Battle of Prestonpans,
under Charles Edward Stuart gain control over
all of Scotland .
Franz I Stephan
von Habsburg-Lothringen ,
husband of Maria Theresa ,
becomes Holy Roman Emperor .
Battle of Hohenfriedberg in Silesia
over Austrians and Saxons.
|1745 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1193/94 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1737/38 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1150/1151 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2288/89 (southern Buddhism); 2287/88 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1107/08 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4078/79 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1123/24 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1157/58 (turn of the year 2/3 February)|
|Jewish calendar||5505/06 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic calendar||1461/62 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2055/56 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2056/57 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1801/02 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Austrian Succession
- January 8th : During the Second Silesian War, Austria , Great Britain , the Republic of the Seven United Provinces and Saxony come together in a quadruple alliance in Warsaw to curb Prussian expansion. In the same year, the concluded alliance becomes obsolete with the peace of Dresden .
- January 20 : The death of the Roman-German Emperor Charles VII brings his son Maximilian III to the Electorate of Bavaria . Joseph in power. On September 13th, Grand Duke Franz I Stephan of Tuscany succeeded the deceased as emperor , who thus established the House of Habsburg-Lothringen .
- February 14th : After the defeat against Prussian troops under Johann von Lehwaldt in the battle near Habelschwerdt , the Austrians have to evacuate the County of Glatz .
- April 15 : The battle of Pfaffenhofen between French - Electoral Palatinate and Austrian troops near the town of Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm in Upper Bavaria ends with an Austrian victory under Karl Josef Batthyány .
- April 22nd : With the Peace of Füssen between Bavaria and Austria, Bavaria leaves the War of the Austrian Succession .
- April 25th : French troops under Moritz von Sachsen begin the siege of Tournai . The city held by the Netherlands is surrendered on May 22nd , the Dutch garrison withdraws to the citadel.
- May 11 : In the Battle of Fontenoy, the French under Moritz von Sachsen gain a loss-making victory against the Austrians, British and Dutch under William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland .
- June 1st : Eight days after taking Tournai , the French begin the siege of the citadel, which surrenders on June 19th .
- June 4th : In the Battle of Hohenfriedberg in Silesia, Frederick II of Prussia defeated an Austro-Saxon army under the command of Karl Alexander von Lothringen and Johann Adolf II von Sachsen-Weißenfels .
- September 27 : In the Battle of Bassignana , the Austro-Piedmontese army is defeated by French-Spanish-Neapolitan troops after they have conquered Tortona , Piacenza , Parma and Pavia together.
- September 30th : Prussia defeats Austria and Saxony in the Battle of Thrush .
- 4 October : Franz Stephan of the dynasty Habsburg-Lothringen is in Frankfurt to Holy Roman Emperor crowned. The election took place on September 13th .
- November 23 : In the battle of Hennersdorf , the Prussian troops under Frederick the Great defeat units of the Saxon army and Austrian regiments in the Second Silesian War .
- December 15 : The Battle of Kesselsdorf ends with a victory for Prussia under Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau over Austrian and Saxon units under Friedrich August Rutowski .
- December 25th : The Peace of Dresden ends the Second Silesian War between Austria, Saxony and Prussia.
The war in the colonies
- During King George's War in the American colonies, troops from New England capture the French fortress of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island after a 46-day siege.
- February 28 : On the occasion of a masked ball for the wedding of the French heir to the throne, Madame de Pompadour managed to attract the attention of the French King Louis XV to excite. Until her death in 1764 , she exercised great influence over the monarch.
- August 19 : A few days after landing in Scotland , the British pretender to the throne Charles Edward Stuart , called Bonnie Prince Charlie by his followers, hoists his standard at Glenfinnan . The Second Jacobite Rising begins. He marches towards Edinburgh with around 3,000 highlanders from various clans and is able to take the city - but not the castle - on September 17th without significant resistance.
- September 21st : Jacobite rebels under the leadership of Charles Edward Stuart defeat British government forces under General Sir John Cope in the battle of Prestonpans and thus temporarily gain control over all of Scotland . Only the fortresses of Edinburgh and Stirling remain in the hands of the government troops. Bonnie Prince Charlie sets up his residence in Holyrood Palace .
