Calendar overview 1493
|Friedrich III. dies.||Maximilian I becomes sole ruler in the Holy Roman Empire .|
|Hartmann Schedel publishes his world chronicle .|
|1493 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||941/942 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||13. Feuerstein - Matlactli omey Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 12th pipes - Matlactli omome Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2036/37 (southern Buddhism); 2035/36 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||855/856 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3826/27 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||898/899 (New Year 11/12 October)|
|Jewish calendar||5253/54 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1803/04 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1804/05 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1549/50 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Spanish and Portuguese colonial policy
- May 3rd (?): Pope Alexander VI trusts the bull Eximiae devotionis . the newly discovered countries and their populations to the Spanish royal couple. The document will probably only be created and backdated in July so that it can be classified before the bull Inter caetera the following day .
- May 4th : Alexander VI. defines the demarcation line between Spanish and Portuguese territories in the New World in the Bull Inter caetera .
- June 25th : With the bull Piis fidelium , the Spaniard Alexander VI. the Spanish kings the power to direct the missionary work of the islands and countries they discovered under their own responsibility.
- September 26th : In the bull Dudum siquidem , Pope Alexander VI. the privileges previously granted to the Spanish and Portuguese royal families.
The journeys of Christopher Columbus
- January 16 : After his voyage of discovery , Christopher Columbus makes his way back to Europe.
- March 4th : Christopher Columbus arrives in Lisbon .
- March 15 : Columbus on the Niña and Martín Alonso Pinzón on the Pinta , who were separated on the way back, reach the Spanish port of Palos de la Frontera at the same time .
- In his report to Ferdinand of Aragón and Isabella of Castile , Columbus claims that he actually discovered Asia and that he can bring "as much gold as they need" and "as many slaves as they ask" from these areas. It is then equipped for a second voyage with 17 ships and around 1500 people.
- September 25th : Christopher Columbus sets out on his second journey from Cádiz .
- November: Columbus discovered (in alphabetical order): Antigua , Dominica (November 3rd), Guadeloupe (November 4th), the Virgin Islands , Saba , Sint Eustatius , St. Martin , Montserrat and St. Kitts and Nevis .
- November 4th : Christopher Columbus is the first European to land on the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe on his second voyage . He and his crew are offered pineapple fruits that are unknown to them as a welcome gift .
- November 14th : Christopher Columbus discovers the Caribbean island of Santa Cruz on his second trip . The first violent clash between Europeans and Native Americans occurs.
- May 3rd : The Andalusian nobleman Alonso Fernández de Lugo defeated Tanausú , the leader of the Aceró tribe , and thus concluded the conquest of the Canary Island of La Palma . To commemorate this day, he founded the city of Villa de Apurón , from which the later island capital Santa Cruz de La Palma developed.
Holy Roman Empire / France
- May 23rd : The Habsburg Maximilian I receives in the Treaty of Senlis from the French King Charles VIII the rule of Burgundy without Picardy and Bourgogne . The imperial border against France thus reaches its furthest westward course in all of history, around 30–40 km west of the French language border.
- June 8 : Emperor Friedrich III. has to undergo amputation of his diseased left leg due to gangrene . The operation, which was carried out with the Emperor fully conscious, was initially successful, but Friedrich died in Linz on August 19, probably as a result of the operation. His entrails will be buried separately on August 24th in the parish church of Linz . Because of the Turkish invasions in Carinthia and Carniola, Maximilian's arrival and thus the funeral ceremony were delayed. Since Friedrich's tomb is not yet finished at this point in time, Friedrich's body will be buried on December 7th in the duke's crypt in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna.
- August 19 : Maximilian I. is after the death of his father Friedrich III. Archduke of Austria . As a crowned Roman-German king, he also succeeds him in the empire .
- 110 conspirators in Schlettstadt , Alsace, choose the Bundschuh as their symbol and found the peasant Bundschuh movement . They want to protest against the unjust and opaque legal system, high taxes and the resulting debt. The goals are the looting and expulsion of Jews, the introduction of a jubilee year with which all debts should become statute-barred, the abolition of customs duties, unpayment and other burdens, the abolition of the spiritual and Rottweil (Reich) court, the right to tax permits, and the limitation of the pastor to one benefice each 50–60 guilders, abolition of ear confession and own, self-chosen dishes for each community. The uprising is quickly put down and the leaders are executed.
