from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Portal history | Portal Biographies | Current events | Annual calendar

| 15th century | 16th century | 17th century |
| 1480s | 1490s | 1500s | 1510s | 1520s | 1530s | 1540s |
◄◄ | | 1515 | 1516 | 1517 | 1518 | 1519 | 1520 | 1521 | 1522 | 1523 | |►►

Heads of State · Nekrolog · Art Year · Literature Year · Music Year

Charles V's European possessions
Wine red: Castile
Red: Aragon's possessions
Orange: Burgundian possessions
Yellow: Austrian hereditary lands
Pale yellow: Holy Roman Empire
Conquest of Mexico
Hernán Cortés begins the Spanish conquest of Mexico .
Ferdinand Magellan
The Portuguese navigator in Spanish service Ferdinand Magellan begins the first circumnavigation of the world .
Ulrich Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli becomes a people priest at the Grossmünster in Zurich.
Emperor Maximilian's grave in Wiener Neustadt
Emperor Maximilian I dies in Wels Castle .
1519 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 967/968 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1511/12
Aztec calendar 13. Rabbit - Matlactli omey Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 12th house - Matlactli omome Calli )
Buddhist calendar 2062/63 (southern Buddhism); 2061/62 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 70th (71st) cycle

Year of the Earth- Rabbit 己卯 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Tiger 戊寅)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 881/882 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3852/53 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 897/898
Islamic calendar 924/925/926 (turn of the year 2/3 January // 22/23 December)
Jewish calendar 5279/80 (August 26-27)
Coptic calendar 1235/36
Malayalam calendar 694/695
Seleucid era Babylon: 1829/30 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1830/31 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1575/76 (turn of the year April)

1519 is a year of upheaval: Emperor Maximilian I dies in the Holy Roman Empire , succeeded to the throne by his grandson Karl I, King of Spain , under the name of Charles V. Karl, who wins the election against the French King Franz I , will become the ruler in the next few years " in whose empire the sun does not set ".

While Huldrych Zwingli takes up his post as a people priest at the Grossmünsterstift in Zurich and thus brings the Reformation to Switzerland , Martin Luther makes the final and irreversible break with the Roman Church in the Leipzig disputation against Johannes Eck .

The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés leads an expedition into the Mexican highlands and begins the Spanish conquest of Mexico and the destruction of the Aztec Empire .

On behalf of Spain, the Portuguese Fernão de Magalhães (Magellan) is setting out on a journey that will take us around the earth in two years' time and which will provide the ultimate proof of the earth's spherical shape .


Politics and world events

Holy Roman Empire

King election after the death of Maximilian I.
Monument to Emperor Maximilian I in the garden of Wels Castle

Emperor Maximilian I dies on January 12th on the way from Innsbruck to the state parliament in Linz in Wels Castle . With his death, his grandson Karl , who is already King of Spain , also becomes Archduke of Austria . According to his will, Maximilian is buried in his baptismal church, the St. George's Chapel of the castle in Wiener Neustadt , in the vestments of the Order of St. George under the steps of the Gothic high altar. The tomb commissioned by him , however, remains unfinished for the time being, because the associated bronze figures are too heavy for the chapel.

Duke Ulrich von Württemberg tries to use Maximilian's death for himself and attacks the Free Imperial City of Reutlingen on January 28th . However, he is involved in a war with the Swabian Confederation . In March / April he sent a force under Georg von Waldburg-Zeil , Ulrich was defeated and driven out of Württemberg , the duchy was placed under Austrian administration. Ulrich's four-year-old son Christoph becomes a noble boy at Karl's court in Innsbruck, his succession is uncertain. Ulrich's attempt to recapture his duchy fails in September / October.

Handwritten letter from Karl dated May 2nd to Margrave Kasimir von Brandenburg-Kulmbach regarding the forthcoming election of a king

The Spanish King Charles I , who was stylized as a “German candidate” by his Grand Chancellor Mercurino Arborio di Gattinara , wins the election of Roman-German King against Francis I of France on June 28th . The transfer of 851,918 guilders to the seven electors by the banker Jakob Fugger led to their unanimous vote in the election of Charles. Shortly before the election is Friedrich III. (the way) resigned as a candidate. Karl signs an election surrender in which he confirms all regalia, privileges and imperial pledges of the imperial princes. He also promises to set up a Reich regiment . The fear of foreign rule is expressed in the provisions that only Germans should be assigned to important Reich offices and that foreign warriors may not be stationed on the soil of the Reich. The curia’s claims for money are also to be limited and the large trading companies abolished.