- Soon afterwards, Charles Edward invaded England with his highland army, which had grown to 5000 men , where he hoped for an even greater influx of the English and Irish Jacobites. The cities of Lancaster and Manchester are taken in quick action . In December he faces the derby , just 150 kilometers from completely unprepared London .
- September 1st : On the initiative of his mother Elisabeth Petrovna, the Russian heir to the throne Peter Fjodorowitsch from the House of Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp marries the German princess Sophie Auguste Friederike von Anhalt-Zerbst , who took the name Jekaterina Alexejewna the previous year. The wedding celebrations last ten days. Already on the wedding night it becomes clear that the Grand Duke has little interest and affection for his wife.
- November 24 : Tokugawa Yoshimune resigns as Shogun of the Edo period in Japan in favor of his son Tokugawa Ieshige .
- With the Wandsbecker Mercurius , a newspaper appears for the first time in Germany that is specifically aimed at the general public.
science and technology
- October 11th : The cathedral dean Ewald Georg von Kleist discovers the principle of the Leiden bottle . The following year, Pieter van Musschenbroek also came across the effect of electric shocks in Leiden .
- The Collegium Carolina is founded in Braunschweig .
- The Swiss astronomer Jean-Philippe de Chéseaux discovered, among other things, two emission nebulae , the Eagle Nebula and the Omega Nebula , as well as the open star clusters Messier 25 , IC 4665 and NGC 6633 .
Music and theater
- January 5th : The dramatic oratorio Hercules by George Frideric Handel is premiered at the Theater Royal, Covent Garden , London.
- 23 February : Voltaire's ballet comedy La Princesse de Navarre , set to music by Jean-Philippe Rameau, premieres in the converted Grande Écurie of Versailles on the occasion of the wedding of the Crown Prince of France to Maria Theresa , a daughter of the King of Spain . The king orders a repetition of the performance, which speaks for a positive reception. As a token of appreciation, Voltaire and Rameau received a follow-up contract for a court festival on November 27th at which their opéra-ballet Le Temple de Gloire was premiered. Jean-Jacques Rousseauedited the libretto at the end of the one-act version of Les Fêtes de Ramire that on December 22 will be premiered.
- March 27 : The oratorio Belshazzar by George Frideric Handel is premiered at the King's Theater in London.
The ballet comedy Platée by Jean-Philippe Rameau will be premiered on March 31st in the now splendidly expanded rooms of the Great Stables in Versailles . The libretto is by Adrien-Joseph Le Valois d'Orville , who has revised the libretto Platée ou Junon Jalouse ( Plataea, or Juno is jealous ) by Jacques Autreau , which Rameau bought for it. The occasion of the premiere is the wedding celebration of Louis Ferdinand de Bourbon, dauphin de Viennois , son of King Louis XV., and the Infanta Maria Theresa Rafaela of Spain , according to contemporary sources, just as the title character was no beauty. Instead of getting the composer into trouble because of this, the performance was well received and a few months later Rameau was appointed to the position of royal court composer with a substantial annual income.
God Save the King
The hymn God Save the King will be performed for the first time on September 28th in an arrangement by Thomas Arne in honor of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland . The authorship for the work is claimed by the son of the poet Henry Carey for his father. While the lyrics could well have come from him, the origin of the melody is unclear.
- November 1 : In the encyclical Vix pervenit, Pope Benedict XIV castigates the vice of loan interest . He justifies the prohibition of interest with the Holy Scriptures .
- The Kreuzkapelle in Kitzingen is consecrated.
nature and environment
- August 21 : The eastern slopes of Mount Etna in Sicily standing hundred horse chestnut is under nature protection provided.
