covers the Ridolfi conspiracy
to overthrow ...
|Elizabeth I of England , who should be replaced by Maria Stuart .|
naval battle of Lepanto, the Ottomans suffer
a heavy defeat against the Holy League .
|1571 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1019/20 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2114/15 (southern Buddhism); 2113/14 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||933/934 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3904/05 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||978/979 (turn of the year 25/26 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5331/32 (September 19-20)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1881/82 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1882/83 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1627/28 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy League / Ottoman Empire
- May 20 : In Rome , Pope Pius V , Spain and the Republic of Venice join forces to form the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire .
- April to August 1 : At the end of the siege of Famagusta by the Ottomans, the defenders under Marcantonio Bragadin surrender the city after the situation has become hopeless due to a lack of supplies. The Ottoman general Lala Kara Mustafa Pascha assured the Venetians safe conduct. With Famagusta , the Republic of Venice loses all of Cyprus , which it has ruled since 1489 , to the Ottoman Empire.
- August 5 : After learning that captured Muslim pilgrims to Mecca have been executed by the Venetians, the Ottomans break their promise and massacre almost all of the city's defenders. Marcantonio Bragadin is skinned alive, his skin is stuffed and taken to Constantinople.
- October 7th : In the naval battle of Lepanto , the fleet of the Holy League under Don Juan de Austria decisively defeats the Ottomans. Grand Admiral Ali Pasha is killed in battle. With the victory, the myth of the invincibility of the Ottoman armed forces can be broken psychologically. However, the league cannot follow up due to the lack of a powerful land army and internal disputes.
In the Ridolfi conspiracy in England , the conspirators around Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk , try to depose the Spanish ambassador Guerau de Spes and Bishop John Leslie , Queen Elizabeth I and replace them with the Catholic Maria Stuart . The conspiracy is exposed by Sir Francis Walsingham .
Other events in Europe
- March 18 : The seat of the Order of Malta in Malta is relocated from Birgu to the fortress city of Valletta , newly built by Gerolamo Cassar .
- May 24th : Troops of the Crimean Khanate led by Khan Devlet I. Giray set Moscow on fire and temporarily renew Russia's obligation to pay tribute. The unexpected catastrophe ushered in a turning point in the Tsar's domestic and foreign policy.
- May 25 : Stephan Báthory is elected Prince of Transylvania by the Hungarian estates in Alba Iulia with the support of Selim II and against the resistance of Emperor Maximilian II . A civil war with a rival to the throne ensues, which Báthory wins.
- The Tagalog , who retreated into the jungle after their defeat last year, rebel against the Spaniards and lay siege to Manila . It took months before the besiegers could be repulsed on June 24th . After the peace treaty , the Spanish conquistadors Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo build the fortress Fuerte de Santiago in today's Intramuros on the ruins of the palace of Rajah Sulayman , which was destroyed in the previous year . Miguel López de Legazpi becomes the first Spanish governor of the Philippines .
- King Sai Setthathirath I disappears under mysterious circumstances at Mueang Ong Kan. His newborn son No Keo Kuman is declared the new ruler of Lan Xang under the reign of his grandfather Phra Nga Sen Sulintara Lusai .
- 23 January : Queen Elizabeth I opens the Royal Exchange, the first London stock exchange built with funds from the businessman Thomas Gresham .
Fine arts and architecture
- The tragic comedy Damon and Pithias by Richard Edwards appears in print. It is the first English-language tragic comedy and an adaptation of the material of the story by Damon and Phintias .
Music and literature
- Elias Nikolaus Ammerbach publishes the organ or instrument tablature , an organ tablature book and the first printed work specifically with organ music.
- January 11th : Emperor Maximilian II issues a religious assecuration for the Habsburg hereditary lands . The classes of the nobility and knighthood are thus granted a license to practice their religion if they are adherents of the Augsburg Confession .
- October 4th : The Synod of Emden begins. It shapes the self-image and the church order of the Dutch Reformed Church .
- October 13th : The Emden Synod ends with resolutions on principles for offices in the local church and the synodal structure of the Reformed Church as well as the signing of a future church order by the participants.
- After an assassination attempt on Cardinal Borromeo by four priests of the Order of the Humiliates in 1569, Pope Pius V abolished the male branch of the order.