Persecution of Jews in Regensburg
The Regensburg synagogue before its destruction in 1519

On February 21 , the Regensburg city ​​council ordered the expulsion of the Jews from the city after Christian craftsmen had demanded it. The people of Regensburg use the power vacuum after the death of Emperor Maximilian I. The old Jewish quarter is destroyed and the lucrative pilgrimage “To the beautiful Maria” takes place on today's Neupfarrplatz . All Jews have to leave the city within two weeks . The ghetto , including the synagogue and school, is burned down, pledges are confiscated, and valuable parchment manuscripts are misused as binding material for files and books. The cemetery is desecrated, most of the more than four thousand gravestones are destroyed, but some of them are also stolen by the citizens of Regensburg with the approval of the council and built into house walls as a visible macabre trophy of the “victory” over the Jews. Some of these so-called Jewish stones are still preserved today.

Hildesheim collegiate feud
Siege of the fortress of Calenberg 1519, drawing by Johannes Krabbe from 1591

Between the Bishopric of Hildesheim and the Guelph principalities Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg breaks Hildesheimer pin feud from. After futile sieges of fortresses in Calenberg and in Hildesheim by hilde domestic or Brunswick troops and numerous devastation and plundering of both sides against civilians, and among other things the castle Peine vain siege and the city is burned Peine, witnessed the feud on June 28 their The climax is the Battle of Soltau , the last known knight's battle . The Hildesheimers under Prince-Bishop Johannes IV of Saxony-Lauenburg defeat the Brunswick troops, kill 3,500 men and take Erich von Calenberg and many nobles prisoner. Prince Heinrich the Younger of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel then called the new Emperor Charles V, with whom he had good relations, as arbitrator.


Teutonic Order State / Poland

Kalmar Union

Italy / France

On April 28 , 15 days after the birth of her daughter Caterina , Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne dies of the consequences of the difficult delivery. When Catarina's father Lorenzo di Piero de 'Medici , city lord of Florence and Duke of Urbino , died of a serious illness on May 4th, her great-uncle Pope Leo X took over the guardianship of the newborns. King Francis I of France wishes the orphan - thanks to her mother a very wealthy heiress - to grow up at the French court. Leo X, however, does not follow this request, but has Caterina brought from Florence to Rome, appoints her Duchess of Urbino and later plans to marry her to the son of his brother Giuliano de 'Medici , Ippolito de' Medici , who also died at an early age .

After Lorenzo's death, his relative Giulio de 'Medici became the lord of the city of Florence .

Spanish conquests in the "New World"

Aztec territory before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar , governor of Cuba , withdraws his former secretary and current mayor of Santiago de Cuba , Hernán Cortés , for fear of his ambition to organize an expedition to Mexico last year. Unimpressed by this, Cortés continued his preparations and set off from Havana on February 18 with 11 ships and 670 men . A little later, the flotilla lands on the island of Cozumel off the Yucatán . There the locals tell them about two Christians who have lived with the Maya for several years . One of them, Gerónimo de Aguilar , can be found after a short search and joins them enthusiastically, the other, Gonzalo Guerrero , has achieved high esteem among the Maya and refuses to leave his new home.

Malinche and Hernán Cortés; Old Mexican illuminated manuscript of the Tlaxcalteks from the 16th century (Lienzo de Tlaxcala)

On March 12th, the Spaniards land near Potonchán on the Tabasco River, where fighting with the Chontal Maya broke out two days later. Their Halach Huinik (highest-ranking prince) Tabscoob gives them numerous treasures and 20 slaves, among them 14-year-old Malinche, after his defeat on March 15th as a token of devotion . Together with Gerónimo de Aguilar , she is very helpful to the Spaniards through her knowledge of the Mayan and Aztec languages, Nahuatl , and later becomes Cortés' lover.

On April 21, Hernán Cortés lands on the coast of Mexico near San Juan de Ulúa near the present-day city of Veracruz . Moctezuma learns of the landing of the Spaniards and sends them a delegation of his closest confidants. He gives them gifts made of gold and precious stones, clothing and magnificent feather ornaments. However , he refuses Cortés' request to visit him in Tenochtitlán . With his generous gold gifts, Moctezuma wants to appease the strangers and get them to leave the country, but does the opposite. The Totonaks , a vassal tribe of the Aztecs, now contact Cortés and form an alliance with him.

Cortés sinks his ships ; Engraving by Karel Donatus van Beecq (1638–1722)

Although his mission to explore the area is fulfilled with the landing, Cortés refuses to allow his soldiers to return to Cuba and instead founds the settlement of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz . He sets up a city council, who appoints him captain general, as such subordinates him directly to the crown and thus releases him from his duties towards Velázquez. To win the crown for his cause, he sends a ship to Spain with all the gold the newcomers can find; He has all other ships sunk out of fear of desertions. On August 16, he marched with several hundred Spaniards and his Totonak allies into the interior.

In Tlaxcala it comes on September 4 to attacks Tlaxcaltecs that can be averted only with the help of firearms. The Kazike Xicoténcatl the Elder finally makes peace with the Spaniards after several days of fighting and provides them with urgently needed food. As a sign of loyalty, he married his daughter to the Spanish captain Pedro de Alvarado .

