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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, wins the first battle of the Wars of the Roses
Pope Kalixt III.
Alonso de Borja is
called Calixt III.
elected pope .
Andechs Monastery
The Andechs Monastery is founded.
1455 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 903/904 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1447/48
Aztec calendar 1. Rabbit - Ce Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 13th house - Matlactli omey Calli )
Buddhist calendar 1998/99 (southern Buddhism); 1997/98 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 69th (70th) cycle

Year of the wood pig 乙亥 ( at the beginning of the year wood dog 甲戌)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 817/818 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 833/834
Islamic calendar 859/860 (turn of the year 10/11 December)
Jewish calendar 5215/16 (September 12/13)
Coptic calendar 1171/72
Malayalam calendar 630/631
Seleucid era Babylon: 1765/66 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1766/67 (New Year October)

Spanish era 1493
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1511/12 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

European colonial policy

Coat of arms of the Portuguese kings from John I to Alfonso V.

In the Bull Romanus Pontifex of January 8th, Pope Nicholas V grants King Alfonso V of Portugal and the Infante Henry the Navigator and their descendants all of Africa , sole navigation law there, the trade monopoly and the right to lead infidels into slavery . King Alfonso V leaves on October 5 in the Cathedral of Lisbon read the representatives of all foreign trade groups the bull solemnly.

Wars of the Roses in England

York victory over Lancaster.svg

Holy Roman Empire

  • July 8 : Kunz von Kaufungen kidnaps the 14- and 11-year-old Princes Ernst and Albrecht of Saxony during the Altenburg prince robbery . With the kidnapping, Kunz wants to force Elector Friedrich the Meek of Saxony to meet his demands for compensation for his lost lands. Instead, he is charged with breach of the peace at the mountain jury court in Freiberg . In the negotiation he refers to his justified claim and the feud letter, which according to the law of the time overrides the peace in the country, but this feud letter was not received until the day after the kidnapping at Altenburg Castle. On July 13th, Kauffungen was found guilty and sentenced to death. The following day, he and some of his helpers are beheaded on the Freiberg Obermarkt .
  • Elector Friedrich the Meek and his wife Margaretha go on a pilgrimage to the collegiate church in Ebersdorf on July 15 to bring a solemn offering of thanks for the rescue of their children. Margaretha donates an altar and Friedrich initiates the transfer of the monastery in Neukirchen / Pleiße to the Karthäuser.

Other events in Europe

  • In Siena , an executive magistrate, the balia , strengthens the administration , which acts independently of the priors or the consistory. Until then it was only a provisional committee attached to the latter. From now on , the balia has the supreme jurisdiction in all affairs of the state, although it always, until the fall of the republic, nominally retained the character of an extraordinary magistrate.


Science and culture


Conclave 1455

Kalixt III coat of arms from the Ingeram Codex , around 1459

After the death of Pope Nicholas V on March 24th in Rome, in the conclave , which begins on April 4th of the year (and in which 15 cardinals participate - there will never be so few), the factions of the Colonna and the Opposite Orsini . But neither side is able to enforce their favorites. Cardinal Bessarion , who was initially introduced as a compromise candidate, fails, and this is the hour of the now 77-year-old Catalan Alonso de Borja . Old and of an impeccable reputation, plus an accomplished lawyer, the Cardinal of Valencia does not seem to pose a serious threat to the prevailing interests. On April 8th he is elected Pope and takes the name Calixt III. on. One of his first acts is the canonization of the Dominican Father Vinzenz Ferrer , who predicted the Pope for him around 1410.

Foundations of monasteries


First half of the year

Johannes Reuchlin

Second half of the year

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1455


Date of death secured

Tomb of Nicholas V.

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

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