nature and environment
First half of the year
- January 9th : Marquard von Ahlefeldt , lord of Gut Haselau and Kaden († 1608 )
- January 9 : Charles Bonaventure de Longueval , general in the 17th century († 1621 )
- January 13 : Carlo Antonio Procaccini , Italian painter († after 1628 )
- January 27 : Abbas I , Persian ruler from the Safavid dynasty († 1629 )
- February 7 : Hartger Henot , Cologne canon, lawyer and doctor of both rights († 1637 )
- February 15 : Michael Praetorius , German composer (maybe also born in 1572 ) († 1621 )
- February 17 : Albert Hein the Elder , German legal scholar and diplomat († 1636 )
- February 18 : Hans Caspar Lang the Elder , Swiss glass, panel and facade painter and book illustrator († 1645 )
- March 5 : Thomas Francine , Florentine fountain master in France († 1651 )
- March 31 : Pietro Aldobrandini , Cardinal of the Roman Church and Archbishop of Ravenna († 1621 )
- April 7th : Peter Piscator , German oriental philologist and Lutheran theologian († 1611 )
- April 21 : Jacob Isaacsz van Swanenburgh , Dutch painter († 1638 )
- May 6 : Lucas Osiander , German theologian, professor and chancellor of the University of Tübingen († 1638 )
Second half of the year
- August 20 : Charles de Lorraine , Duke of Guise († 1640 )
- August 22 : Christine von Diez , German nobles and property lady († 1637 / 1638 )
- August 24 : Niklaus Henzi , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1635 )
- September 9th : Apollonia Radermecher , daughter of a merchant from Aachen, founder of the Elizabethine Order († 1626 )
- September 10 : Bartholomäus Battus , Protestant theologian († 1637 )
- September 29 : Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio , Italian painter, founder of Roman baroque painting († 1610 )
- October 7th : Anton Heinrich , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen († 1638 )
- October 7th : Maria von Sachsen-Weimar , abbess of the empire-direct and free-worldly monastery Quedlinburg († 1610 )
- October 9 : Caspar Cunrad , German physician, historian and poet († 1633 )
- October 15 : Jakob Matham , Dutch engraver († 1631 )
- December 27 : Johannes Kepler , German mathematician, astronomer and optician († 1630 )
- December 31 : Go-Yōzei , 107th Emperor of Japan († 1617 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Gottfried Anton , German legal scholar († 1618 )
- Maria von Eicken , Margravine of Baden († 1636 )
- Lucretia Marinella , Italian writer († 1653 )
- Theodor Galle , Dutch engraver († 1633 )
- Matsunaga Teitoku , Japanese poet and scholar († 1654 )
- Wyandanch , Sachem of the Montaukett on Long Island († 1659 )
- Yagyū Munenori , Japanese sword master, teacher and author († 1646 )
First half of the year
- January 3 : Joachim II. Hector , Elector of Brandenburg (* 1505 )
- January 13 : Johann I , Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin (* 1513 )
- January 19 : Paris Bordone , Italian painter (* 1500 )
- January 28th : Anne Bourchier, 7th Baroness Bourchier , English noblewoman, baroness in her own right
- Feb. 12 : Nicholas Throckmorton , English agent, diplomat and politician (* 1515 / 1516 )
- February 13 : Benvenuto Cellini , Italian sculptor and goldsmith (* 1500 )
- February 21 : Melchior Kling , German lawyer and legal scholar (* 1504 )
- March 14 : Johann Sigismund Zápolya , King of Hungary, Prince of Transylvania and Duke of Opole and Ratibor (* 1540 )
- March 21 : Hans Asper , Swiss painter (* 1499 )
- April 6th : John Hamilton , Lord Keeper of the Seal and Treasurer of Scotland, Archbishop of St Andrews (* 1511 )
- April 16 : Bertram von Ahlefeldt , lord of the noble estate Lehmkuhlen (* 1508 )
- May 4 : Frederick Casimir , Duke of Cieszyn and Bielsko (* 1541 / 42 )
- May 4 : Pierre Viret , Swiss reformer in Geneva, Lausanne and France (* 1511 )
- May 7th : Anton van den Wyngaerde , Flemish vedute painter and cartographer
Second half of the year
- July 17 : Georg Fabricius , Protestant German poet, historian and archaeologist (* 1516 )
- July 31 : Francesco Fernando d'Avalos d'Aquino d'Aragona , governor in the Duchy of Milan and viceroy of Sicily (* 1530 )
- August 17th : Marcantonio Bragadin , Venetian officer, defender of Cyprus (* 1523 )
- August 30 : Theodoret von Kola , Russian Orthodox cleric (* 1489 )
- September 4th : Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox , Scottish nobleman (* 1516 )
- September 23 : John Jewel , Bishop of Salisbury (* 1522 )
- October 2 : Joachim Bäldi , Swiss governor, governor and member of the Diet (* before 1527 )
- October 7th : Ali Pascha , Grand Admiral of the Ottoman fleet in the sea battle at Lepanto
- October 7th : Dorothea von Sachsen-Lauenburg , Queen of Denmark and Norway (* 1511 )
- October 22 : Johann von Glauburg , Frankfurt patrician and mayor (* 1503 )
- November 10th : Anneken Hendriks , Frisian martyr of the Anabaptist movement (* 1522 )
- November 24th : Jan Blahoslav , Czech humanist, grammarian and composer (* 1523 )
- December 27 : Johannes Criginger , German Lutheran theologian, cartographer and writer (* 1521 )
- December: Baldassare Lanci , Italian artist and architect (* 1510 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Nicolò dell'Abbate , Italian painter (* 1509 )
- Aşık Çelebi , Ottoman poet (* 1519 or 1520 )
- Joachim Deschler , German medalist and sculptor (* around 1500 )
- Dolfino Landolfi , Swiss politician, Podestà and printer (* around 1500 )
- Titu Cusi Yupanqui , ruler of the Inca (* around 1529 )