Calendar overview 1609
|Peter Paul Rubens is made court painter by Archduke Albrecht VII .||Shakespeare's Sonnets is published by Thomas Thorpe.|
|Polish-Russian War begins with the siege of Smolensk by the Polish King Sigismund III.|
|1609 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1057/58 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1601/02 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1014/15 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2152/53 (southern Buddhism); 2151/52 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||971/972 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3942/43 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1017/18 (turn of the year April 5th / 6th)|
|Jewish calendar||5369/70 (September 28-29)|
|Coptic calendar||1325/26 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1919/20 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1920/21 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1665/66 (April)|
Politics and world events
Eastern and Northern Europe
- February 28 : In the Treaty of Wiborg against the cession of the fortress Kexholm on Lake Ladoga, the Russian Tsar Vasily IV receives military aid to the extent of 15,000 men from King Charles IX. of Sweden , who with his nephew Sigismund III. Wasa of Poland-Lithuania is hostile. The commander-in-chief of Vasili's troops, Michail Wassiljewitsch Skopin-Shuiski, collects new contingents in Torzhok , relocates False Dimitri's troops to the north of Russia through a victory at Tver and horrifies the besieged Trinity Monastery .
- September 16 : The Polish-Russian War begins with the siege of Smolensk by the Polish King Sigismund III. Wasa . On September 21st , he himself arrives in front of the city, although its residents surrender to the overpowering enemy only after twenty months of stubborn resistance. The war lasted until 1618 .
Eighty Years War
- February: The battle of Mülheim near Mülheim an der Ruhr in the area of the historic Broich rule is won by general-state troops under Daniël de Hertaing against Spanish troops.
- April 12 : In Antwerp , Spain and the Republic of the Seven United Provinces conclude an armistice in the Eighty Years' War that will last for twelve years.
Jülich-Klevian succession dispute
- March 25 : The death of Duke Johann Wilhelm von Jülich-Kleve-Berg triggers the Jülich-Klevian succession dispute . Johann Sigismund von Brandenburg and Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg claim the succession of the imperial prince who died without direct descendants. In addition to these main competitors, Elector Christian II of Saxony and Duke Johann II of Pfalz-Zweibrücken also file inheritance claims.
- An imperial commissioner arrives in May and urges the estates and councils to form a common government under the supervision of Rudolf II . Against this interference Brandenburg and Neuburg decide in Dortmund recess from June 10 to look at Jülich-Kleve up to a final agreement as a common possession. The government is to be exercised by the “posseders”, the ambassadors from both sides, ie Hereditary Prince Wolfgang Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg, son of Count Palatine Philipp Ludwig , and Margrave Ernst , brother of Johann Sigismund . A final settlement of the ownership structure should be made either amicably or by an arbitration committee. The possessors were quickly accepted as new rulers in Kleve and Mark, but they encountered resistance in Jülich and Berg. The new rulers received support from Pfalz-Zweibrücken, which recognized the Dortmund Treaty, and from the Protestant Union , Moritz von Hessen and Heinrich IV. Von France , who sent envoys to Düsseldorf. The possessors oppose an imperial directive to reverse all the regulations they had made. Saxony took the opportunity to again assert its claims with the emperor.
- The commandant of the Jülich Fortress , Colonel Johann von Reuschenberg zu Overbach , does not recognize Ernst and Wolfgang Wilhelm and installs an imperial government in his fortress. Rudolf then sends Archduke Leopold von Habsburg to head this body as an authorized representative.
- In the course of the summer, the possessors succeeded in gaining recognition in all of the country's provinces, but an ever deeper rift opened up between Ernst and Wolfgang Wilhelm. The Neuburger tries to compensate for his weakness due to the lower power of his principality compared to Brandenburg by getting closer to the emperor and the Lutherans .
- Henry IV, fearing intervention by the Spanish from the Netherlands, gathers troops on the French-Dutch border.
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- July 6th : The Protestant nobles of Bohemia and Silesia get Emperor Rudolf II to issue them a letter of majesty , which guarantees them the freedom to practice their religion.
- 3. bis 10. July : In Munich is Catholic League under the leadership of the Bavarian Duke Maximilian I founded.
Other events in Europe
- February 7th : Cosimo II. De 'Medici succeeds his late father Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany .
- With St Paul's Bay Tower is on Malta during the reign of Grand Master Alof de Wignacourt the second of wignacourt towers built to defend the island.
- The Safawidenreich captured by the Kurds under Emir Xan Lepzêrîn defended fortress Dimdim in until 1610 lasted Battle of Dimdim .
- July 28th : An island in Bermuda is involuntarily settled for ten months by English colonists who want to go to Virginia . Your ship hits a reef in a severe storm and is unseaworthy as a result.
- The first Jesuit reduction is built in Loreto del Pirapó . The company is supported by a royal Cédula Magna from March 6th , which states: "The (baptized) Indians should be as free as the Spaniards".
Discovery trips in North America
- April 6 : On behalf of the United East India Company , the ship Halve Maen set sail from the Netherlands under the command of Englishman Henry Hudson to find a northeast passage into the Pacific. When his path was blocked again by ice after a stormy circumnavigation of the North Cape at Novaya Zemlya, he turned around under pressure from his mutinous crew in mid-May and turned west. On July 2nd, he arrives at the Newfoundland Bank and sails south along the American coast.
- September 11th : Henry Hudson reaches the island of Manhattan and discovers the Hudson River , later named after him , whose course he follows to the area of today's Albany .