- January 1 : Vinzenz Maria Strambi , Italian passionist and Bishop of Macerata-Tolentino († 1824 )
- January 1 : Anthony Wayne , American general and politician († 1796 )
- January 3 : Ludwig , Prince of Nassau-Saarbrücken († 1794 )
- January 4 : Johann Jakob Griesbach , Hessian professor for the New Testament in Jena († 1812 )
- January 6th : Jacques Étienne Montgolfier , French aviation pioneer, co-inventor of the hot air balloon († 1799 )
- January 7th : Johann Christian Fabricius , German-Danish zoologist and economist († 1808 )
- January 9 : Caleb Strong , American politician, governor of Massachusetts († 1819 )
- January 13 : Gottlieb Ludolph Krehl , German Protestant clergyman († 1823 )
- January 14 : Johann Georg Pforr , German painter († 1798 )
- January 15 : Matthäus Conrad , Swiss Reformed pastor, Romansh and Romansh writer († 1832 )
- January 17 : Nicolas Roze , French music teacher and composer († 1819 )
- January 30 : Ernst II , Prince of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg († 1804 )
- February 1 : Karl Joseph von Habsburg-Lothringen , Archduke of Austria († 1761 )
- February 8 : Johann Ernst Faber , German university professor († 1779 )
- February 11 : Schack Hermann Ewald , Gotha court official and publicist († 1822 )
- February 11 : Inō Tadataka , Japanese surveyor and cartographer († 1818 )
- February 13 : Gottfried Erich Rosenthal , German meteorologist and measuring instrument manufacturer († 1813 )
- February 15 : Johann Ferdinand Albert , German civil servant († 1839 )
- February 18 : Alessandro Volta , Italian physicist and inventor († 1827 )
- February 22nd : João de Sousa Carvalho , Portuguese composer († 1799 )
- February 23 : Ivan Yegorowitsch Starow , Russian architect († 1808 )
- March 11 : Bodawpaya , king of the Konbaung dynasty in Burma († 1819 )
- March 16 : Johann Wilhelm Cornelius von Königslöw , German organist and composer († 1833 )
- March 19 : Johann Peter Frank , German medic († 1821 )
- March 19 : Heinrich Christoph Nebel , German literary scholar, rhetorician and Lutheran theologian († 1786 )
- March 21 : Johan Nordahl Brun , Norwegian bishop and poet († 1816 )
- March 25 : Nicolas-Étienne Framéry , French writer and composer († 1810 )
- March 25 : Georg Ernst Waldau , German Protestant theologian and church historian († 1817 )
- March 30th : Antonio Despuig y Dameto , Spanish cardinal († 1813 )
- March 31 : Marianne von der Leyen , German Countess, regent in Blieskastel († 1804 )
- April 1 : Johann La Roche , Austrian actor, comedian and playwright († 1806 )
- April 2 : Richard Bassett , American politician, governor of Delaware († 1815 )
- April 6 : William Dawes , American tanner, patriot in the American War of Independence († 1799 )
- April 7th : Jiří Družecký , Czech oboist, timpani virtuoso and composer († 1819 )
- April 14 : Denis Fonwisin , Russian satirist and comedy poet († 1792 )
- April 20 : Philippe Pinel , French psychiatrist († 1826 )
- April 24 : Benedict Christian Vogel , German physician, botanist and university professor († 1825 )
- April 27 : Gottfried Christian Cannabich , German Lutheran theologian († 1830 )
- May 5 : Carl August Ehrensvärd , Swedish admiral, draftsman, architect and art theorist († 1800 )
- May 7 : Carl Stamitz , German violinist and composer († 1801 )
- May 10 : Wilhelm Florentin von Salm-Salm , Bishop of Tournai and Archbishop of Prague († 1810 )
- May 12 : Jens Juel , Danish painter († 1802 )
- May 21 : Johann Conrad Sulzer , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1819 )
- June 16 : Friedrich Ludwig von Rochow , Prussian chamberlain and landowner († 1808 )
- June 23 : James Graham , English doctor, quack and religious pamphleteer († 1794 )
- June 28 : August Friedrich Oelenhainz , German painter († 1804 )
- June 29 : Karl Franz Henisch , German actor and librettist († 1776 )
- June 30th : Joseph Freiherr von Aichen , Austrian diplomat and lawyer († 1818 )
