completes his main work
Astronomia Magna .
|Paul III prohibits the bull Sublimus Dei the slavery .|
Gustav I. Wasa , construction began
on Gripsholm Castle in Mariefred, Sweden .
|1537 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||985/986 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2080/81 (southern Buddhism); 2079/80 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||899/900 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3870/71 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||943/944 (turn of the year 9/10 June)|
|Jewish calendar||5297/98 (September 5-6)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1847/48 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1848/49 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1593/94 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 6th : Alessandro de 'Medici is assassinated by his distantly related cousin Lorenzino de' Medici . The republican opposition around Filippo Strozzi the Younger , who celebrates the act as tyrannicide , does not succeed in taking power in Florence . Seventeen-year-old Cosimo I de 'Medici becomes the new lord of Florence and Duke of Tuscany . He defeated the Republican army under Filippo's son Piero Strozzi and Bernardo Salviati on August 1 at the Battle of Montemurlo . The leaders of the insurgents will be executed on August 20th . Filippo Strozzi died on December 18 in his cell in the Fortezza da Basso under unexplained circumstances.
- May: With a fleet that has been upgraded since the Tunis campaign under the Admiral Khair ad-Din Barbarossa commissioned by Sultan Suleyman I , the Ottomans conquer numerous Aegean islands such as Santorin , Naxos , Kasos , Tinos and Karpathos , and make most of the others tribute. The Republic of Venice under Doge Andrea Gritti and the Christian federal fleet under Admiral Andrea Doria have nothing to oppose the Ottoman superiority.
Other events in Europe
- January 16 : As King Henry VIII of England does not keep the concessions he made the previous year to the insurgents of the Pilgrimage of Grace , another uprising breaks out under Francis Bigod. The uprising was brutally suppressed and the leaders sentenced to death in court hearings in May. Robert Aske, the leader of the Pilgrimage , is hanged on July 12th .
- February 23 : Charles I founds today's Infantería de Marina of Spain.
- The chicken war , an anti-royalist and anti-absolutist rebellion by the Polish Szlachta , the middle and lower nobility with its center in today's Galicia in Poland , soon ends with minor concessions from King Sigismund I , because the Polish nobility is divided.
- February: The Spanish conquistador Juan de Ayolas founds the Fort of Candelaria in the confluence of the Río Blanco in the Río Paraguay . The expedition then penetrates further inland to the Gran Chaco area.
- March 12th : The Portuguese colonized the area of today's Recife for the first time .
- April 18th : Spanish conquest of Peru : The siege of Cuzco by the Inca under Manco Cápac II fails after almost a year when Diego de Almagro returns from his expedition to Chile.
- May 3 : The conquistador Alfonso de Heredia founds the city of Santa Cruz de Mompóx on the territory of the Indian tribe of the Malibues with their support on behalf of the governor of Cartagena , Juan de Santa Cruz , which developed into an important city in the viceroyalty of New Granada .
- May 15 : The conquistador Juan de Salazar y Espinosa de los Monteros founds the Fort Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción on the Río Paraguay at the behest of Pedro de Mendoza , from which the capital of Paraguay develops.
- December 8 : Capitán Alonso de Cáceres founds the city of Santa María de Comayagua in what is now Honduras on behalf of Adelantado , Governor of Yucatán , Francisco de Montejo .
- around 1537: The Hustaler is minted for the first time.
science and technology
- Paracelsus completes his main work Astronomia Magna .
- King John III makes Coimbra the only university city in Portugal . The University of Lisbon is dissolved.
- Parmigianino completes the portrait of a young woman called Anthea, painted in oil on canvas .
- Book printing and papermaking come to the Bergisches Land through Johannes Soter ; the paper mill and printer, which existed until 1996, publishes important works of humanities.
In the bull Sublimis Deus proclaimed on May 29, Pope Paul III forbids the enslavement of Indians and all other people. The Pope repeated this his position he previously a month in the letter Veritas ipsa from May 2 to Cardinal Juan de Tavera , the archbishop of Toledo , has represented. Paul III declares that the Indians are rational beings with a soul , and rejects any claim to the contrary as devilish. He condemns their humiliation to slaves as null and void, and that applies to all peoples, including those who have not yet been discovered. He grants them the right to freedom and property and closes with an appeal for their Christianization . The bull had a powerful influence on the Valladolid dispute , and the principles expressed in it eventually became the official position of Charles V , although it is often ignored by the settlers and conquistadors .
