Calendar overview 1697
August the Strong is
elected King of Poland .
Peter I begins
the Great Legation .
Eugene of Savoy defeats the Ottomans
in the Battle of Zenta in the Great Turkish War .
|1697 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1145/46 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1689/90 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1102/03 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2240/41 (southern Buddhism); 2239/40 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1059/60 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4030/31 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1108/09 (turn of the year 19/20 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5457/58 (September 15/16)|
|Coptic calendar||1413/14 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2007/08 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2008/09 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1753/54 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Palatinate Succession / King William's War
- April to June: During the attack on Cartagena , French privateers succeed in conquering the Spanish city in what is now Colombia. This French coup leads to increased readiness for peace in Spain and the start of peace negotiations in Rijswijk in May.
- October 30 : After England , Spain and the Netherlands on September 20, the Holy Roman Empire under Leopold I also ended the War of the Palatinate Succession with the French King Louis XIV through the Peace of Rijswijk . This also ends King William's War in the North American colonies.
- August: Prince Eugene of Savoy , whose army became free for other tasks after the Treaty of Vigevano in the Palatinate War of Succession, gathers his troops at Peterwardein to stop the advance of the Ottoman Empire . For now there are only minor skirmishes.
- Beginning of September: The Ottomans move north along the Tisza to conquer the Szeged fortress .
- September 11th : While trying to cross the Tisza, the Ottomans are surprised by Prince Eugene of Savoy and defeated in the battle of Zenta .
- February 23 : A conspiracy against Tsar Peter I is uncovered , the leaders are executed.
- March 10th : Peter I starts a trip to Europe (The Great Legation ). The entourage first travels to Novgorod. The Tsar travels incognito as a non-commissioned officer of the Preobrazhensk Regiment in the wake. 14 days later the group arrives in Riga in Livonia, Sweden. In Zaandam, the Netherlands , he wants to gain knowledge of shipbuilding, but has to leave the city after eight days. In August he begins an apprenticeship as a carpenter in Amsterdam .
- April 15th : On the late Charles XI. his son Karl XII follows . from Wittelsbach . He becomes Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken and Duke of Bremen-Verden at the same time .
- May 17th : Tre Kronor Castle , residence of the Swedish king in Stockholm, is completely destroyed in a fire.
- December 14th : At the age of 15 Charles XII. crowned King of Sweden .
Saxony / Poland
- June 1st : Saxony's ruler August the Strong converts to the Catholic faith in order to gain the Polish crown.
- June 27th : The Saxon Elector Friedrich August I, who converted to Catholicism , is elected King of Poland as August II and thus establishes the personal union of Saxony-Poland . The coronation will take place on September 15th .
- April 4 (?): After the defeat against the Chinese Emperor Kangxi at Dsuunmod in the previous year, in which his nephew Tsewangrabtan also stabbed him in the back, Khungtaidschi Galdan , ruler of the then expanding empire of the Dungarians , committed suicide. Tsewangrabtan becomes the new ruler of the empire.
- March 13 : Spanish troops take on an island in Lake Petén Itzá town in Tayasal , today Flores , one. The last retreat of Itzá - Mayas is then destroyed.
- Charles Perrault publishes eight Histoires ou contes du temps passé, avec des moralités ( stories or narratives from a bygone era, with morals ) without an author's name . It includes the fairy tales Les fées , La Belle au bois dormant , Le Petit Chaperon rouge , Le Maître Chat ou le Chat botté , Le petit poucet , La Barbe bleue and Cendrillon .
Music and theater
- February 4th : The world premiere of the opera La clemenza d'Augusto by Giovanni Bononcini takes place in Tordinona in Rome .
- The baroque opera Der beliebte Adonis by Reinhard Keizer has its world premiere at the Hamburg Opera am Gänsemarkt . The libretto is by Christian Heinrich Postel based on a material from Ovid's Metamorphoses . It covers the story of Venus and Adonis .
Society and religion
- January 8 : Scottish medical student Thomas Aikenhead is the last person to be gallows for blasphemy in what is now Britain . The execution of the “blasphemer”, for whom no defense counsel was provided during his trial, caused a sensation across Europe.
- December 7th : The 15-year-old Louis de Bourbon , Duke of Burgundy, eldest grandson of the French King Louis XIV , marries Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy one day after her twelfth birthday .
