|Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, wins the first battle of the Wars of the Roses||
called Calixt III.
elected pope .
|Andechs Monastery is founded.|
|1455 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||903/904 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||1. Rabbit - Ce Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 13th house - Matlactli omey Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1998/99 (southern Buddhism); 1997/98 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle
Year of the wood pig 乙亥 ( at the beginning of the year wood dog 甲戌)
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||817/818 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||859/860 (turn of the year 10/11 December)|
|Jewish calendar||5215/16 (September 12/13)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1765/66 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1766/67 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1511/12 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
European colonial policy
In the Bull Romanus Pontifex of January 8th, Pope Nicholas V grants King Alfonso V of Portugal and the Infante Henry the Navigator and their descendants all of Africa , sole navigation law there, the trade monopoly and the right to lead infidels into slavery . King Alfonso V leaves on October 5 in the Cathedral of Lisbon read the representatives of all foreign trade groups the bull solemnly.
Wars of the Roses in England
- May 22 : The Battle of St Albans begin in England , the Wars of the Roses between the House of York and the House of Lancaster , which intermittently until 1487 are guided to the English throne. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York , and his nephew and ally Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick , defeat the Lancastrians under Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset , who is killed in battle. Plantagenet takes King Henry VI. captured and made himself Lord High Constable of England .
Holy Roman Empire
- July 8 : Kunz von Kaufungen kidnaps the 14- and 11-year-old Princes Ernst and Albrecht of Saxony during the Altenburg prince robbery . With the kidnapping, Kunz wants to force Elector Friedrich the Meek of Saxony to meet his demands for compensation for his lost lands. Instead, he is charged with breach of the peace at the mountain jury court in Freiberg . In the negotiation he refers to his justified claim and the feud letter, which according to the law of the time overrides the peace in the country, but this feud letter was not received until the day after the kidnapping at Altenburg Castle. On July 13th, Kauffungen was found guilty and sentenced to death. The following day, he and some of his helpers are beheaded on the Freiberg Obermarkt .
- Elector Friedrich the Meek and his wife Margaretha go on a pilgrimage to the collegiate church in Ebersdorf on July 15 to bring a solemn offering of thanks for the rescue of their children. Margaretha donates an altar and Friedrich initiates the transfer of the monastery in Neukirchen / Pleiße to the Karthäuser.
Other events in Europe
- November 7th : The trial of Joan of Arc is reopened in Notre Dame de Paris , which will lead to her rehabilitation by the Roman Curia the following year. The French King Charles VII. Wants after the Hundred Years' War is largely assumed in favor of France, strengthening its position and the ongoing criticism because of the death sentence against the still popular Jeanne d'Arc put an end.
- In Siena , an executive magistrate, the balia , strengthens the administration , which acts independently of the priors or the consistory. Until then it was only a provisional committee attached to the latter. From now on , the balia has the supreme jurisdiction in all affairs of the state, although it always, until the fall of the republic, nominally retained the character of an extraordinary magistrate.
Science and culture
- In the Hersfeld Monastery , the Codex Hersfeldensis is sold to the scholar Enoch von Ascoli , who brings it to Italy. It contains several works by the Roman historian Tacitus , such as Germania , for example .
- Konrad Bollstatter begins work on the Codex Palatinus germanicus 4 .
After the death of Pope Nicholas V on March 24th in Rome, in the conclave , which begins on April 4th of the year (and in which 15 cardinals participate - there will never be so few), the factions of the Colonna and the Opposite Orsini . But neither side is able to enforce their favorites. Cardinal Bessarion , who was initially introduced as a compromise candidate, fails, and this is the hour of the now 77-year-old Catalan Alonso de Borja . Old and of an impeccable reputation, plus an accomplished lawyer, the Cardinal of Valencia does not seem to pose a serious threat to the prevailing interests. On April 8th he is elected Pope and takes the name Calixt III. on. One of his first acts is the canonization of the Dominican Father Vinzenz Ferrer , who predicted the Pope for him around 1410.
Foundations of monasteries
- Duke Albrecht III. from Bavaria-Munich founds the Benedictine monastery Andechs on the Holy Mountain of Andechs .
First half of the year
- January 9 : Wilhelm , Duke of Jülich and Berg († 1511 )
- January 25 : Albrecht von Baden , Margrave of Baden († 1488 )
- March 3 : Ascanio Sforza , Archbishop of Eger and Cardinal († 1505 )
- March 15 : Pietro Accolti , Bishop of Ancona and Cardinal († 1532 )
- April 17 : Andrea Gritti , 77th Doge of Venice († 1538 )
- May 3 : John II , King of Portugal († 1495 )
- June 5 : John I , King of Denmark († 1513 )
Second half of the year
- August 2 : Johann Cicero , Elector of Brandenburg († 1499 )
- August 14 : Johann von Dalberg , Bishop of Worms and Chancellor of Heidelberg University († 1503 )
- August 15 : George the Rich , Duke of Bavaria-Landshut († 1503 )
- September 29 : Gabriel von Eyb , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt († 1535 )
- November 9 : Johann V , Count of Nassau-Dillenburg († 1516 )
- December: Barbara Gonzaga , Duchess of Württemberg († 1503 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Jacob Barbireau , Belgian composer († 1491 )
- Johannes Ghiselin , Franco-Flemish composer and singer († between 1507 and 1511)
- Hans Grüninger , German printer and publisher († 1533 )
- Nils Henriksson , Norwegian nobleman and large landowner († 1512 )
- Tullio Lombardo , Italian sculptor and architect of the early Renaissance († 1532 )
- Nicolaus Marschalk , German legal scholar, humanist and historian († 1525 )
- Giovanni Antonio Pilacorte , Italian Renaissance sculptor († 1531 )
- Martin Pollich , German philosopher, physician, theologian and founding rector of the University of Wittenberg († 1513 )
- Antonio da Sangallo the Elder , Italian architect and fortress builder († 1534 )
- Johann Schönsperger , German printer and dealer publisher († 1521 )
- Bartholomäus Zeitblom , German late Gothic painter († 1518 )
Born around 1455
Date of death secured
- March 15 : Botho the Elder zu Stolberg , Count of Stolberg and Count of Wernigerode (* around 1375 )
- March 24th : Tommaso Parentucelli, under the name of Nicholas V Pope (* 1397 )
- April 1 : Zbigniew Oleśnicki , Bishop of Cracow, Cardinal, Diplomat, Duke of Siewierz and Regent of Poland (* 1389 )
- May 22nd : Edmund Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset , English nobleman (* 1405 )
- May 22nd : Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland , English nobleman (* around 1393 )
- June 30th : Dorino I. Gattilusio , Archon of Lesbos (* around 1395 )
- July 14th : Kunz von Kauffungen , Saxon nobleman, initiator of the Altenburg prince robbery (* around 1410 )
- December 1 : Lorenzo Ghiberti , Italian goldsmith, ore caster and sculptor (* around 1387 )
- December 2 : Isabel of Portugal , Queen of Portugal (* 1432 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Ludwig von Ast , Chancellor of the Electoral Palatinate (* around 1400 )
- Bernhard , Duke of Opole and Falkenberg (* 1374 / 78 )
- Esen Tayishi , Mongolian leader of the Choros (* before 1439)
- Lorenzo Monaco , Italian painter of the early Renaissance (* around 1370 )