The Ingolstadt theologian Johannes Eck publishes a German translation of the New and Old Testaments . The Eck Bible was created as a Catholic answer to the Luther Bible from 1534 and is therefore counted among the Correction Bibles. He does not write in an East Central German Saxon , but in a very Bavarian Upper German, similar to the Maximilian chancellery language . With this, Eck differentiates himself not only theologically but also linguistically from Martin Luther. This work was commissioned by the Bavarian Duke Wilhelm IV and is entitled Old and New Testament, according to the text used in the hailigen kirchen, by doctor Johan. Corners, with diligence, interpreted at Hohteutsch . Eck's part of the New Testament is based on the translation by the humanist Hieronymus Emser from 1527 and is based entirely on the Latin Vulgate and not on the original Hebrew and Greek texts as in Luther. His Bible is dedicated to the Cardinal and Archbishop of Salzburg, Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg .
January to August
- January 16 : Albrecht VII , Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt († 1605 )
- January 21 : Antonmaria Salviati , Cardinal of the Roman Church († 1602 )
- March 4 : Longqing , Emperor of China of the Ming Dynasty († 1572 )
- March 17 : Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Japanese general and politician († 1598 )
- May 1 : Jacob Horst , German medic († 1600 )
- May 20 : Girolamo Fabrizio (also: Hieronymus Fabricius), Italian anatomist and founder of modern embryology († 1619 )
- May 21 : Jacob Spengler , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1613 )
- May 31 : Ismail II , Safavid Shah of Iran († 1577 )
- June 3 : Johann Manuel , heir to the Portuguese throne († 1554 )
- July 25 : Johann Eglof von Knöringen , Bishop of Augsburg († 1575 )
- July 30th : Christoph zu Mecklenburg , Administrator zu Ratzeburg and the Commandery Mirow († 1592 )
- August 31 : Arnold Mercator , Flemish-German cartographer († 1587 )
September to December
- September 9 : Francesco Barozzi , Venetian-Cretan mathematician and philologist († 1604 )
- September: Charles de Montmorency, duc de Damville , French pair and admiral of France († 1612 )
- October 12 : Edward VI. , King of England († 1553 )
- October 15 : Johannes Posthius , German doctor and poet († 1597 )
- October : Jane Gray , English nobleman, Queen of England († 1554 )
- November 4 : Jacob Flach , German mathematician, physician and botanist († 1611 )
- November 6 : Elisabeth Magdalene , Margravine of Brandenburg, Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg († 1595 )
- December 5 : Ashikaga Yoshiaki , Japanese Shogun († 1597 )
- December 20 : Johann III. , King of Sweden († 1592 )
- December 24th : Wilhelm IV von dem Bergh , Reichsgraf von dem Bergh († 1586 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Patrick Adamson , Archbishop of St Andrews († 1592 )
- Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Duke of Alba , Spanish nobleman († 1583 )
- Philipp Galle , Dutch draftsman and engraver († 1612 )
- James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of Arran , Scottish nobleman († 1609 )
Born around 1537
Date of death secured
- January 6th : Alessandro de 'Medici , Duca della città di Penna and Duke of Florence (* 1510 )
- January 10th : Maria Xipaguazin Moctezuma , Aztec princess, wife of a Spanish conquistador
- January 12 : Lorenzo di Credi , Florentine painter and sculptor (* 1459 )
- February 2 : Johann Carion , German astrologer, mathematician and historian (* 1499 )
- February 8 : Otto von Pack , German conspirator
- February 8 : Hieronymus Ämiliani , Italian humanist and saint (* 1486 )
- February 21 : Girolamo Accoramboni , Italian medic and philosopher (* 1469 )
- February: George de Athequa , last Roman Catholic Bishop of Llandaff in Wales
- June 23 : Pedro de Mendoza , Spanish conquistador and founder of the colony of Buenos Aires (* 1487 )
- June 30th : Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy de Darcy , English nobleman and politician (* around 1467 )
- July 1 : Mauritius Ferber , Bishop of Warmia (* 1471 )
- July 7th : Madeleine de Valois , Princess of France and Queen of Scotland (* 1520 )
- July 12 : Robert Aske , English lawyer, leader of the Catholic pilgrimage of grace (* 1500 )
- October 9 : Hans Cranach , German painter and draftsman (* around 1513 )
- October 16 : Françoise de Foix , French aristocrats and mistress of the French King Francis I (* 1490 / 95 )
- October 24 : Jane Seymour , Queen of England and third wife of Henry VIII (* 1509 )
- October 31 : Thomas Howard , English nobleman (* 1511 )
- November 9th : Quirin op dem Veld von Willich , auxiliary bishop in Cologne
Exact date of death unknown
- Heinrich Brabender , German sculptor (* around 1467 )
- Hans Cranach , German painter (* around 1513 )
- Thomas Fitzgerald , tenth count of Kildare (* 1513 )
- Thomas Murner , German writer and theologian (* 1475 )
- Henry Percy , sixth Earl of Northumberland (* 1502 )