Calendar overview 1553
Mary Tudor becomes
Queen of England and Ireland .
Michael Servetus is burned in Geneva
for heresy .
battle of Sievershausen ,
Elector Moritz von Sachsen defeated his former ally, Margrave Albrecht II. Alcibiades von Brandenburg-Kulmbach .
|1553 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1001/02 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2096/97 (southern Buddhism); 2095/96 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||915/916 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3886/87 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||960/961 (turn of the year 6/7 December)|
|Jewish calendar||5313/14 (September 8/9)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1863/64 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1864/65 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1609/10 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- July: Lady Jane Gray claims after the death of Edward VI. as "Nine Day Queen" for a short time the title of Queen of England and Ireland . On July 19 it is of faithful of the Catholic Queen I. Maria arrested. Her father Henry Gray, 1st Duke of Suffolk , her husband Guildford Dudley and her father-in-law John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland , are also arrested. The latter was executed that same year, on August 22nd .
Second Margrave War
- July 9 : In the Battle of Sievershausen in the Second Margrave War , Elector Moritz von Sachsen defeated his former ally, Margrave Albrecht Alcibiades of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, and thus made a significant contribution to the establishment of the Augsburg religious peace two years later. However, when he was shot in the abdomen, he was so badly injured in battle that he succumbed to his injuries two days later . Since he dies without male offspring, his younger brother August becomes the new Elector of Saxony .
- August 7th : The siege of Hof ends with the capture of the city by Heinrich IV. Von Plauen on September 28th .
- October 11th : Albrecht Alcibiades recaptured Hof .
- November 26 : Looting and destruction of the city of Kulmbach as part of the Second Margrave War .
- November 27th : Hof is conquered again by the margrave's opponents. Georg Wolf von Kotzau is appointed as governor.
Other events in Europe
- August 24th : Richard Chancellor , who was to explore a northern sea route to China on behalf of a London trading company , ends up with the Bonaventure at the mouth of the North Duna ; two escort ships had sunk. The English arrive in Moscow in December. The English discovered the northern access to the Moscow Empire via the White Sea and established an important trade link with Western Europe. (see Muscovy Company )
- October 27 : The scholar Michael Servetus (Servet) is burned at the instigation of John Calvin on charges of heresy.
- December 25th : In the Battle of Tucapel in the Arauco War in Araucania , Mapuche under their war chief Lautaro defeat a group of conquistadors under Pedro de Valdivia , the Spanish captain general and governor of Chile . The captured governor will then be executed; the exact date is uncertain due to conflicting sources.
- The Battle of Fuse is fought in Japan , the first of five battles in Kawanakajima between Takeda Shingen from Kai Province and Uesugi Kenshin from Echigo Province . Due to unfavorable conditions, both sides break off the fight and meet again a short time later. However, neither of the two armies can achieve victory here either.
science and technology
- March 4th : Official founding day of the Akademisches Gymnasium, the oldest grammar school in Vienna , through recognition by the University of Vienna . The school was run by the Jesuits until 1773 (then for a long time by the Piarists ).
- The English officer Hugh Willoughby is the first Western European to search for a northeast passage to China on a three-ship expedition . In August, the ships are separated by a storm. The Edward Bonaventure, under the command of Richard Chancellor , then continued on its own in the direction of Russia.
- Pedro de Cieza de León publishes the first volume of his Cronica del Perú .
- The Siebenbrunn Hofwasserleitung , the oldest aqueduct to Vienna , is completed.
- Construction of the Padre Tembleque aqueduct in Mexico begins.
- November 15 : The Arezzo Chimera , an example of Etruscan art, is found during the construction of fortresses near Arezzo , Italy .
- December 18 : The elephant Soliman probably dies due to inappropriate keeping in Vienna.
- April 20 : The Archdiocese of Baghdad of the Chaldeans is founded.
- September 9 : Pope Julius III. had copies of the Talmud that had been confiscated from Jews in Rome publicly burned in the days before . As a result, the Inquisition advises other Christian rulers to take this approach with regard to Jewish writings.
