Johann "Cicero" von Brandenburg (born August 2, 1455 in Ansbach ; † January 9, 1499 in Arneburg , Altmark ) from the House of Hohenzollern , was elector and margrave of Brandenburg from March 11, 1486 until his death .
Johann was the eldest son of the Brandenburg Elector Albrecht Achilles (1414–1486) from his first marriage to Margarete von Baden (1431–1457). The prince stayed on the family's Franconian estates until he was 12 years old and was brought to the Mark Brandenburg as presumptive heir in 1466 by his uncle Friedrich II . He took part in the war against Pomerania in 1468 and accompanied his uncle to negotiations with King Matthias of Hungary .
His father appointed Johann, who was nicknamed Cicero because of his great eloquence and knowledge of the Latin language , as regent of the Mark Brandenburg as early as 1473 . Before that, in 1470, after the abdication of Frederick II, he had already been appointed one of eleven governors of the Mark Brandenburg, others were, for example, the Lubusz Bishop Friedrich and the Brandenburg Bishop Dietrich IV . Albrecht himself, like his predecessors, preferred to stay at the southern headquarters of the electoral house in Franconia . Because of his youth, Johann was buried as regent in 1476, Bishop Friedrich von Lebus .
After the death of his father in 1486, Johann Cicero succeeded him as Margrave of Brandenburg as well as Elector and Arch Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Empire, the Franconian possessions had been guaranteed by Albrecht Achilles to Johann's younger half-brothers through house law. He confirmed the privileges of the twin cities of Berlin - Cölln and made them his permanent residence .
In 1488 Johann Cicero introduced the beer tax. This set a precedent for the principle of indirect taxation . There had been riots in the Altmark because of the tax, which Johann had forcibly suppressed. Even during his time as regent, disputes with the duchies of Pomerania and Glogau and the towns of the Altmark had begun.
In 1499 Johann Cicero, who suffered from obesity, died of dropsy in the chest at Arneburg Castle . His son Joachim I succeeded him as elector . As the first Hohenzollern elector, Johann found his final resting place in the Mark. He was buried in the Lehnin monastery . At the instigation of his grandson Joachim II , his remains were transferred to the Berlin Cathedral together with the epitaph created by the sculptor Hans Vischer .
Still image in the Siegesallee
As secondary characters, the monument was assigned busts of the adviser Eitelwolf vom Stein and of Obermarschall Busso von Alvensleben . The monument group was unveiled on November 14, 1900. The statue shows the elector "in the costume of the Maximilian period , with a long-sleeved coat over the armor and a beret-like headgear". Emperor Wilhelm II , who commissioned Monumentalallee, personally approved the oratory approach to the figure during a visit to Manthe's studio.
From his marriage Johann Cicero had the following children:
- Daughter (1480–1482)
- Wolfgang (* / † 1482)
- Joachim I. "Nestor" (1484–1535), Elector of Brandenburg
- ⚭ 1502 Princess Elisabeth of Denmark (1485–1555)
- Elisabeth (* / † 1486)
- Anna (1487-1514)
- ⚭ 1502 King Frederick I of Denmark (1471–1533)
- Ursula (1488-1510)
- ⚭ 1507 Duke Heinrich V of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1479–1552)
- Albrecht (1490–1545), cardinal, archbishop of Magdeburg and elector of Mainz
- Theodor Hirsch : Johann Cicero . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, pp. 153-156.
- Johannes Schultze: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5 , p. 473 f. ( ). In:
- Frank-Lothar Kroll: Prussian rulers: From the first Hohenzollern to Wilhelm II. , CH Beck, 2006
- Uwe Michas: From Elector Friedrich I to Elector Johann Cicero In: Die Mark Brandenburg , Issue 72, Marika Großer Verlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-910134-14-0
- Johann Cicero . In: Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon 1894–1896, Volume 9, p. 925.
- Mario Müller: Dietrich von Stechow, Bishop of Brandenburg 1459–1472. Regesta on the Vita and the episcopate. Published in: Sascha Bütow, Peter Riedel, Uwe Tersp (eds.): The Middle Ages end yesterday. Contributions to the regional, cultural and religious history of Heinz-Dieter Heimann on his 65th birthday. Lukas Publishing House. ISBN 978-3-86732-188-4 . P. 114 f.
- General German Real Encyclopedia for the Educated Estates Volume 14, p. 257 ( digitized version )
- Volker Honemann: The Sternberger desecration of the host and its sources. 2008, with reference to the single-sheet print by Simon Koch: Van der mishandelinge des hilligen Sacraments der bosse ioden to den Sternberge. Magdeburg, 1492.
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee. Réclame Royale . Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-496-01189-0 , p. 165.
Elector of Brandenburg
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Brandenburg, Johann Cicero von|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Elector of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern|
|DATE OF BIRTH||August 2, 1455|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ansbach|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 9, 1499|
|Place of death||Arneburg , Altmark|