- The Salzburger Zeitung Extract-Writing or Europaeische Zeitung appears for the first time
science and technology
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz publishes De geometria recondita , in which the integral sign is published in print after he had already developed it by hand in the treatise Analysis tetragonistica in 1675 .
- Johann Zahn describes the mirror reflex principle for the first time .
Culture and religion
- The Italian nobleman Procopio dei Coltelli opens Café Procope on Rue des Fossés Saint-Germain in Paris , supposedly the oldest coffee house still in existence today .
- The evangelical miner Joseph Schaitberger wrote the emigrant song Ich bin ein Poor Exulant after the reprimand for Protestants by Salzburg Archbishop Max Gandolf von Kuenburg on the way to Nuremberg .
- After the Turkish siege, a cross and an eagle were placed on the top of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna in place of the star and crescent moon, which had been there since 1519 and were supposed to represent secular and spiritual power.
- The Franzosenkirche in Schwabach, the first church built by Huguenots in Franconia, is built.
- The old electoral high school in Bensheim is founded.
- February 12th : The St. Martins flood (Dutch: Sint-Maartensvloed ) happens from February 12th to 13th and hits the province of Groningen in particular .
- A major earthquake devastated the entire island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean.
Date of birth saved
- February 10 : Hans Egede , Norwegian pastor of Danish descent, known as the "Apostle of the Greenlanders" († 1758 )
- March 12 : Detlev Friedrich von Ahlefeldt , heir to Brodau and Danish major general († 1745 )
- March 17 : Jean-Baptiste Oudry , French painter († 1755 )
- June 7th : Adolf Friedrich III. , Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz († 1752 )
- June 17 : Johann Ulrich Giezendanner , Swiss goldsmith and pietist († 1738 )
- July 6 : Antoine de Jussieu , French physicist and botanist († 1758 )
- July 20 : Johann Jacob Schoy , Austrian sculptor († 1732 )
- July 24 : Benedetto Marcello , Italian Baroque composer († 1739 )
- July 26 : Johann Martin Gumpp the Younger , Austrian architect († 1765 )
- August 17 : Nicola Antonio Porpora , Italian composer and singing teacher († 1768 )
- August 31 : Charles de Bourbon , Duke of Berry († 1714 )
- September 8 : Michael Lilienthal , German Lutheran theologian and historian († 1750 )
- September 16 : Joseph Franz Valerian von Arco , Prince-Bishop of Chiemsee († 1746 )
- September 28 : Cosmas Damian Asam , German sculptor, painter and builder († 1739 )
- October 14 : Christian Gottlob Gerber , German Lutheran theologian and historian († 1764 )
- October 15 : Alessandro Galli da Bibiena , Italian architect († 1748 )
- October 31 : Francesco Bernardi, called Senesino , Italian castrato and opera singer, Handel interpreter († 1758 )
- November 1st : Axel von Löwen , Swedish baron, knight of the Serafine Order and governor general in Swedish-Western Pomerania († 1772 )
- December 23 : Samuel Madden , Irish writer († 1765 )
- December 25 : Christoph Matthäus Pfaff , German Protestant theologian († 1760 )
- December 31 : Sebastian Högger , Swiss officer in the Swedish service († 1737 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Giuseppe Besozzi , Italian oboist († 1760 )
- Eleonore Maria Anna von Löwenstein-Wertheim , Countess of Hesse-Rotenburg († 1753 )
First half of the year
- January 17th : Carlo Dolci , Italian painter (* 1616 )
- January 17 : Johann Andreas Lucius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1625 )
- February 23 : Nikolaus Gülich , opponent of the Cologne city council (* 1644 )
- February 25 : Abraham Calov , German theologian (* 1612 )
- March 16 : Charlotte von Hessel-Kassel , Electress of the Palatinate (* 1627 )
- March 17 : Elisabeth Marie von Münsterberg-Oels , Duchess of Württemberg-Oels (* 1625 )
- March 23 : Philipp Ludwig von Reiffenberg , first governor of the Electorate of Mainz in Erfurt (* around 1615 )
- April 3 : Baltasar de la Cueva Enríquez , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of Peru (* 1626 )
- April 6 : Arthur Annesley , Irish nobleman (* 1614 )
- April 26 : Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie , Swedish count, Reichsmarschall, Reichsdrost and Reich Chancellor (* 1622 )
- May 21 : Otto von Guericke , German physicist, engineer and politician (* 1602 )
- June 3 : Ernest Alexandre Dominique d'Arenberg , Prince of Chimay (* 1643 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Friedrich Reichsgraf von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Rixingen and Mörsberg (* 1623 )
- July 10 : Ercole Ferrata , Italian sculptor (* 1610 )
- July 11th : Michel Anguier , French sculptor (* 1612 )
- August 1st : Antonio Raggi , Italian sculptor (* 1624 )
- August 3 : Anna Margarete , Princess of Hesse-Homburg and Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Wiesenburg (* 1629 )
- September 19 : Johann Georg I , Duke of Saxony-Eisenach (* 1634 )
- October 2 : Balthasar Bebel , German Lutheran theologian (* 1632 )
- October 4 : Cord Jastram , Hamburg shipowner and politician (* 1634 )
- October 4 : Hieronymus Snitger , Hamburg merchant and politician (* 1648 )
- November 8th : Detlev von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Haseldorf, Haselau and Kaden (* 1612 )
- November 25th : Detlev von Ahlefeldt , Danish officer, diplomat and writer (* 1617 )
- December 5 : Niels Stensen ( Nicolaus Steno ), Danish bishop and naturalist (* 1638 )
- December 6th : Nicolaus von Avancini , German Jesuit, educator, poet and playwright (* 1611 )
- December 6th : Eleonora Magdalena of Mantua-Nevers-Gonzaga , third wife of Emperor Ferdinand III. (* 1628 )
- December 11 : Ludwig II of Bourbon, Prince of Condé , French general (* 1621 )
- December 12th : Charles de Noyelle , Flemish general of the Societas Jesu (* 1615 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Andreas Gottfried Ammon , German theologian and educator (* 1635 )
- Jacques d'Arthois , Flemish landscape painter (* 1613 )
- Jack Ketch , English executioner