|monkey-worthy Naupengeheurliche historical confusion .||
Wilhelm I of Nassau-Orange
founds the University of Leiden .
|battle of Nagashino , the first 'modern' battle in Japan , is decided by the massive use of firearms.|
|1575 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1023/24 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2118/19 (southern Buddhism); 2117/18 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||937/938 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3908/09 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||982/983 (turn of the year 11/12 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5335/36 (September 4/5)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1885/86 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1886/87 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1631/32 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- July 10th : Victory of the Transylvanian Prince Stephan Báthory at Kerelőszentpál over the troops of Gáspár Béké, who was appointed pretender to the throne by his predecessor .
- December 15th : Stephan Báthory is elected King of Poland.
- Transylvania has to pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire 15,000 gold guilders annually.
Holy Roman Empire
- September 7th : Rudolf II is elected King of Bohemia and is crowned on September 22nd in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.
- October 27 : Rudolf II is elected Roman-German King in Regensburg and is crowned on November 1st .
- The Baltic island of Bornholm , which was pledged to Lübeck for 50 years , is reverting to the Danish crown.
- June 28 : In front of the Japanese fortress of Nagashino , the army of the warlord Oda Nobunaga defeats the samurai army of the Takeda clan in the Battle of Nagashino thanks to the massive use of firearms for the first time.
- September 1st : King Philip II declares - after 1557 - the bankruptcy of Spain for the second time .
science and technology
The University of Leiden is founded on February 8th by William I of Nassau-Orange after the Spanish besiegers in the Eighty Years' War had to withdraw without result towards the end of the previous year . It thus becomes the first university in the rebellious Netherlands , from which the Republic of the Seven United Provinces will develop in 1581 .
- The German School St. Petri is founded in Copenhagen . For the first two centuries of its existence it is a school for the poor .
- The cartographer Arnold Mercator creates the map boundaries of the Bergisches Amt Windeck and the rulership of Homburg .
- Heinrich Schweickher publishes the first atlas of the Duchy of Württemberg , which consists of 51 southern maps .
Johann Fischart sticks only to a small extent to the French original in the case of his monkey-worthy Naupengeheurliche Geschichtklitterung , a "translation of a novel" from François Rabelais ' Gargantua and Pantagruel into German , but lets his own ideas run wild.
The Spaniard Ruy López de Segura , who is considered the best chess player in the world, is defeated by the Sicilian Giovanni Leonardo da Cutro at the first international chess tournament in history at the court of the Spanish King Philip II in Madrid . He wins in the playoff against his compatriot Paolo Boi . Da Cutro then travels to Portugal and also defeats the Portuguese chess master El Morro in Lisbon .
- June 12 : Wilhelm I of Orange-Nassau marries his third wife Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier in Den Briel .
- July 15 : With the bull Copiosus in misericordia Deus , Pope Gregory XIII confirms . the Congregation of the Oratory founded by Philipp Neri .
- The Confessio Bohemica , an evangelical confession , is created and is given to Emperor Maximilian II , who only accepts it orally.
- The Mongol ruler Altan Khan founds the Meidaizhao Monastery as a city monastery and fortress. It is the first Buddhist monastery in the Mongolian steppe.
- December 16 : The southern Chilean city of Valdivia is destroyed by an earthquake . Slipping earth masses damming the outflow from Lake Riñihue and causing the city to flood four months later.