After learning that a force from Tenochtitlán was approaching, the Spaniards and their Tlaxcaltec allies massacred several hundred people in a pre-emptive strike in the Aztec city ​​of Cholula on October 18 , including the city's upper class and the king in his place a puppet king is used, who also allies with the Spaniards.

Reconstruction of the location of Tenochtitlan and other places on the mainland and the islands in Lake Texcoco

On November 8th , Cortés' force reached the Valley of Mexico and the city of Tenochtitlan and was received by Moctezuma at the gates of the capital. The Aztec ruler lets the Spaniards assign the palace of his late father Axayacatl as an apartment. Tenochtitlán was built on some islands in Lake Texcoco and is only connected to the mainland by three dams.

During a battle between the Aztecs and the garrison that remained in Veracruz , the commander Juan de Escalante and several of his men were killed around November 10th . The head of one of the men is sent to Moctezuma in Tenochtitlán. Cortés then captures Moctezuma and takes him to the Spaniards' quarters. The Aztec captains who fought against Escalante are convicted and publicly burned.

Other places in the Spanish Empire

Magellan's circumnavigation

Because of the candidacy of the Spanish King Charles I as the Roman-German King, Ferdinand Magellan's planned expedition in the spring ran into a financial bottleneck, from which she could only free herself when the merchant Cristóbal de Haro became an investor. There was a further delay in the summer because too few Spanish seafarers were willing to take part in the risky voyage, and Magellan had the ranks filled with Portuguese compatriots - which in turn made his clients uncomfortable. They enforce a numerical limit for sailors and cabin boys from Portugal. In addition, Magellan sacrifices his partner Rui Faleiro , who is deposed as the second captain next to Magellan and excluded from the expedition.

Magellan's ship Victoria, detail from a world map by Abraham Ortelius

From Seville , Ferdinand Magellan's fleet begins his planned journey in search of the Spice Islands on August 10th . Magellan himself is not on board; he only follows after he has drawn up his will on August 24th . His fleet, consisting of the ships Trinidad , San Antonio , Concepción , Victoria and Santiago , sails down the Guadalquivir towards the ocean under the imperial flag of the Holy Roman Empire . In Sanlúcar de Barrameda , Magellan has to wait five weeks as the Spanish authorities try to obstruct the native Portuguese's journey. The fleet can not set sail until September 20 . King Manuel I of Portugal sends ships to Brazil and southern Africa to block the way for the fleet, a project that does not succeed.

Magellan's ships will take provisions on the Canary Island of Tenerife on September 26th . On October 3rd they reached Cape Verde , on November 20th the equator is crossed. Due to the far south running course, the fleet gets out of the Passat zone and loses time. The Spanish captains therefore confront the Commander-in-Chief. Magellan regards this as an affront and lets the next commanding officer Juan de Cartagena, who as conjunta persona , as assigned to the captain general, feels equal to him and makes this clear in the dispute.

The fleet reached South America on December 6th and anchored on December 13th in a bay that Magellan calls Bahia de Santa Lucía , today's Rio de Janeiro bay . The indigenous people there consider the whites to be gods, since rain falls at the same time as they arrive for the first time in a long time, and are therefore friendly to them. In order not to overlook the presumed paso , the passage into the South Sea, the fleet is slowly feeling its way down the South American coast until the end of the year.




Visual arts

Cleaver Madonna

Georg Spalatin , the mediator between Martin Luther and the Elector Friedrich III. von Sachsen , ensures that a 60 centimeter high statue of the Madonna , later known as the Spalter Madonna , arrives as a gift from the Wittenberg Heiltums collection in the church of St. Emmeram in his home town of Spalt . The figure, created by an unknown master, shows Mary with the baby Jesus on her left arm and was probably created on the occasion of a great indulgence the previous year.


Libro de [...] Don Claribalte , (Valencia, 1519)


Church hierarchy


On January 1st, after three years in Einsiedeln, Ulrich Zwingli came to the Grossmünsterstift in Zurich as a people priest , where he convinced the people and the city council of the Reformation with his sermons .

Leipzig disputation between Luther and Eck

Between June 27 and July 16, a theological debate between the Ingolstadt theologian Johannes Eck and the Wittenberg theologians Martin Luther and Andreas Karlstadt will take place in Leipzig . At the Leipzig disputation , differences in the grounds for the papal office become evident. Eck got Luther to accept the theses of Jan Hus , who was condemned by the Council of Constance , whereby Luther relativized the authority of councils as well as the authority of the Pope.



First half of the year

Isabella Jagiellonica, miniature by Lukas Cranach
Heinrich II as a child
Cosimo Medici as a boy
Théodore de Bèze's birthplace in Vézelay

Second half of the year

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1519

  • 1519/ 1520 : Pir Mehmet , the Ottoman poet, historian, translator and biographer († 1571 )


January to April

May to August

Leonardo da Vinci, self-portrait as an old man
The tomb of Lucrezia Borgia and Alfonso I d'Este

September to December

Michael Wolgemut, portrait by Albrecht Dürer , 1516

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1519  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files