- July 5 : Carl Arnold Kortum , German doctor, writer and local researcher († 1824 )
- July 7th : Eleonore von Liechtenstein , German Salonière († 1812 )
- July 9 : Christian Gottlob Richter , German lawyer, university professor and philologist († 1791 )
- July 17 : Timothy Pickering , US Secretary of State († 1829 )
- August 3 : Domenico Pozzi , Ticino painter († 1796 )
- August 5 : Johann Georg Pfranger , German Protestant clergyman († 1790 )
- August 9 : Wolfgang Schlichtinger , Austrian Catholic clergyman († 1830 )
- August 18 : Friederike Charlotte von Brandenburg-Schwedt , Princess Abbess of Herford Monastery († 1808 )
- August 18 : Ludwig Fischer , German opera singer (bass) († 1825 )
- August 18 : Václav Josef Bartoloměj Praupner , Bohemian composer († 1807 )
- August 20 : Francis Asbury , American bishop († 1816 )
- August 30 : Johann Hieronymus Schroeter , German lawyer, civil servant and astronomer († 1816 )
- September 3 : Karl Viktor von Bonstetten , Swiss writer († 1832 )
- September 12 : Jean-François Lefèbvre, chevalier de la Barre , French victim of a religiously motivated judicial murder († 1766 )
- September 16 : Mikhail Illarionowitsch Kutusow , Field Marshal General of the Russian Army, hero of the war against Napoleon († 1813 )
- September 23 : John Sevier , American politician, co-founder and governor of Tennessee, governor of the independent republic State of Franklin († 1815 )
- September: Samuil Micu , Transylvanian philosopher, theologian, historian, Romance scholar, grammarian, lexicographer and translator († 1806 )
- October 5 : Barbara Schulthess , citizen of Zurich, friend of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann Caspar Lavater († 1818 )
- October 10 : Philippine von Brandenburg-Schwedt , Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel († 1800 )
- October 15 : Alexander Abercromby , Scottish lawyer and essayist († 1795 )
- October 15 : Jean-Baptiste Huet , French painter († 1811 )
- October 22 : Benedikt Maria von Werkmeister , German Roman Catholic theologian and church reformer († 1823 )
- October 27th : Wolfgang Aigner , Bavarian Benedictine and scholar († 1801 )
- October 27 : Maxim Berezovsky , Russian composer († 1777 )
- October 29th : Thomas Lee , American politician, governor of Maryland († 1819 )
- November 8 : Ernst Christian Trapp , German educator († 1818 )
- November 14 : Dominique Villars , French doctor and botanist († 1814 )
- November 24th : Maria Ludovica of Spain , Archduchess of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Empress of the Holy Roman Empire and Queen of Bohemia, Croatia and Hungary († 1792 )
- November 27 : Rafael de Sobremonte , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of the Río de la Plata († 1827 )
- November 29 : Konrad Gottlob Anton , Silesian linguist and orientalist († 1814 )
- December 3 : Franz Anton Ernst , Bohemian violinist, violin maker and composer († 1805 )
- December 10 : Arthur Fenner , American politician, Governor of Rhode Island († 1805 )
- December 12 : John Jay , American politician, Governor of New York, Secretary of State and Chief Justice of the United States († 1829 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ramon Amadeu i Grau , Catalan sculptor († 1821 )
- Arslan Mehmed-paša , Ottoman Grand Governor of the Paschalik of Bosnia († 1812 )
- George Atwood , English inventor and physicist († 1807 )
- Gerhard Matthäus Friedrich Brawe , German physician and author († 1787 )
- Ann Catley , British singer, actress and dancer († 1789 )
- Mary Digges Lee , US citizen and governor's wife († 1805 )
- Theobald Dillon , French military leader, murdered († 1792 )
- Olaudah Equiano , African-Barbadian slave and fighter for the liberation of slaves († 1797 )
- George K. Jackson , American composer († 1822 )
- James Lloyd , American politician († 1820 )
- Heinrich Ferdinand Möller , German actor and writer († 1798 )
Born around 1745