- The plague is raging again in Europe and Germany. In Venice alone, more than 45,000 people, almost a third of the population, died of the disease by 1577.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 4 : Pierre de Bérulle , French theologian and cardinal († 1629 )
- February 14 : Giovanni Andrea Donducci , Italian painter († 1655 )
- February 27 : Johann Adolf , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck, Archbishop-Elect of Bremen and Hamburg and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf († 1616 )
- April 21 : Francesco Molin , 99th Doge of Venice († 1655 )
- July 14 : August , Prince of Anhalt-Plötzkau († 1653 )
- July 26 : Anna Katharina von Brandenburg , Queen of Denmark and Norway († 1612 )
- August 12 : Johann Gottfried I of Aschhausen , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg and Bamberg († 1622 )
- August 18 : Anna Maria von Pfalz-Neuburg , Duchess of Saxe-Weimar († 1643 )
- September 22nd : Vittoria Raffaella Aleotti , Italian composer and organist († probably after 1646 )
- October 24 : Pierre de Conty d'Argencour , French fortress builder († 1655 )
- November 2 : Wolfgang Werther Mühlpfordt , German legal scholar († 1623 )
- November 4 : Guido Reni , Italian painter and etcher († 1642 )
- November 17 : Friedrich Balduin , Lutheran theologian († 1627 )
- December 18 : Michelangelo Galilei , Italian composer and lutenist of the early Baroque († 1631 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Jakob Böhme , German theologian, philosopher and writer († 1624 )
- Anna Maria , Princess of Liechtenstein, Duchess of Troppau and Duchess of Jägerndorf († 1625 )
- Rambold XIII. von Collalto , Generalissimo of the Catholic League († 1630 )
- Giambattista Basile , Italian poet and fairy tale writer († 1632 )
- Johann Andreas Rauch , German painter and cartographer († around 1632 )
- Arbella Stuart , English nobleman, niece of Maria Stuart († 1615 )
- John White , Anglican clergyman and supporter of the Pilgrim Fathers († 1648 )
- Johan van Valckenburgh , Dutch engineer and fortress builder († 1625 )
Born around 1575
- John Bennet , English composer († after 1614)
- Humphrey Salwey , English politician († 1652 )
- Jakub Horčický z Tepence , Czech physician, pharmacist and chemist († 1622 )
First half of the year
- January 4th : Sidonie von Sachsen , Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Princess of Calenberg-Göttingen (* 1518 )
- January 7th : Wilhelm Werner von Zimmer , German historian and lawyer (* 1485 )
- January 12 : Georg Agricola , German educator and physician (* around 1530 )
- January 15 : Barbara Uthmann , German entrepreneur (* around 1514 )
- January 22nd : James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran , Scottish nobleman and regent for Mary Queen of Scots
- February 2 : John Parkhurst , Bishop of Norwich (* 1512 )
- February 7th : Anne Marie von Ziegler , German aristocrat, impostor and alchemist (* around 1545 )
- February 9 : Karl Friedrich von Jülich-Kleve-Berg , Hereditary Prince of the Duchies of Jülich, Kleve and Berg (* 1555 )
- February 17th : Cesare I. Gonzaga , Count of Guastalla and Duke of Amalfi (* 1536 )
- February 20 : Maria von Jever , last regent of the Jever reign from the Wiemkens (* 1500 ) family of chiefs
- February 21 : Claudia von Valois , French princess and Duchess of Lorraine (* 1547 )
- March 12th : Erich V. , Count of Hoya (* 1535 )
- March 17 : Georg Cracow , German lawyer and statesman (* 1525 )
- May 17 : Matthew Parker , Archbishop of Canterbury (born 1504 )
- May 28 : Sophia Jagiellonica , Duchess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1522 )
- June 4th : Johann Eglof von Knöringen , Bishop of Augsburg (* 1537 )
- June 29th : Baba Nobuharu , Japanese samurai
Second half of the year
- July 14th : Johann Jakob Fugger , Augsburg merchant and patron (* 1516 )
- July 15 : Eleonora d'Este , noblewoman from the Duchy of Ferrara (* 1515 )
- July 30th : Giovanni Battista Aostalli , South Tyrolean builder (* around 1510 )
- September 11th : Johannes Haller the Younger , Swiss Protestant theologian and reformer (* 1523 )
- September 17th : Heinrich Bullinger , Swiss reformer and for 44 years Antistes of the Zurich Reformed Church (* 1504 )
- September 22nd : Herbard VIII. Von Auersperg , governor of Krain (* 1528 )
- September 24th : Anna von Oldenburg , countess and regent of East Friesland (* 1501 )
- October 8 : Jan Massys , Flemish painter (* around 1509 )
- October 17th : Balthasar Aff , Mayor of Heilbronn
- October 20 : Cornelis Floris II , Flemish sculptor, architect and designer for the ornamental engraving (* 1514 )
- October 21 : Kaspar Eberhard , German Lutheran theologian and educator (* 1523 )
- November 2 : Sabina von Brandenburg-Ansbach , Electress of Brandenburg (* 1529 )
- November 18 : Johannes Aurifaber , theologian (* around 1519 )
- before December 15: Peter Carew , English adventurer, military man and politician (* around 1510)
Exact date of death unknown
- Pieter Aertsen , Dutch painter (* around 1509 )
- Wendel Ans , Mayor of Heilbronn
- Anna Bijns , Dutch writer (* 1493 )
- Lin Feng , Chinese warlord and pirate
- Camillo Renato , Italian Franciscan, teacher and Baptist (* around 1500 )