First half of the year
- January 30th : Johann Joachim Quantz , musician, composer and flute teacher of Frederick the Great († 1773 )
- February 3 : Ferdinand August Hommel , German legal scholar († 1765 )
- February 7 : Anna Maria Christmann , German soldier († 1761 )
- March 9 : Friederike Caroline Neuber , German actress († 1760 )
- March 24th : Louis César Constantin de Rohan-Guéméné , Catholic cardinal and Bishop of Strasbourg († 1779 )
- March 30th : Faustina Bordoni , Italian singer († 1781 )
- April 2 : Sauveur François Morand , French surgeon († 1773 )
- April 23 : George Anson, 1st Baron Anson , British naval officer and important theoretician of naval warfare († 1762 )
- April 24 : Kamo no Mabuchi , Japanese poet and literary scholar († 1769 )
- April 28 : Karl Josef Batthyány , Austrian general and field marshal († 1772 )
- Christine Kirch , Berlin calendar maker and astronomer († 1782 ) April:
- May 1 : David Matthieu , German portrait painter († 1756 )
- May 10 : Jean-Marie Leclair , French composer and violinist († 1764 )
- June 9 : August Ludwig , Prince of Anhalt-Köthen († 1755 )
- June 10 : Johann Kaspar Barthel , German Catholic canon lawyer and university professor († 1771 )
- June 11 : Francesco Antonio Vallotti , Italian composer, music theorist and organist († 1780 )
- June 24 : Heinrich Joseph Johann Prince of Auersperg , Prince of Auersperg and Duke of Münsterberg († 1783 )
Second half of the year
- July 9 : Paolo Anesi , Italian landscape painter († 1773 )
- July 11 : Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville , French geographer and cartographer († 1782 )
- July 31 : Pietro Paolo Vasta , Italian painter († 1760 )
- August 6 : Charles VII , Elector and Duke of Bavaria, Holy Roman Emperor († 1745 )
- August 6 : Nicola Salvi , Italian architect († 1751 )
- August 29 : Adalbert II. Von Walderdorff , provost in Blankenau and prince abbot and bishop of Fulda († 1759 )
- September 12 : Hieronymus Annoni , Swiss theologian and hymn poet († 1770 )
- September 20 : Ludwig Debiel , Austrian Jesuit and theologian († 1771 )
- October 7 : Giovanni Antonio Canale (Canaletto), Venetian painter († 1768 )
- October 22nd : Catharina Amalia von Schlegel , German hymn poet († after 1768 )
- October 26 : John Peter Zenger , German-American publicist and publisher († 1746 )
- October 28 : Johann Gottfried Auerbach , German painter († 1753)
- October 29 : George Desmarées , Swedish painter († 1776 )
- November 10 : William Hogarth , British painter and engraver († 1764 )
- November 10 : Louise-Hippolyte , Princess of Monaco († 1731 )
- November 25 : Gerhard Tersteegen , mystic and poet of hymns († 1769 )
- December 12 : Christian von Loß , German Cabinet Minister († 1770 )
- December 25th : John Rutty , English medic, chemist and naturalist († 1775 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Bernardus Accama , Dutch painter († 1756 )
- Johann Heinrich Arnold , Baden foreman († 1770 )
- Martin Aumüller , Bohemian sculptor and wood carver († 1757 )
First half of the year
- January 8th : Thomas Aikenhead , Scottish medical student, executed for blasphemy (* 1676 )
- January 28 : John Fenwick , English Jacobite conspirator (* around 1645 )
- March 12th : Gaspar de la Cerda Sandoval Silva y Mendoza , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain (* 1653 )
- March 17th : Þórður Þorláksson , Icelandic Protestant bishop (* 1637 )
- April 4 (?): Khungtaidschi Galdan , ruler of the Djungars (* 1632 or 1644 )
- April 15 : Charles XI. , King of Sweden and Duke of Zweibrücken (* 1655 )
- April 27 : Kanō Einō , Japanese painter (* 1631 )
- May 12 : Georges d'Aubusson de la Feuillade , French clergyman (* 1609 )
- May 24th : Johann Adolf I , Duke of Saxony-Weißenfels and Prince of Saxony-Querfurt (* 1649 )
- May 29 : Siface (originally Giovanni Francesco Grossi), Italian singer and castrato (murdered; * 1653 )
Second half of the year
- September 8 : Heinrich Anselm von Ziegler and Kliphausen , German writer (* 1663 )
- September 15 : Catharina Charlotta De la Gardie , wife of the Venetian war hero Otto Wilhelm Graf von Königsmarck (* 1654 )
- September 24th : Gerhard Bode , German Protestant theologian (* 1620 )
- September 28 : Christian Flor , German composer and organist (* 1626 )
- October 12 : John Ravenscroft , English composer and violinist (* 1650 )
- October 28 : Maria Anna Brunner , Swiss Benedictine nun and abbess of the Hermetschwil Monastery (* 1655 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pema Rigdzin , Tibetan clergyman of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism and founder of the Dzogchen monastery in Garzê (* 1625 )
- Mose Zacuto , Jewish poet and Kabbalist (* around 1625 )