- January 20 : Charles VII , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Elector and Duke of Bavaria (* 1697 )
- January 24th : Wincenty Maxylewicz , Polish composer and conductor (* around 1685 )
- January: Michael Bauer , mountain singer and mountain poet in the Ore Mountains (* 1662 )
- January: Giovanni Lorenzo Gregori , Italian violinist and composer (* 1663 )
- February 4 : Georg Ermel , German educator (* 1659 )
- February 5 : Anna Luise Föhse , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau (* 1677 )
- February 8 : Karl , Duke of Württemberg-Bernstadt (* 1682 )
- February 18 : Nicola Fago , Italian composer (* 1677 )
- February 21 : Johann Friedrich Blank , Russian architect (* 1708 )
- March 15 : Michel de La Barre , French flautist and composer (* before 1675)
- March 18 : Robert Walpole , British politician and Prime Minister (* 1676 )
- March 19 : Giovanni Francesco Guerniero , Italian architect and builder (* around 1665 )
- April 18 : Francesco Venturini , German composer and violinist (* around 1675 )
- April 27 : Jean-Baptiste Morin , French composer (* 1677 )
- April 30 : Robert Douglas , Scottish politician and officer (* around 1703 )
- May 6 : Marie-Nicole Horthemels , French engraver and etcher (* 1689 )
- May 9 : Tomaso Antonio Vitali , Italian violinist and composer (* 1663 )
- May 13 : Franz Trumler , Hungarian-Austrian master stonemason and sculptor (* 1687 )
- 22 May : François-Marie de Broglie , French general, Marshal of France (* 1671 )
- June 4 : Johann Wilhelm , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (* 1726 )
- June 28 : Antoine Forqueray , French composer, gambist and royal chamber musician (* 1672 )
- July 25th : Pierre Alexis Delamair , French architect (* 1676 )
- July 31 : Karl Heinrich von Hornstein , Knight of the Teutonic Order (* 1668 )
- August 1st : Gottlob Adolph , German hymn poet (* 1685 )
- August 3 : Johann Paul Schilck , Austrian master stonemason (* 1667 )
- August 13 : Ernst Friedrich II , Duke of Saxony-Hildburghausen (* 1707 )
- August / September: Galdan Tsereng , ruler of the Djungars
- September 4th : Christian Ernst , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (* 1683 )
- September 14th : Martino Altomonte , Neapolitan-Austrian painter (* 1657 )
- September 19 : Ernst Salomon Cyprian , German Lutheran theologian and librarian (* 1673 )
- September 24th : Johann Heinrich Fäsi , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1659 )
- September: Louis Francœur , French violinist and composer (* 1692 )
- October 2 : Heinrich Klausing , German Lutheran theologian, mathematician, astronomer and polyhistor (* 1675 )
- October 14 : David Erskine, 9th Earl of Buchan , Scottish nobleman and politician (* 1672 )
- October 15 : Johann Maximilian von Welsch , German architect, senior building director and fortress builder (* 1671 )
- October 19 : Jonathan Swift , Anglo-Irish writer and satirist (* 1667 )
- October 23 : Johann Alexander Döderlein , Weißenburg scholar (* 1675 )
- November 16 : James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde , Anglo-Irish nobleman and general, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (* 1665 )
- November 16 : Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt , Italian-Austrian master builder (* 1668 )
- December 6 : Imre Esterházy de Galántha , Archbishop of Esztergom and Primate of Hungary (* 1663 )
- December 19 : Jean-Baptiste van Loo , French painter (* 1684 )
- December 23 : Jan Dismas Zelenka , Bohemian composer (* 1679 )
- December 31 : Samuel Güldin , Swiss Pietist (* 1664 )
Exact date of death unknown
- António de Albuquerque Coelho , Portuguese colonial administrator, governor in Macau, Timor and godfather (* 1682 )
- İbrahim Müteferrika , Ottoman scholar and diplomat of Hungarian origin (* between 1670 and 1674)
- Henry Jennings , British privateer, head of the New Providence pirates
- Abraham Rozanes , Jewish scholar and Grand Rabbi in Constantinople (* 1665 )