- September 23rd : The Halve Maen starts her journey home and arrives in England on November 7th .
Samuel de Champlain
- January 15 : The first edition of the Aviso, Relation or Zeitung appears in Wolfenbüttel . It is one of the first newspapers in Germany.
- January 31 : The Amsterdam currency exchange bank starts operations. It credits accepted cash in any currency to its depositors' accounts in bank guilders . She settles demands of her customers among themselves cashless on the accounts kept with her. The bank is prohibited from granting credit and discounting bills of exchange .
science and technology
- December 8th : The Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan opens its reading room to the public as the second in Europe (after the Oxford Bodleian Library ).
- Johannes Kepler publishes the first two Kepler laws in Astronomia nova ( New Astronomy ).
- Galileo Galilei builds an astronomical telescope in Venice based on the design by Hans Lipperhey .
- Hieronymus Megiser's book Warhrachtige […] Description of the […] Insul Madagascar with the first German- Malagasy dictionary appears
- June 16 : The painter Adam Elsheimer observes the firmament over Rome and brings his exact observations to the canvas in the picture The Flight into Egypt .
- The book of poems Shakespeare's Sonnets is published by Thomas Thorpe in London . The 154 sonnets by the poet William Shakespeare , some of which have been published earlier, are mainly devoted to the theme of love. Following the sonnets, the book contains the long poem A Lover's Complaint ( One lovers suit ).
- Foundation of the first Baptist church in Amsterdam by English religious refugees
- Disputation between Jacobus Arminius ( Arminianism , Remonstrants ) and Franciscus Gomarus ( Contraremonstrants ) on predestination
- The book Philothea ( Instructions for a Pious Life ) by St. Francis de Sales appears.
First half of the year
- February 14 : Ádám Batthyány , Hungarian nobleman and general († 1659 )
- February 18 : Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon , English statesman and historian († 1674 )
- February 21 : Raimund von Montecuccoli , Austrian general, diplomat and statesman († 1680 )
- March 18 : Friedrich III. , King of Denmark and Norway († 1670 )
- March 21 : John II Casimir , King of Poland († 1672 )
- June 17 : Johann , Landgrave of Hesse-Braubach and general († 1651 )
- June 29 : Pierre-Paul Riquet , French engineer († 1680 )
Second half of the year
- July 15 : Kazimierz Lew Sapieha , Polish-Lithuanian statesman († 1656 )
- July 26 : Adolph Wilhelm von Krosigk , German politician, diplomat and envoy († 1657 )
- July 29th : Maria Gonzaga , Princess of Mantua, regent of the duchies of Mantua, Montferrat, Nevers and Rethel († 1660 )
- August 25 : Sassoferrato , Italian painter († 1685 )
- August 30th : Artus Quellinus I , Flemish sculptor († 1668 )
- October 5 : Paul Fleming , German doctor and writer († 1640 )
- October 18 : Josias Rantzau , German military leader, Marshal of France († 1650 )
- November 1 : Matthew Hale , English lawyer and statesman († 1676 )
- November 15 : Henrietta Maria of France , through her marriage to Charles I, Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland († 1669 )
- November 23 : Sophie Eleonore von Sachsen , Countess of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1671 )
- December 6 : David Mevius , German lawyer († 1670 )
- December 6 : Nicholas II , Duke of Lorraine († 1670 )
- December 13 : Isbrand van Diemerbroeck , Dutch medic († 1674 )
- December 28 : Ernst Ludwig Avemann , German politician and diplomat († 1689 )
- December 30th : Anna Maria , Princess of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Princess zu Eggenberg († 1680 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Luc d'Achery , French librarian and historian († 1685 )
- Georges d'Aubusson de la Feuillade , French clergyman († 1697 )
- Carlo II Gonzaga- Nevers, Duke of Mantua, Montferrat, Nevers and Rethel († 1631 )
- Judith Leyster , Dutch Baroque painter († 1660 )
Date of death secured
- January 21 : Joseph Justus Scaliger , French scientist (* 1540 )
- February 3 : Ferdinando I de 'Medici , Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cardinal (* 1549 )
- February 4th : García Hurtado de Mendoza , Spanish governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru (* 1535 )
- March 25 : Johann Wilhelm von Jülich-Kleve-Berg , Bishop of Münster and Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg (* 1562 )
- April 16 : Francisco Cabral , Portuguese Jesuit and missionary in Japan (* 1529 )
- May 15 : Giovanni Croce , Italian composer, conductor and priest of the Venetian Renaissance (* 1557 )
- May 20 : Georg Rollenhagen , German writer, educator and preacher (* 1542 )
- June 2 : Poul Cypræus , Danish lawyer, historian and diplomat (* 1536 )
- June 28 : Agathe , Countess of Tübingen (* 1533 )
- July 15 : Annibale Carracci , Italian painter (* 1560 )
- July 19 : Nicolas Gistou , Danish composer (* around 1560 )
- September 14 : Balthasar Sartorius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1534 )
- September 20 : Anna Elisabeth , Countess Palatinate of Simmern, Princess of the Palatinate, Countess of Hesse-Rheinfels and Countess Palatinate of Veldenz (* 1549 )
- October 1 : Giovanni Matteo Asola , Italian conductor and composer (* around 1532 )
- October 15 : Joseph Heintz the Elder , Swiss painter (* 1564 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Michael Abel , German humanist, neo-Latin poet and lyric poet (* 1542 )
- James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of Arran , Scottish nobleman (* 1537 )
- Hans Vredeman de Vries , Dutch painter (* 1527 )