- The county of Lingen is separated from the county of Tecklenburg . Count Nicholas III. In the peace treaty of Hamm, von Tecklenburg-Schwerin is forced by his second eldest son, Nikolaus, to hand over control of the core area of his country to him and to retire to Lingen himself.
Central and Eastern Europe
- May 14th : After the death of his father Johann III. His sons Nikolaus IV , Johann IV and Valentin inherit the Duchy of Ratibor , which they manage together.
- September 9th : In the battle on the Krbava field between the Ottoman Empire and Croatia in the state union with Hungary , almost the entire Croatian nobility is killed.
- Huayna Cápac succeeds his father Túpac Yupanqui to the throne of the Inca Empire at the age of 17 , after he was murdered by Chuqui Ocllo, one of his wives. He is the first Inca ruler who was not born in Qusqu . Huayna Cápac continues the expansion of the empire that began under his predecessors.
- Ashikaga Yoshizumi replaces Ashikaga Yoshitane as the Japanese Shogun of the Muromachi period , after the latter created influential enemies and was deposed by the Hosokawa family.
science and technology
Great Wall of China
- Emperor Hongzhi from the Ming Dynasty starts building the Great Wall , which is supposed to protect the Chinese Empire against the Mongols .
- The Middle Low German chronicler and writer Hermann Bote began writing the Braunschweig World Chronicle .
- December 23 : Hartmann Schedel publishes the Nuremberg Chronicle in Nuremberg , later better known as Schedelsche Weltchronik . It follows the tradition of medieval chronicles by presenting the history of the world in “world ages”. The sixth world age: the birth of Christ to his presence is the most extensive in the chronicle.
- The high altar in the Blaubeuren monastery is completed. The figures are by Michael Erhart , the painting by Bartholomäus Zeitblom, among others .
- May 3 : In the Bull Inter caetera , Pope Alexander VI. present and future rulers of Castile and León, the lands discovered by Christopher Columbus .
- May 4 : In another bull Inter caetera , which replaces the bull Inter caetera from the previous day and the bull Eximiae devotionis , also dated May 3, the Pope demarcates the areas of Castile and Portugal in the Atlantic Ocean with a dividing line.
- September 26 : Pope Alexander VI. publishes the bull Dudum siquidem . The bull mainly summarizes the privileges previously granted to the Spanish and Portuguese royal houses.
- Robert Briçonnet becomes Archbishop of Reims.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 9 : Johann von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach , Viceroy of Valencia († 1525 )
- January 10 : Miklós Oláh , Hungarian archbishop, writer, politician and theologian († 1568 )
- February 9 : Helene von der Pfalz , Duchess of Mecklenburg († 1524 )
- March 15 : Anne de Montmorency , French military leader, pair, marshal and connétable of France († 1567 )
- April 11 : George I , Duke of Pomerania († 1531 )
- May 5 : Alessandro Pasqualini , originally from Italy architect († 1559 )
- May 6 : Girolamo Seripando , Italian theologian, Prior General of the Augustinian Hermits and Archbishop of Salerno († 1563 )
- June 5 : Justus Jonas the Elder , German reformer († 1555 )
- June 10 : Anton Fugger , German imperial count and merchant († 1560 )
- November 11 : Bernardo Tasso , Italian poet († 1569 )
- November 13 : Wilhelm IV , Duke of Bavaria († 1550 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Petrus Mosellanus , German philologist, theologian and doctor of the church († 1524 )
- John Nevill, 3rd Baron Latymer , English nobleman and politician († 1543 )
- Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus , Swiss doctor, alchemist, astrologer, mystic and philosopher († 1541 )
Born around 1493
- Alexander Stewart , Scottish humanist, Archbishop Select of St Andrews and Lord Chancellor of Scotland († 1513 )
Date of death secured
- March 31 : Martín Alonso Pinzón , Spanish navigator and participant on the first Columbus voyage (* 1441 )
- May 14 : Johann III. , Duke of Ratibor
- June 14 : Hermolaus Barbarus , Italian scholastic, poet and humanist (* 1454 )
- August 19 : Friedrich III. , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (* 1415 )
- October 13 : . Busso von Alvensleben VIII , Bishop Havelberg (* 1455 / 60 )
- November 7th : Nicol Römer , merchant and councilor in Zwickau (* around 1435 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Isaac II Aboab , Castilian rabbi (* around 1433 )
- Heinrich von Rübenach , auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* around 1420 )
- Abraham Senior , Spanish magnate and financier (* 1412 )
- Humphrey Talbot , English knight
- Túpac Yupanqui , ruler of the Inca Empire