- About 200 members of the London alien community of the reformer Johannes a Lasco , who were initially under in King Edward VI. who were admitted there by England had to flee from the Catholic Queen Maria I and, after being rejected in Copenhagen, reached Travemünde in autumn . This is considered to be the beginning of the Reformed Church in Lübeck .
Date of birth saved
- January 12 : Johannes Wanckel , German historian († 1616 )
- February 8 : Marija Fjodorovna Nagaja , Tsarina of Russia († 1612 )
- April 29 : Albrecht Friedrich , reigning prince of the Duchy of Prussia († 1618 )
- April 30 : Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont , Queen of France from 1575 to 1589 († 1601 )
- May 14 : Margaret of Valois , Queen of France and Navarre († 1615 )
- May 28 : Eberhard von Weyhe , court official, lawyer and writer († 1633 )
- July 8 : Philipp Jakob Schröter , German physician († 1617 )
- July 15 : Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz († 1626 )
- October 20 : Zacharias Brendel the Elder , German philosopher, physicist, medic and botanist († 1626 )
- November 21 : Philipp Ludwig I , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg († 1580 )
- November 23 : Prospero Alpini , Italian doctor and botanist († 1617 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- John Florio , English translator and scholar († 1625 )
- John Lyly , English writer († 1606 )
- Thomas Muffet , English doctor and naturalist († 1604 )
- Joachim Reutlinger , Swiss Mayor († 1620 )
Born around 1553
First half of the year
- January 1 : Johannes Rivius , German pedagogue and theologian (* 1500 )
- February 4th : Caspar Othmayr , German priest, theologian and composer (* 1515 )
- February 6th : Ernst I of Baden-Durlach , Margrave of Baden-Pforzheim (* 1482 )
- February 19 : Erasmus Reinhold , German astronomer and mathematician (* 1511 )
- March 5 : Augustin Hirschvogel , German geodesist and cartographer (* 1503 )
- March 7th : Wolfgang Dachstein , organist and lyricist (* 1487 )
- April 9 : François Rabelais , French writer (* 1494 )
- May 5th : Erasmus Alber , German theologian, reformer and poet (* 1498 )
- May 13 : Johannes Aepinus , theologian and ecclesiastical reformer (* 1499 )
- May 16 : Five martyrs of Lyon , French theology students and evangelical martyrs
- May 23 : Francesco Donà , 79th Doge of Venice (* around 1468 )
Second half of the year
- July 6th : Edward VI. , King of England (* 1537 )
- July 11 : Moritz , Duke and Elector of Saxony (* 1521 )
- July 31 : Wilhelm von Schachten , Landgrave-Hessian Marshal (* around 1500 )
- August 3 : Thomas Atzersen , German pastor
- August 8 : Girolamo Fracastoro , Italian physician, poet and philosopher (* around 1476 / 78 )
- August 17th : Charles III. , Duke of Savoy (* 1486 )
- August 22nd : John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland , English nobleman (* 1504 )
- September 5 : Giovanni Mollio , Italian reformer and evangelical martyr (* around 1500 )
- September 9 : Justinian von Holzhausen , Frankfurt patrician and mayor (* 1502 )
- between September 4th and October 7th: Cristóbal de Morales , Spanish composer (* around 1500 )
- October 16 : Lucas Cranach the Elder , painter and graphic artist, (* 1472 )
- October 17th : George III. , Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau and priest and driving force of the Reformation (* 1507 )
- October 19 : Bonifazio Veronese , Italian painter (* around 1487 )
- October 27 : Michael Servetus , Spanish doctor, scholar, humanist, theologian and anti-Trinitarian (* 1511 )
- October 28 : Giovanni Salviati , Cardinal of the Roman Church (* 1490 )
- December 21 : Sinan Pasha , Grand Admiral of the Ottoman Navy
- December 25th : Pedro de Valdivia , Spanish conquisitor (* 1497 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Giorgio di Pietro Andreoli , Italian sculptor, potter and majolica painter (* between 1465 and 1470)
- Cornelis Anthonisz , Dutch painter and cartographer (* around 1523 )
- James Wedderburn , Scottish poet (* around 1495 )