Calendar overview 1555
|Augsburg Imperial and Religious Peace brings the end of the religious wars of the Reformation period.||Marcellus II. Is after the death of Julius III. elected Pope by the first conclave in 1555 . However, he dies after a few days.|
John Rogers becomes the first victim
of Protestant persecution under Mary of England .
|1555 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1003/04 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2098/99 (southern Buddhism); 2097/98 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||917/918 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3888/89 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||962/963 (turn of the year 15th / 16th November)|
|Jewish calendar||5315/16 (September 15/16)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1865/66 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1866/67 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1611/12 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Reichstag in Augsburg
- February 5 : The Emperor's brother, King Ferdinand I , opens the Reichstag in Augsburg to reorganize political and ecclesiastical relationships in the empire.
- September 24th : In order to guarantee the Reservatum ecclesiasticum and thus the establishment of a peace, Ferdinand I gives the Declaratio Ferdinandea to the Electors of Electoral Saxony and Electoral Mainz . In it he guarantees the local Protestant knights and cities that they will retain their evangelical creed, even if they are in a spiritual Catholic territory. This is an important exception to the principle of cuius regio, eius religio . This declaration is kept secret until 1575.
- September 25th : The Augsburg Imperial and Religious Peace brings the end of the religious wars of the Reformation period.
Further events in the empire
- April 17th : After a 15-month siege by Florentine imperial troops, the city of Siena gives up due to food shortages. Cosimo I de 'Medici from Florence effectively put an end to the rival Republic of Siena. The city and territory are ultimately incorporated into his Grand Duchy of Tuscany .
- October 25 : Emperor Charles V announces his decision to abdicate in a state ceremony in Brussels . It is carried out in August of the following year.
Other events in Europe
- May 29 : After the death of Heinrich II , his daughter Johanna III takes over . his claims as Queen of Navarre . In fact, most of the country has been under the rule of the Crown of Aragon since 1512 .
- July 14th : Pope Paul IV issues the papal bull Cum nimis absurdum , a document of early modern anti-Judaism which “opposes the expression of the social superiority of Jews over Christians”. As a result, a ghetto is created in Rome . As a result, many Jewish families flee the Papal States .
- The Treaty of Amasya terminates since 1532 permanent Ottoman-Safavid war . The defeated Persian ruler Tahmasp I had to make numerous territorial concessions to the Ottoman Empire under Suleyman I. A 20-year period of peace between the Ottomans and the Safavids follows .
- March 25th : The Spanish captain Alonso Díaz Moreno founds the city of Valencia in the viceroyalty of New Spain
- November 1st : The French Vice Admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon founds the colony France Antarctique between Rio de Janeiro and Cabo Frio with 600 soldiers and Huguenot settlers . The colony is broken up by the Portuguese in 1567 .
- The Spanish conquistador Francisco Fajardo lands near Chuspa in what is now Venezuela to conquer the Caracas region.
- Tsar Ivan IV of Russia grants the Muscovy Company, which was newly founded by Maria I of England after Richard Chancellor's return in London, extensive trading privileges in his empire (landing rights on the Russian north coast, duty and tax exemption, stacking rights in Cholmogory and Vologda).
Three Popes Year
- After the death of Julius III. on March 23rd there is a three-popes year :
Heretic burnings in England
- February 4 : Protestant theologian John Rogers dies a fiery death as a convicted heretic at the Smithfield execution site in London .
- February 9 : John Hooper , the Reformed Bishop of Gloucester , falls victim to recatholicization under Maria Tudor and dies by fire.
- Nostradamus publishes his Centuries ( Les Propheties ).
- The Meshari (Missal) by Gjon Buzuku is the first book in Albanian printed.
- The Rollwagenbüchlin , a collection of swans by Jörg Wickram , is published by the Knobloch printing works in Strasbourg. The first edition contains 67 Schwänke, to which more will be added over the years.
- In his work Trattato del glace della palla, Antonio Scaino describes for the first time rules for the balloon game , a forerunner of the fistball game .
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- March 18 : François-Hercule de Valois , Duke of Alençon, youngest son of the French King Henry II († 1584 )
- April 21 : Lodovico Carracci , Italian painter († 1619 )
- April 28 : Karl Friedrich von Jülich-Kleve-Berg , Hereditary Prince of the Duchies of Jülich, Kleve and Berg († 1575 )
- 6 July : Louis II. De Lorraine-Guise , Archbishop of Reims († 1588 )
- July 16 : Lancelot Andrewes , English scholar, theologian and preacher († 1626 )
- September 6th : Johann von Bodeck , first guilder millionaire from Frankfurt am Main († 1631 )
- September 8 : Elias Reusner , German historian († 1612 )
- September 28 : Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne , Duke of Bouillon, French military leader, diplomat and politician († 1623 )
- October 12 : Peregrinus Bertie , English nobleman, diplomat and general († 1601 )
- October 18 : Melchior Eckhart , German Protestant theologian († 1616 )
- December 16 : Hermann Vultejus , German lawyer († 1634 )
- December 27 : Johann Arndt , German post-Reformation theologian († 1621 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Markus Bäumler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1611 )
- Henry Garnet , English Jesuit († 1606 )
- Jeanne du Monceau de Tignonville , French noblewoman, mistress of King Henry IV († 1596 )
- Antoine de Pluvinel , French riding instructor to Louis XIII. († 1620 )
- Charles Stewart, 1st Earl of Lennox , Scottish nobleman († 1576 )
Date of death secured
- February 8 : Laurence Saunders , English clergyman and evangelical martyr (* 1519 )
- February 9 : Christian Egenolff , German printer and publisher (* 1502 )
- February 9 : John Hooper , English Reformed theologian and reformer, Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester (* c. 1495 )
- April 6 : Giovanni Angelo Arcimboldi , indulgence commissioner for Northern Germany and Scandinavia, Archbishop of Milan (* 1485 )
- April 12th : Joan of Castile , daughter of the Catholic Kings of Spain (* 1479 )
- April 18 : Polydor Virgil , Italian humanist (* around 1470 )
- April 21 : Endres Dürer , German goldsmith and silversmith (* 1484 )
- May 1st : Marcello Cervini, Pope under the name Marcellus II. (* 1501 )
- May 29 : Henry II , titular king of Navarre (* 1503 )
- June 10 : Elisabeth of Denmark, Norway and Sweden , Electress of Brandenburg (* 1485 )
- June 23 : Pedro Mascarenhas , Portuguese navigator, explorer and diplomat (* around 1484 )
- October 9 : Justus Jonas the Elder , German reformer (* 1493 )
- October 16 : Hugh Latimer , English theologian and reformer (* around 1485 )
- October 16 : Nicholas Ridley , Bishop of the Anglican Church (* around 1500 )
- November 4 : Agnes of Hesse , Electress of Saxony (* 1527 )
- November 12th : Stephan Gardiner , English theologian, statesman, humanist and Graecist (* around 1497 )
- November 21 : Georgius Agricola , German scientist, is also known as the "father of mineralogy" (* 1494 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Late summer: John Erskine, 5th Lord Erskine , Scottish nobleman
- Ingerd Ottesdotter , Norwegian landowner and liege mistress