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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Peter Paul Rubens with his wife Isabella
Peter Paul Rubens is made court painter by Archduke Albrecht VII .
Shakespeare's sonnets
Shakespeare's Sonnets is published by Thomas Thorpe.
The Polish King Sigismund III.  during the siege of Smolensk
The Polish-Russian War begins with the siege of Smolensk by the Polish King Sigismund III.
1609 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1057/58 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1601/02 (September 10-11)
Bengali solar calendar 1014/15 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2152/53 (southern Buddhism); 2151/52 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 71st (72nd) cycle

Year of the Earth-Rooster己酉 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Monkey 戊申)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 971/972 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3942/43 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 987/988
Islamic calendar 1017/18 (turn of the year April 5th / 6th)
Jewish calendar 5369/70 (September 28-29)
Coptic calendar 1325/26 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 784/785
Seleucid era Babylon: 1919/20 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1920/21 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1665/66 (April)


Politics and world events

Eastern and Northern Europe

Eighty Years War

Battle of Mülheim

Jülich-Klevian succession dispute

  • March 25 : The death of Duke Johann Wilhelm von Jülich-Kleve-Berg triggers the Jülich-Klevian succession dispute . Johann Sigismund von Brandenburg and Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg claim the succession of the imperial prince who died without direct descendants. In addition to these main competitors, Elector Christian II of Saxony and Duke Johann II of Pfalz-Zweibrücken also file inheritance claims.
  • An imperial commissioner arrives in May and urges the estates and councils to form a common government under the supervision of Rudolf II . Against this interference Brandenburg and Neuburg decide in Dortmund recess from June 10 to look at Jülich-Kleve up to a final agreement as a common possession. The government is to be exercised by the “posseders”, the ambassadors from both sides, ie Hereditary Prince Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg, son of Count Palatine Philipp Ludwig , and Margrave Ernst , brother of Johann Sigismund . A final settlement of the ownership structure should be made either amicably or by an arbitration committee. The possessors were quickly accepted as new rulers in Kleve and Mark, but they encountered resistance in Jülich and Berg. The new rulers received support from Pfalz-Zweibrücken, which recognized the Dortmund Treaty, and from the Protestant Union , Moritz von Hessen and Heinrich IV. Von France , who sent envoys to Düsseldorf. The possessors oppose an imperial directive to reverse all the regulations they had made. Saxony took the opportunity to again assert its claims with the emperor.
  • The commandant of the Jülich Fortress , Colonel Johann von Reuschenberg zu Overbach , does not recognize Ernst and Wolfgang Wilhelm and installs an imperial government in his fortress. Rudolf then sends Archduke Leopold von Habsburg to head this body as an authorized representative.
  • In the course of the summer, the possessors succeeded in gaining recognition in all of the country's provinces, but an ever deeper rift opened up between Ernst and Wolfgang Wilhelm. The Neuburger tries to compensate for his weakness due to the lower power of his principality compared to Brandenburg by getting closer to the emperor and the Lutherans .
  • Henry IV, fearing intervention by the Spanish from the Netherlands, gathers troops on the French-Dutch border.

Other events in the Holy Roman Empire

Other events in Europe



  • July 28th : An island in Bermuda is involuntarily settled for ten months by English colonists who want to go to Virginia . Your ship hits a reef in a severe storm and is unseaworthy as a result.

South America

Discovery trips in North America

Henry Hudson
Samuel de Champlain


First edition of the notification, relation or newspaper

science and technology

A copper plate from the Madagascar factory with a chameleon (above) and an animal known as a salamander


Visual arts

Elsheimer: Flight into Egypt , 1609




First half of the year

Second half of the year

Exact date of birth unknown


Date of death secured

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1609  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files